The introduction considers Manuel Llamojha Mitma’s historical importance, arguing that his remarkable life offers a means for understanding Peru’s troubled twentieth century. The introduction explores how Llamojha struggled against the realities of anti-Indianism in Peru, dedicating his political career to fighting for indigenous peasants’ land rights and their national inclusion. He pursued a strictly nonviolent course of activism and his stories reveal both the triumphs and the tremendous hardships linked to a life of activism in the context of global Cold War. The introduction reflects on Llamojha’s efforts as an activist intellectual, exploring the ways he worked to decolonize knowledge. The introduction also offers historical analysis of Peruvian conceptualizations of indigeneity, showing how Llamojha’s self-definition as a campesino is an anticolonial expression of his indigenous identity. The introduction closes with a discussion of testimonial biography and the book’s combination of oral history and archival methodology.