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“Black,” the color of night and nothingness, is a name given by someone else, an insult, a habit, and a way of being, but also a mechanism for objectification and degradation. For Marcus Garvey, Blackness was not lack but the possibility for redemption within the “African empire.” Aimé Césaire’s race-based critique refigured the world community as a plurality of singularities and differences. Liberation movements are indebted to Fanonian discourse on revolutionary violence, but Frantz Fanon’s politics must be situated within his own experiences of colonial violence during war in Algeria. His call to violence was a call to give death,...

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