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The conclusion draws together the threads of the argument. This book has told a story of the welfare state in decline, the effects of which have caused widespread precarity and uncertainty in the lives of many. The scenes described here—of economic marginalization and government solutions to the problem—present a cartography of downward mobility that many presume to be caused by bureaucratic entanglements. What I have shown, however, is that this problem has deeper origins in settler colonial ideologies of governance and rule that are masked by the sanitized language and practice of multiculturalism. The frustrations, anxieties, and desperation that Pakistani immigrant women experience in Toronto make visible the effects of large-scale social transformations on everyday lives. Their experiences challenge teleologies of success that are reproduced in master narratives of capitalism, globalization, and even multiculturalism, narratives that elide the social production of inequality endemic to these processes.

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