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Leaders and chroniclers of the Constitutionalist Revolution claimed that paulistas from all walks of life supported the uprising but imagined the typical paulista soldier as white, male, and middle-class. This chapter examines the participation and opposition of various segments of paulista society, arguing that the uprising had significant popular support but at the same time reinforced a regional identity that was white and middle-class. Working-class paulistas were more divided in their loyalties, but large numbers of Afro-paulistas joined the Black Legions fighting for São Paulo, and most of the key modernist intellectuals and artists ardently supported the movement. It concludes...

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