Degrees of Mixture, Degrees of Freedom: Genomics, Multiculturalism, and Race in Latin America
Genetics and Multiculturalism
Chapter 2 looks at genetic studies carried out from the 1940s to the 1970s. These focused mainly on indigenous peoples, but necessarily explored processes of mestizaje. The studies took place at the time of a global shift toward antiracism, which depended on a strict divide between biology and culture, which undermined the authority of the concept of race (without abolishing it altogether). The chapter explores eugenics, and moves on to specific genetic studies of blood types.
Chapters 3–7 begins an extended examination of genomic science and its participation in multiculturalist assemblages in each nation, drawing on data collected during a three-year research project, “Race, Genomics, and Mestizaje in Latin America.” Chapter 3 describes changes in genetic science from the 1990s and outlines shifts toward multiculturalism in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico.