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Following the IMF's destruction of the economy, Argentine social movements engaged in direct actions and theater through nonhierarchical organizational power structures. This chapter explores the “politics by other means” of the Asamblea Popular Ambiental de Gualeguaychú (Asamblea) to stop the installation of Finnish paper mills in Uruguay. By exploring the racial, gendered, and class tensions involved in the rhizomatic, multiclass, multiethnic Asamblea, the chapter explores the ensemble of discourse that ranged from a former Maoist organizer blockading an international bridge with his tractor, to a barely clad, studded-in-glitter Gualeguaychú Queen of the Carnival protesting in front of the world’s heads of state at the Vienna Summit. As a wide range of social movements, political parties, and NGOs cooperated and struggled within the Asamblea to mobilize a whole country in defense of their environment, the sharp contrast in these performances illustrated the diversity of meanings and tactics enacted by the Asamblea in defense of their beloved Uruguay River.

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