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The afterword reflects on the accomplishments, frustrations, and disappointments of twentieth-century political activism. It also discusses the particular challenges Llamojha faces as an elderly activist. He became an activist in Latin America's “century of revolution,” when fundamental social, economic, and political transformation seemed imminent. But Latin America’s century of revolution was also one of counterrevolution. Llamojha was routinely jailed, harassed, and tortured by police. Just as crucially, Llamojha suffered the painful realities of local authoritarianism. The twentieth century brought stunning changes to Latin America that echo across Llamojha’s life, including the massive expansion of education, a wave of rural-to-urban migration, and agrarian reform. And many things remained unchanged across the twentieth century, including Latin America’s stark divide between rich and poor, anti-indigenous racism, and political exclusion. Llamojha remains resolute in his commitment to keep fighting for change, even as he struggles with the difficulties of aging, including illness, loneliness, and loss.

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