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The introduction presents the key questions the book addresses and draws on its chapters to outline an approach to cultural diversity in scientific practice. It begins by laying out both the attractions of invoking a concept of culture in studies of science and the main difficulties that often arise as a result. It then focuses on the constituent elements and features of cultures that appear essential to characterize a given way of carrying out scientific activities. A more global approach is subsequently introduced to illustrate the variations in scale at which analysis must be conducted. Finally, the introduction outlines what is at stake for the history and philosophy of science in considering cultural diversity. It emphasizes in particular the historiographic implications of identifying multiple scientific cultures, both synchronically and diachronically.

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References

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References

References

References
Chemla
,
K.
2014
. “
The Dangers and Promises of Comparative History of Science
.”
Sartoniana
27
:
13
44
. .
Cohen
,
R. S.
, and
Schnelle
T.
.
1986
.
Cognition and Fact: Materials on Ludwik Fleck
.
Dordrecht
:
Kluwer
.
Crombie
,
A. C.
1994
.
Styles of Scientific Thinking in the European Tradition: The History of Argument and Explanation Especially in the Mathematical and Biomedical Sciences and Arts
.
London
:
Duckworth
.
Crombie
,
A. C.
1995
. “
Commitments and Styles of European Scientific Thinking
.”
History of Science
33
:
225
238
.
Eriksen
,
J.-M.
, and
Stjernfelt
F.
.
2009
. “
Culturalism: Culture as Political Ideology
.”
Eurozine
,
January
9
. .
Fleck
,
L.
1935
.
Entstehung und Entwicklung einer wissenschaftlichen Tatsache: Einführung in die Lehre vom Denkstil und Denkkollektiv
.
Basel
:
Benno Schwabe
.
Fleck
,
L.
1979
.
The Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact
.
Foreword by Thomas Kuhn
. Translated by
Trenn
T. J.
and
Merton
R. K.
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Galison
,
P.
1996
. “
Introduction: The Context of Disunity
.” In
The Disunity of Science: Boundaries, Context, and Power
, ed.
Galison
P.
and
Stump
D. J.
,
1
33
.
Palo Alto, CA
:
Stanford University Press
.
Galison
,
P.
, and
Stump
D. J.
.
1996
.
The Disunity of Science: Boundaries, Context, and Power
.
Palo Alto, CA
:
Stanford University Press
.
Geertz
,
C.
2000
.
Available Light: Anthropological Reflections on Philosophical Topics
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Hacking
,
I.
1982
. “
Language, Truth and Reason
.” In
Rationality and Relativism
, ed.
Hollis
M.
and
Lukes
S.
,
48
66
.
Oxford
:
Blackwell
.
Hacking
,
I.
1992
. “
‘Style’ for Historians and Philosophers
.”
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
23
(
1
):
1
20
.
Hacking
,
I.
2012
. “
‘Language, Truth and Reason’ Thirty Years Later
.”
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
43
:
599
609
.
Keller
,
E. F.
2002
.
Making Sense of Life: Explaining Biological Development with Models, Metaphors, and Machines
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
.
Knorr Cetina
,
K.
1999
.
Epistemic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
.
Knorr Cetina
,
K.
2005
. “
Culture in Global Knowledge Societies: Knowledge Cultures and Epistemic Cultures
.” In
The Blackwell Companion to the Sociology of Culture
, ed.
Jacobs
M. D.
and
Hanrahan
N. W.
,
65
79
.
Oxford
:
Blackwell
.
Kowalenko
,
R.
2011
. “
Styles of Scientific Thinking Can Kill
.” In
Two-Day Workshop “On Hacking’s ‘Style(s) of Thinking,’”
ed.
Ritchie
J.
and
Wanderer
J.
,
8
10
.
Cape Town
:
University of Cape Town
. .
Kuhn
,
T.
1962
.
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Kuhn
,
T.
1970
.
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
. 2nd ed., with postscript.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Petitjean
,
P.
, and
Domingues
H. M. B.
.
2007
. “
1947–1950: Quand l’Unesco a cherché à se démarquer des histoires européocentristes
.”
halshs-00166355. Accessed June 15, 2016. http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00166355/document
.
Rheinberger
,
H.-J.
1997
.
Toward a History of Epistemic Things: Synthesizing Proteins in the Test Tube
.
Stanford, CA
:
Stanford University Press
.
Said
,
E. W.
1978
.
Orientalism
.
London
:
Routledge and Kegan Paul
.
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