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An exploration of colony social, material, and spiritual life illuminates hierarchies of color, ethnicity, class, and education. There was stratification among convicts that the administration promoted in a number of ways, but everyday routines also exemplified a Brazilian preference for the integration of convicts of different colors and conditions in state institutions that inducted the intractable poor. Convicts had ready access to some services that most mainland free men did not have, such as trained physicians, resident priests, public school, and minimal rations. On the other side, however, life in the colony was dangerous, plebeian convicts and their children often...

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