Punishment in Paradise: Race, Slavery, Human Rights, and a Nineteenth-Century Brazilian Penal Colony
Peter M. Beattie is Associate Professor of History at Michigan State University. He is the author of The Tribute of Blood: Army, Honor, Race, and Nation in Brazil 1864-1945, also published by Duke University Press, and he has served as coeditor of the Luso Brazilian Review for the areas of history and social science since 2004.
Fernando de Noronha’s “Dark Twins”: Licit and Illicit Commerce
2015. "Fernando de Noronha’s “Dark Twins”: Licit and Illicit Commerce", Punishment in Paradise: Race, Slavery, Human Rights, and a Nineteenth-Century Brazilian Penal Colony, Peter M. Beattie
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Chapter 3 utilizes insights from James Scott’s Seeing Like a State, where he analyzes modern state projects and institutions that planned communities for generic citizens, but these could only function with the simultaneous development of unplanned-for “dark twins.” Thus, the planned city of Brasília only functions because of its unplanned-for satellite cities where most of the laborers essential for its upkeep live. The chapter contends that contraband and licit commerce are the unplanned-for dark twins of planned prisons and penal colonies, proving essential to the planned penal colony’s everyday functions and linked to other limited incentives commanders had to motivate convicts. It also examines the punishments warders inflicted on convicts who did not cooperate. The lack of infrastructure and the convict population’s growth meant that most convicts lived in unattached homes; a minority of troublesome and miserable convicts slept overnight in batch-living barracks known as the aldeia, or “village.”