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Independence from Spain in the 1820s meant that Lima lost its role as the main urban center of South America and became immersed in the political turmoil of the period. The texts in this section highlight changes in Lima in the nineteenth century as well as a variety of social and cultural phenomena: the slave and Chinese populations; festivities such as Carnival, bullfights, and the Amancaes Parade; and the occupation of Lima and the destruction caused by the war with Chile. Writers recognized that Lima was changing and a nostalgia for the supposedly golden era of colonial rule emerged, a...

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