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This essay examines the devolution of immigrant detention and deportation efforts domestically and internationally. It addresses the outsourcing of detention operations to surrogate jailers and the use of strategic global locations to detain migrants and would-be migrants. These efforts are historical processes with deep roots in domestic detention history and reflect the U.S. government’s growing reliance on more remote and flexible, nonfederal resources to accomplish national enforcement goals, often leading to ambiguities in legal protection—endangering the rights and well-being of detainees—as well as promoting uncertain government accountability and nebulous limits to the authority of surrogate jailers.

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