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In 2001, the discovery of a therapeutic vaccine against AIDS was announced in Cameroon by Professor Victor Anomah Ngu, a retired immunologist and former minister of health. This chapter explores the controversy that followed. It compares the case of this Cameroonian vaccine with other well-known African “miracle cures” against AIDS and analyzes how Vanhivax became entangled in a cultural politics of science, where its “Africanity” was defined and defended (or denounced). The chapter proposes to move beyond a local, culturalist interpretation of this vaccine as a product of an “African” way of doing science. It explores instead the global ramifications of the controversy, from Cameroon to California, taking Vanhivax as a symptom of contemporary, global transformations in global biomedicine.

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