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The Movement of Rural Women Workers acts simultaneously through uncivic contention in the streets and civil-society-based participation in government. By examining this duality of social movement practices, this chapter identifies a new way of being a movement in a democratic regime. “Movement-in-democracy” means a movement from within which people can participate in institutions and institutional practices—elections, government agencies and commissions, labor union confederations, participatory budgeting—and also mobilize, protest, disrupt, and create new programs and practices outside of formal and mainstream institutions, through demonstrations, land occupations, marches, and other forms of performance or civil disobedience. Analysis of the history and practices of the MMTR illustrates what it means to be a movement-in-democracy, why this form of activism is difficult to achieve, and what might make the construction of movements-in-democracy more likely.

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