The introduction presents the key questions the book addresses and draws on its chapters to outline an approach to cultural diversity in scientific practice. It begins by laying out both the attractions of invoking a concept of culture in studies of science and the main difficulties that often arise as a result. It then focuses on the constituent elements and features of cultures that appear essential to characterize a given way of carrying out scientific activities. A more global approach is subsequently introduced to illustrate the variations in scale at which analysis must be conducted. Finally, the introduction outlines what is at stake for the history and philosophy of science in considering cultural diversity. It emphasizes in particular the historiographic implications of identifying multiple scientific cultures, both synchronically and diachronically.