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Alarcón
,
Norma.
Chicanas’ Feminist Literature: A Re-Vision Through Malinntzin/or Malintzin: Putting Flesh Back on the Object.
” In
This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color,
ed.
Cherríe
Moraga
and
Gloria
Anzaldúa
,
182
90
.
New York
:
Kitchen Table/Women of Color Press
,
1983
.

An essay examining the traditional image of Malintzin in Chicano culture and its recuperation by Chicana writers.

Alarcón
,
Norma.
, “
Making Familia From Scratch: Split Subjectivities in the Work of Helena María Viramontes and Cherrie Moraga.
” In
Chícana Creativity and Criticism: Charting New Frontiers in American Literature,
ed.
María
Herrera-Sobek
and
Helena
María Viramontes
,
147
59
.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1988
.

Alarcón explores the refusal to speak as woman (wife/mother) and the crisis of meaning that this position engenders for two Chicana writers.

Alarcón
,
Norma.
, “
Traddutura, Traditora: A Paradigmatic Figure of Chicana Feminism.
The Construction of Gender and Modes of Social Division,
ed.
Donna
Przybylowicz
,
Nancy
Hartsock
, and
Pamela
McCallum
. Special issue of
Cultural Critique,
no.
13
(Fall
1989
):
57
87
.

An overview of the Malinche figure drawn from both Mexican and Chicana creative and critical traditions.

Alarcón
,
Norma.
, “
What Kind of Lover Have You Made Me Mother?: Towards a Theory of Chicana’s Feminism and Cultural Identity Through Poetry.
” In
Women of Color: Perspectives on Feminism and Identity,
ed.
Audrey T
.
McCluskey
,
85
110
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University
, Women’s Studies Program Occasional Papers Series, vol.
I
, no.
I
,
1985
.

In this essay Alarcón maps the emergence of Chicana poetry in Evangelina Vigil, Lorna Dee Cervantes, Cherríe Moraga, Carmen Tafolla, Pat Mora, Barbara Brinson Curiel, and Sandra Cisneros by focusing on how the intimate relations with mothers and lovers are interconnected in ways that help define the daughter.

Alurista (Alberto Urista)
. “
Cultural Nationalism and Chicano Literature During the Decade of 1965–1975.
MELUS: The Journal of the Society for the Study of the MultiEthnic Literature of the United States
8
, no.
2
(Summer
1981
):
22
34
.

An explication of the sociopolitical factors contributing to the emergence of a poetic consciousness and nationalism as manifest in Chicano narrative, poetry, and drama.

Bardeleben
,
Renate von
, et al., eds.
Missions in Conflict: Essays on U.S.-Mexican Relations and Chicano Culture.
Tübingen
:
Narr
,
1986
.

Includes twenty-six essays from scholars both in Europe and the United States on Chicano culture and literature; specifically Chicano poetry, fiction, theater, and criticism; as well as language, education, and the impact of Chicano culture in American discourse. The essays were presented at the First International Symposium on Chicano Culture in 1984 at the University of Mainz at Germersheim, Germany.

Bassnett
,
Susan
. “
Bilingual Poetry: A Chicano Phenomenon.
Revista Chicano-Riqueña
13
, no.
3–4
(
1985
):
137
47
.

A survey exploring the history, influences, polemics, and characteristics of Chicano poetry as an emergent phenomenon in contemporary literature.

Bauder
Thomas A.
The Triumph of White Magic in Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless Me, Ultima.
Mester
14
, no.
I
(Spring
1985
):
41
54
.

A thorough analysis of Christian cosmology, pre-Columbian myth, and Nahuatl Indian magic in Anaya’s novel.

Binder
,
Wolfgang
. “
Die Lyrik der Chicanos seit den sechziger Jahren: Sprache als soziokulturelle Bestandsauf nähme und emanzipatorisches Verfahren.
Die Legitimation der Alltagssprache in der modernen Lyrik: Antworten aus Europa und Lateinamerika.
Erlangen
:
Universitätsbund Erlangen-Nürnberg
, (
1984
):
85
111
.

A study of the evolution and importance of Chicano poetry since the 1960s, exploring language as a sociocultural factor; examines the work of Juan Rodríguez, Lucha Corpi, Américo Paredes, José Montoya, Luis Valdez, Rodolfo Gonzales, Alurista, Raúl Salinas, Lorna Dee Cervantes, and Tino Villanueva, among others.

Bruce-Novoa
Juan.
Chicano Authors: Inquiry by Interview.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
,
1980
.

Interviews with fourteen Chicano authors and their opinions and beliefs within the context of Chicano letters.

Bruce-Novoa
Juan.
Chicano Poetry: A Response to Chaos.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
,
1982
.

A formalist analysis of Chicano poetry including critical applications and explications of the works of José Montoya, J. L. Navarro, Abelardo Delgado, Raúl Salinas, Rodolfo Gonzales, Alurista, Sergio Elizondo, Miguel Mendez, Tino Villanueva, Ricardo Sanchez, Bernice Zamora, and Gary Soto.

Bruce-Novoa
Juan.
RetroSpace: Collected Essays on Chicano Literature, Theory and History
.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1990
.

A collection of mostly previously published essays on literary space with a critical bibliography.

Bruce-Novoa
Juan.
The Space of Chicano Literature.
De Colores
I
, no.
4
(
1975
):
22
42
.

An explication of the polemics of Chicano literary space and the critical implications of nothingness, chaos, unity, and universality in Chicano literature.

Calderón
,
Héctor
. “
At the Crossroads of History, on the Borders of Change: Chicano Literary Studies Past, Present, and Future.
” In
Left Politics and the Literary Profession,
ed.
Lennard J
.
Davis
and
M
.
Bella Mirabella
,
211
35
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
1990
.

Calderón argues that Chicano literature should be seen as a branch of American literature that offers in its literary pursuits a valid picture of the history and politics of the Southwest. With this in mind Calderón goes on to give an overview of the institutional history of Chicano literary studies.

Calderón
,
Héctor
. “
On the Uses of Chronicle, Biography and Sketch in Rolando Hinojosa’s Generaciones y semblanzas.
The Rolando Hinojosa Reader: Essays Historical and Critical,
ed.
José
David Saldívar
,
133
42
.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1985
.

A look at Hinojosa’s formal and thematic use of the Spanish Medieval and Renaissance forms of the chronicle, biography, and sketch as narrative strategies to represent a collective Texas-Mexican character.

Calderón
,
Héctor
. “
Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless Me Ultima. A Chicano Romance of the Southwest.
Crítica
I
, no.
3
(Fall
1986
):
21
47
.

Calderón argues that the romance genre is possible during periods of cultural transformation, and that the reading and critical interpretation of Anaya’s novel follows that paradigm.

Calderón
,
Héctor
. “
To Read Chicano Narrative: Commentary and Metacommentary.
Mester
II
, no.
2
(
1983
):
3
14
.

An interpretation of Chicano narrative genres based on Fredric Jameson’s dialectical criticism, Northrop Frye’s theory of genres, and Wolfgang Iser’s theory of aesthetic response with particular attention to romance in Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless Me, Ultima and satire in Oscar Zeta Acosta’s Autobiography of a Brown Buffalo.

Candelaria
,
Cordelia
.
Chicano Poetry: A Critical Introduction.
Westport, Conn.
:
Greenwood Press
,
1986
.

A critical and interpretive guide of Chicano poetry from I967-present; the critical theories and methodologies used in interpreting Chicano verse; and the application of bilingual, multicultural perspectives to the Chicano literary movement.

Carrasco
,
David
. “
A Perspective for the Study of Religious Dimensions in Chicano Experience: Bless Me, Ultima as Religious Text.
Aztlán
13
, no.
1–2
(Spring-Fall
1982
):
195
221
.

A study of the quasireligious dimensions of Anaya’s novel with special attention to shamanism, landscape sacrality, etc. and these implications in the Chicano experience and imagination.

Chabram
,
Angie
. “
Chicano Critical Discourse: An Emerging Cultural Practice.
Aztlán
18
, no. 2 (Fall
1987
):
45
90
.

An examination and an assessment of both the internal and external factors that have shaped Chicano literary criticism since its inception in the sixties. The essay also charts out the role of Chicano literary critics with respect to mainstream criticism.

Chabram
,
Angie
, and
Rosalinda
Fregoso
, eds.
Chicana/o Cultural Representations: Reframing Critical Discourses.
Special Issue of
Cultural Studies
4
, no.
3
(
1990
).

Nine essays examining the field of Chicano studies, its past and future, through cultural institutions and practices, educational and critical theory, and cultural forms in literature, theater, film, and ethnography. The collection features art by Malaquías Montoya.

Cisneros
,
Sandra
. “
Cactus Flowers: In Search of Tejana Feminist Poetry.
Third Woman
3
, no.
1–2
(
1986
):
73
80
.

A critical introduction to the varied and rich voices of sexual politics, oppression and identity in Tejana feminist poetry; featuring the poets Angela de Hoyos, Pat Mora, Rosemary Catacalos, et al.

Cota-Cárdenas
,
Margarita
. “
The Chicana in the City as Seen in Her Literature.
Frontiers: A Journal of Woman Studies
6
, no.
1–2
(Spring-Summer
1981
):
13
18
.

A critical survey of contemporary urban Chicana poets and their issues; e.g., selfawareness, identity formation, and dissatisfaction with imposed stereotypes and roles.

Eger
Ernestina N. A
A Bibliography of Criticism of Contemporary Chicano Literature.
Berkeley
:
Chicano Studies Library Publications, University of California
,
1982
. (Chicano Studies Library Publications Series, NO.5.)

An exhaustive compilation and index of over two thousand critical citations in contemporary Chicano literature.

Elizondo
Sergio D.
A Question of Origins and Presence in Chicano Literature.
Latin American Literary Review
II
, no.
21
(Fall-Winter
1982
):
39
43
.

Stressing dialectics of authenticity, legitimacy, autochthony, quality, and cultural verisimilitude, the author traces the history of Chicano literature as well as proposes criteria for future criticism.

Epple
,
Juan Armando
. “
Literatura Chicana y Crítica Literaria.
Ideologies & Literature: A Journal of Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian Studies
4
, no.
16
(
1983
):
149
71
.

A reevaluation of the sociohistoric parameters of Chicano literary criticism.

Fabre
,
Geneviève
, ed.
European Perspectives on Hispanic Literature of the United States.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1988
.

A collection of essays presented at the 1986 conference “ Hispanic Cultures and Identities in the United States” at the University of Paris; includes essays on Chicano writers Rudolfo Anaya, Alurista, Lorna Dee Cervantes, Sandra Cisneros, and Rolando Hinojosa by European and American critics.

Fischer
Michael M. J
. “
Ethnicity and the Post-Modern Arts of Memory.
Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography: A School of Research Advanced Seminar,
ed.
James
Clifford
and
George E
.
Marcus
,
194
233
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1985
.
Fischer
Michael. J
. “
Ethnicity and the Post-Modern Arts of Memory.
Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography: A School of Research Advanced Seminar,
ed.
James
Clifford
and
George E
.
Marcus
,
194
233
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1985
.

An intertextual analysis of the dynamics of contemporary ethnic autobiography; includes references to the works of Chicano writers Sandra Cisneros, Alurista, Rolando Hinojosa, Bernice Zamora, José Montoya, Rudolfo Anaya, et al.

Flores
Lauro.
Narrative Strategies in Rolando Hinojosa’s Rites and Witnesses.
The Rolando Hinojosa Reader: Essays Historical and Critical,
ed.
José David
Saldívar
,
170
79
.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1985
.

Flores argues that Hinojosa’s narrative project is based on the dynamics between individual and collective history.

Flores
Lauro.
Notas básicas para la crítica literaria chicana.
La Palabra: Revista de Literatura Chicana
3
, no.
1–2
(Spring-Autumn
1981
):
21
29
.

Basic definitions of the limitations and polemics needed to critically approach Chicano literature.

Flores
,
Lauro
, and
Mark
McCaffrey
. “
Miguel Méndez: El subjetivismo frente ala historia.
De Colores
3
, no.
4
(
1977
):
46
57
.

An explication of Méndez’s poetry and his use of the historical-generational metaphor of experience.

González-Berry
Erlinda
, and
Tey Diana
Rebolledo
. “
Growing Up Chicano: Tomás Rivera and Sandra Cisneros.
International Studies in Honor of Tomás Rivera,
ed.
Julián
Olivares
,
109
19
.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1985
.

A comparative analysis of the Chicano bildungsroman through the short-story cycles of Rivera and Cisneros.

Gonzales-Berry
,
Erlinda
, ed.
Pasó por Aquí: Critical Essays on the New Mexican Literary Tradition.
Albuquerque
:
University of New Mexico Press
,
1989
.

Sixteen thematic essays distributed among five historical divisions from the Spanish chroniclers to the contemporary period. The collection also includes a selected bibliography of New Mexican Hispanic literature.

González-
T.
,
César
A.
, ed.
Rudolfo A. Anaya: Focus on Criticism.
La Jolla
:
Lalo Press
,
1990
.

Fifteen essays, a few previously published, on Bless Me, Ultima, Heart of Aztlán, Tortuga, and themes in Anaya’s work. In addition the volume includes a brief autobiography, a selected bibliography, and interviews with Anaya.

Grajeda
Rafael.
The Pachuco in Chicano Poetry: The Process of Legend-Creation.
Revista-Chicano-Riqueña
8
, no.
4
(
1988
):
45
59
.

Grajeda traces the historical creation of the Pachuco as myth and its subsequent manifestations in contemporary Chicano poetry.

Hernández
Guillermo.
El México de fuera: notas para su historia cultural.
Critica
I
, no.
3
(
1986
):
61
80
.

A study of the sociocultural and historical problematics of what literary tradition Chicano letters belong to: Mexican-Latin American or Anglo American? Can Chicano literature be considered an independent corpus?

Hernández
Guillermo.
On the Theoretical Bases of Chicano Literature.
De Colores
5
, no.
1–2
(
1980
):
5
18
.

Hernández argues for the necessity of establishing a coherence of Chicano literature independent from strict geopolitical and linguistic considerations that are based on a Chicano historical foundation.

Herrera-Sobek
María.
Chicano Literary Folklore.
Chicano Studies: A Multidisciplinary Approach,
ed.
E.
García
, et al.,
151
70
.
New York
:
Teachers Collective Press
,
1984
.

An analysis of the cultural phenomenon of Chicano folklore including: (I) prose narratives, (2) folk songs, (3) folk speech, (4) proverbs and proverbial expressions, (5) folk drama, (6) children’s songs and games, (7) riddles, and (8) beliefs and folk medicine.

Herrera-Sobek
María
, ed.
Beyond Stereotypes: The Critical Analysis of Chicana Literature.
Binghamton, N.Y.
:
Bilingual Press/Editorial Bilingüe
,
1985
.

A collection of six critical essays concerning Chicana prose and poetry; topics include: the Chicana fictive voice, the female hero, the personal vision, humor, and the search for feminine identity.

Hinojosa-Smith
Rolando R.
This Writer’s Sense of Place.
The Texas Literary Tradition: Fiction, Folklore, History,
ed.
Don
Graham
et al.,
120
24
.
Austin
:
College of Liberal Arts, University of Texas at Austin, Texas State Historical Association
,
1983
.

Essay discusses the importance of the perception of literary place and its essential role in Chicano letters.

Huerta
Jorge A.
Chicano Theater: Themes and Forms.
Ypsilanti, Mich.
:
Bilingual Press/ Editorial Bilingüe
,
1982
. (Studies in Language and Literature of United States Hispanics.)

A thorough study of the history, themes, and contemporary forms in Chicano drama.

Jiménez
Francisco
, ed.
The Identification and Analysis of Chicano Literature.
New York
:
Bilingual Press/Editorial Bilingüe
,
1979
.

A series of previously published essays examining the origins of Chicano literature, as well as the development of critical trends and their applications in specific works. Features essays by Tomás Rivera, Rolando Hinojosa, Luis Leal, et al.

Kanellos
Nicolás.
The History of Hispanic Theatre in the United States: Origins to 1940
.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
,
1990
.

Kanellos situates the book around the cities where Hispanic theatre flourished: Los Angeles, San Francisco, Tucson, Laredo, San Antonio, New York, and Tampa. From vaudeville and tent theatre to an examination of the individual careers of actors, writers, and directors, Kanellos charts the rise of Hispanic theatre in the United States. Includes photographs.

Kanellos
Nicolás.
Mexican American Theater: Then and Now.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1983
.
(Revista Chicano-Riqueña
1I
, no.
I
[Spring
1983
].)

A collection of sketches, essays, and interviews conveying the breadth of Mexican American theater.

Lattin
Vernon E.
, ed.
Contemporary Chicano Fiction: A Critical Survey.
Binghamton, N.Y.
:
Bilingual Press/Editorial Bilingüe
,
1986
.

Survey contains four chapters each containing mostly previously published essays, including: (1) critical overviews; (2) the early writers in English: Villarreal, Acosta, Barrio; (3) Tomás Rivera and the Spanish language novel; and (4) the accomplished voices, essays on Hinojosa, Anaya, Méndez, Arias, Portillo Trambley, et a1.

Leal
Luis.
Aztlán y México: Perfiles literarios e históricos.
Binghamton, N.Y.
:
Bilingual Press/Editorial Bilingüe
,
1985
.

This collection brings together both new and previously published essays on both Chicano and Mexican literature and culture. Essays on literary history and folklore are distributed between the two major divisions for the volume, Aztlán and México.

Leal
Luis.
Cuatro siglos de prosa aztlanense.
La Palabra: Revista de Literatura Chicana
2
, no.
I
(Spring
1980
):
2
15
.

Leal leads a survey cataloging four decades of prose in Aztlán, with special emphasis on the didactic forms which prevailed in early writings; those being, memorias, diarios, viajes, crónicas, relaciones, and cartas.

Leal
Luis.
Literary Criticism and Minority Literatures: The Case of the Chicano Writer.
Confluencia: Revista Hispánica de Cultura y Literatura
I
, no.
2
(Spring
1986
):
4
9
.

Leal argues for the integration and legitimization of Chicano literature into the mainstream of American literature by literary historians.

Leal
Luis.
Mexican-American Literature: A Historical Perspective.
Revista ChicanoRiqueiia
I
, no.
I
(Spring
1973
):
32
44
.

A study of the emergence of Chicano literature through successive historical periods: Hispanic to 1821; Mexican 1821–1848; transition 1848–1910; interaction 1910–1942; and the Chicano period 1943 to the present.

Leal
Luis.
and
Pepe
Barrón
. “
Chicano Literature: An Overview.
Three American Literatures: Essays in Chicano, Native American, and Asian-American Literature for Teachers of American Literature,
ed.
Houston A
.
Baker
,Jr.
,
9
32
.
New York
:
Modem Language Association
,
1982
.

A historical survey of the genesis, context, characteristics, and roots of Chicano literature, specifically: pre-Chicano literature to 1884; literature of transition 1848–1910; emergence of a group consciousness 1910–1943; and literature of confrontation 1943–1981.

Lewis
Marvin.
Introduction to the Chicano Novel.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1984
.

A brief analysis outlining the historical, environmental, migratory, and sociomythical realities as found in the Chicano novel.

Lizάrraga
Sylvia.
Observaciones acerca de la crítica literaria chicana.
Revista ChicanoRiqueña
10
, no.
4
(Fall
1982
):
55
64
.

A critical evaluation of Juan Bruce-Novoa’s theory of literary space.

Lomeli
Francisco A.
En tomo a la literatura de la frontera: ¿Convergencia o divergencia?
Plural: Revista Cultural de Excelsior
15
, no.
II
(
August
1986
):
24
32
.

This essay explores the cultural milieu of the border and how this area is manifest in the sociological, interlingual, and intersymbolic relationships between Chicano and Mexican literature.

Lomeli
Francisco A
An Overview of Chicano Letters: From Origins to Resurgence.
Chicano Studies:A Multidisciplinary Approach,
ed.
E.
García
et al.,
103
19
.
New York
:
Teachers Collective Press
,
1984
.

An overview of the history of Chicano literature, as well as an analysis of the stigmas and misperceptions that hinder its inclusion into mainstream American literature and canon.

Lomeli
Francisco A
and
Donaldo W.
Urioste
.
Chicano Perspectives in Literature: A Critical and Annotated Bibliography
.
Albuquerque
:
Pajarito
,
1976
.

An extensive annotated bibliography with citations in poetry, novel, short fiction,theater, anthology, literary criticism, oral tradition in print, journal, and “literature Chicanesca.” Also illustrated by José Antonio Burciaga.

Madrid-Barela
Arturo.
Identidad y creatividad chicana.
Ideologies & Literature: A Journal of Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian Studies
2
, no.
10
(
1979
):
36
44
.

Madrid traces the historical, geographical, economic, and cultural vitality found in Chicano literature.

Madrid-Barela
Arturo.
In Search of the Authentic Pachuco.
Aztlán
4
, no.
1
(Spring
1973
):
31
60
.

A study of the mythical and cultural dimensions of the Pachuco and its significance in Chicano poetry, art, drama, film, etc.

Madrid-Barela
Arturo.
La problemática de la experiencia y la literatura chicana.
Casa de las Américas
114
(
1979
):
60
63
.

Examines the problems of the Chicano condition and Chicano literature as a historical-dialectical process of the search for identity between the Anglo and Mexican cultures.

Márquez
Antonio C.
Richard Rodriguez’ Hunger of Memory and the Poetics of Experience.
Arizona Quarterly
40
, no.
2
(Summer
1984
):
130
41
.

Márquez explores the development of a shift in modem autobiography, that of historiography to literature in Rodriguez’s prose.

Martínez
Julio A.
, and
Francisco A
.
Lomelí
.
Chicano Literature: A Reference Guide.
Westport, Conn.
:
Greenwood Press
,
1985
.

This guide includes comprehensive information on authors; pivotal articles on the history of the literature, as well as three literary genres (the novel, ’poetry, and theater), Chicano children’s literature, and Chicano philosophy; and a chronology of Chicano literature and glossary of useful terms.

Méndez M.
,
Miguel
.
La Palabra: Revista de Literatura Chicana
3
, no.
1–2
(
1981
):
3
120
.Thematic issue of La Palabra.

Special issue of La Palabra focusing on the work of Miguel Méndez M.; includes an interview with Méndez, a collection of critical writings on his work (especially Peregrinos de Aztlán), and several of his poems and short stories.

Monsiváis
Carlos.
Literatura comparada: literatura chicana y literatura mexicana.
Fomento Literario
I
, no.
3
(
1983
):
42
49
.

Monsiváis establishes the validity of a parallelism between Chicano and Mexican literatures and points out the seminal differences.

Olivares
,
Julián
, ed.
International Studies in Honor of Tomás Rivera
.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1986
.

The collection includes ten essays by Rivera’s colleagues and friends on his life and work plus six others on Chicano and Hispanic literature of the United States

.
Olivares
,
Julián
,
U.S. Hispanic Autobiography.
Special issue of
The Americas Review
16
, no.
3–4
(
1988
).

Thematic issue containing essays on Anthony Quinn, Gary Soto, Oscar Zeta Acosta,border narratives, and nineteenth-century narratives by women

.
Ordóñez
Elizabeth J.
Chicana Literature and Related Sources: A Selected and Annotated Bibliography.
Bilingual Review
7
, no.
2
(
May-August
1980
):
143
64
.

An exhaustive annotated compilation of critical essays, bibliographies, anthologies, poetry, and prose focusing on or written by Chicana authors.

Ordóñez
Elizabeth.
The Concept of Cultural Identity in Chicana Poetry.
Third Women
2
, no.
1
(
1984
):
75
82
.

Ordóñez critically evaluates the quest for and definition of Chicana cultural identity through Chicana poetry. Essay focuses on poetry by Lucha Corpi, Lorna Dee Cervantes, Alma Villanueva, et al.

Ordóñez
Elizabeth.
Sexual Politics and the Theme of Sexuality in Chicana Poetry.
Women in Hispanic Literature: Icons and Fallen Idols
, ed.
Beth
Miller
,
316
39
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1983
.

A study of the Chicana feminist polemic relevant to the sexual politics of the Chicano movement, with specific attention to the poetry of Lorna Dee Cervantes, Evangelina Vigil, Bernice Zamora, et al.

Ortego
Philip D.
, and
David
Conde
, eds.
The Chicano Literary World 1974: Proceedings of the National Symposium on Chicano Literature and Critical Analysis, November 1974
.
Las Vegas, N.M
:
New Mexico Highlands University
,
1975
. 94 leaves..

Papers stress the themes of national character and identity through literary “space,” as well as satire and humor in Chicano literature.

Padilla
Genaro.
The Recovery of Nineteenth-Century Chicano Autobiography: ‘tis not vengeance, it is regaining a loss,’
American Quarterly
40
, no.
3
(
1988
):
286
307
.

An exploration of autobiography as a rhetorical response to the threat of cultural,social, and historical effacement after the Mexican-American War of 1846–48 with a focus on Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo’s “Recuerdos históricos de alta California.”

Padilla
Genaro.
The Self as Cultural Metaphor in Acosta’s Autobiography of a Brown Buffalo.
Journal of General Education
35
, no.
4
(
1984
):
242
5 8

Padilla argues that the genre of autobiography, in particular Acosta’s work, can stand as a faithful documentary record of the Chicano’s search for cultural identity, political consciousness, and struggle for dignity in face of assimilation.

Padilla
Genaro.
‘Yo Sola Aprendí’: Mexican Women’s Nineteenth-Century California Personal Narratives.
Revealing Lives: Autobiography and Gender,
ed.
Marilyn
Yalom
and
Susan Groag
Bell
,
115
31
.
Albany
:
State University of New York Press
.

A group of narratives by California women originally collected by Hubert H. Bancroft is read to reveal a critique of the patriarchy as well as a subversion of the transcription process.

Paredes
,
Américo
. “
El folklore de los grupos de origen mexicano en Estados Unidos.
Folklore Americano
14
, no.
14
(
1964
):
146
63
.

A look at Mexican-American folklore as an expression of historical conflict of cultures.

Paredes
,
Américo
. “
The Folk Base of Chicano Literature.
Modern Chicano Writers: A Collection of Critical Essays,
ed.
Joseph
Sommers
and
Tomás
Ybarra-Frausto
,
4
17
.
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
:
Prentice-Hall
,
1979
.

A translated, abbreviated version of the above article.

Paredes
,
Américo
. “
Nearby Places and Strange-Sounding Names.
The Texas Literary Tradition: Fiction, Folklore, History,
ed.
Don
Graham
et al.
130
38
.
Austin
:
College of Liberal Arts, University of Texas at Austin, Texas State Historical Association
1983
.

Paredes analyzes the persistent stereotypes, the uses of bilingualism, and sense of place in the realm of Chicano literature.

Paredes
,
Américo
.
"With His Pistol in His Hand": A Border Ballad and Its Hero.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
,
1958
.

The seminal study of the corrido of Gregorio Cortez against the history of cultural conflict in the Río Grande Valley of Texas.

Paredes
,
Raymund.
The Evolution of Chicano Literature
”.
Three American Literatures: Essays in Chicano, Native American, and Asian-American Literature for Teachers of American Literature,
ed.
Houston A
.
Baker
, Jr.
,
33
79
.
New York
:
Modern Language Association
,
1982
.

An historical account of the development of Chicano literature from folklore and the birth of the corrido to its manifestations in the contemporary Chicano novel and poetry.

Pino
,
Frank
, Jr
. “
A Chicano Perspective on American Cultural History.
Journal of Popular Culture
13
, no.
3
(
1980
):
488
500
.

Pino argues that American historians must undertake a broader interpretive approach including the history of the Mexican-American for a more accurate account of this nation’s history.

Rebolledo
,
Tey Diana
. “
The Maturing of Chicana Poetry: The Quiet Revolution of the 1980’S.
For Alma Mater: Theory and Practice in Feminist Scholarship,
ed.
Paula
A
.
Treichler
et aI.,
143
58
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
,
1985
.

An essay asserting the emergence of Chicana poetry as a genre and discussing the various themes it expresses, for example, growing up, self-identity, search for myth, social criticism, and sexuality.

Rebolledo
,
Tey Diana
. “
Witches, Bitches and Midwives: The Shaping of Poetic Consciousness in Chicana Literature.
The Chicano Struggle: Analyses of Past and Present Efforts,
ed.
John A
.
García
,
166
77
.
Binghamton, N.Y.
:
Bilingual Review/Press
,
1984
.

This critical essay explores the unique and powerful poetic voices and consciousnesses of Chicana poets, specifically the processes of creation linked to motherhood, midwifery, and tale spinning, as well as witchery and magic.

Rebolledo
,
Tey Diana
,
Erlinda
Gonzales-Berry
, and
Teresa
Márquez
, eds.
Las Mujeres Hablan: An Anthology of Nuevo Mexicana Writers.
Albuquerque
:
El Norte Publications
,
1989
.

Varied works of poetry, short fiction, artwork, folklore, and testimonios in English, Spanish, and bilingual combinations by forty-four Chicanas from New Mexico. The collection emphasizes daily activities as lived by women.

Rivera
,
Tomás
. “
Chicano Literature: Life in Search of Form.
Bridging Two Cultures: Multidisciplinary Readings in Bilingual Bicultural Education,
ed.
Martha
Cotera
and
Larry
Hufford
,
333
41
.
Austin
:
National Educational Library
,
1980
.

An inquiry into literary form as a unique reflection of Chicano life as manifest in the Chicano novel, poetry, and the essay.

Rivera
,
Tomás
. “
Mexican-American Literature: The Establishment of Community.
The Texas Literary Tradition: Fiction, Folklore, History,
ed.
Don
Graham
et al.,
124
30
.
Austin
:
College of Liberal Arts, University of Texas at Austin, Texas State Historical Association
,
1983
.

Rivera traces the importance and development of community in Mexican-American Iiterature.

Rivera
,
Tomás
. “
Richard Rodriguez‘ Hunger of Memory as Humanistic Antithesis.
MELUS: The Journal of the Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States 11
, no.
4
(Winter
1984
):
5
13
.

A thorough critique of Rodriguez’s Hunger of Memory as based on narrow presuppositions and cultural dimensions.

Robinson
,
Cecil
.
Mexico and the Hispanic Southwest in American Literature
. Revised from
With the Ears of Strangers
(
1963
).
Tucson
:
University of Arizona Press
,
1977
.

A study of the sociohistorical relationship between the Mexican-Hispanic Southwest and Anglo-America as revealed through American literature. The 1977 edition includes a section on Chicano literature.

Rocard
,
Marcienne
.
Les fils du solei1: La minorité mexicaine a través 1a 1ittérature des Etats- Unis.
Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose, 1980. English translation
Children of the Sun: The Mexican American in the Literature of the United States.
Trans.
Edward G
.
Brown
, Jr.
Tucson
:
University of Arizona Press
,
1989
.

The author presents the changing image of the Chicano in American literature from the “ romantic” aristocracy of the hacienda of Mexican California through the contrasting image of the “ inferior, immoral, lazy” Mexican to the sympathetic portrayals of migrant workers of Hemingway, Steinbeck, and Saroyan and finally to the contemporary Chicano facing the dilemma of assimilation or ethnic preservation.

Rocard
,
Marcienne
. “
La Lutte du Chicano sur Ie plan de l’écriture: Ou la face littéraire du movement chicano.
Les Langues Modernes
80
, no.
3
(
1986
):
45
52
.

As essay outlining the difficulties of Chicano literature as the expression of a collective consciousness rather than individual statement.

Romo
,
Ricardo
, and
Raymund
Paredes
, eds.
New Directions in Chicano Scholarship.
La Jolla
:
Chicano Studies Program, University of California, San Diego
,
1978
.
Chicano Studies Monograph Series

Essays representing a wide range of Chicano research such as: folklore-ethnography, critical literary theory, linguistics, and sociology.

Rosaldo
,
Renato
. “
Politics, Patriarchs and Laughter.
Cultural Critique
6
(Spring
1987
):
65
86
.

Through a study of Américo Paredes and Ernesto Galarza, the author takes exception to a concept of minor literature which uses canonical European examples not readily applicable to Chicano letters. He asserts that Chicano narrative uses an understated politics of humor and “ the border” as a creative space of resistance.

Saldívar
,
José David
. “
The Limits of Cultural Studies.
American Literary History
2
, no.
2
(
1990
):
251
-
66
.

An examination of the limitations of the cultural studies movement in the United States through the work of Michael M. J. Fischer, Rolando Hinojosa, Guillermo Gómez-Peña, Renato Rosaldo, and Gloria Anzaldúa. Saldívar moves beyond the static category of ethnicity as a self-contained and totalizing form to a global and interactive perspective.

Saldívar
,
José David
The Ideological and the Utopian in Tomás Rivera’s ... y no se lo tragó la tierra and Ron Arias’ The Road to Tamazuncha1e.
Missions in Conflict: Essays on U. S.Mexican Relations and Chicano Culture,
ed.
Renate von
Bardeleben
et al.,
203
14
.
Tübingen
:
Narr, 1986
.

Studies the shared political and aesthetic world views through the unfolding of both fictional plot and history in the mentioned works by Rivera and Arias.

Saldívar
,
José David
Towards a Chicano-Poetics: The Making of the Chicano-Chicana Subject, 19691982.
Confluencia: Revista Hispánica de Cultura y Literatura
1
, no.
2
(Spring
1986
):
10
17
.

Saldívar analyzes the development of the Chicano subject through the work of three Chicano contemporary poets: José Montoya, Bernice Zamora, and Alberto Ríos.

Saldívar
,
José David
, ed.
The Rolando Hinojosa Reader: Essays Historical and Critical.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1985
.

A collection of thirteen new critical essays concluding with an interview with Hinojosa. Sections are divided among (1) essays by Hinojosa, (2) essays on his Klail City Death Trip series, and (3) on individual works.

Saldívar
,
Ramón
.
Chicano Narrative: The Dialectics of Difference.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin Press
,
1990
.

A deconstructionist-Marxist study of Chicano narrative from Américo Paredes and José Antonio Villarreal to Cherríe Moraga and Sandra Cisneros.

Saldívar
,
Ramón
. “
A Dialectic of Difference: Towards a Theory of the Chicano Novel.
MELUS: The Journal of the Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States
6
, no.
3
(Fall
1979
):
73
92
.

An evaluation and reassessment of Chicano literary theory and criticism through the dialectics of history and “difference.”

Saldívar
,
Ramón
. “
The Form of Texas-Mexican Fiction.
The Texas Literary Tradition: Fiction, Folklore, History,
ed. Don Graham et al.,
139
44
.
Austin
:
College of Liberal Arts, University of Texas at Austin, Texas State Historical Association
,
1983
.

An examination of the similarities and differences between the Texas-Mexican novel and Texas-Anglo novel and their uses of realism, forms, synthesis, etc.

Saldívar
,
Ramón
. “
Ideologies of Self: Chicano Autobiography.
Diacritics: A Review of Contemporary Criticism
15
, no.
3
(Fall
1985
):
25
34
.

Saldívar explores the themes of history, time, and space, as well as the issues of self and history, self and place, within the context of the emergence of racial, ethnic, and gender consciousness in the Chicano autobiographies Hunger of Memory by Richard Rodriguez and Barrio Boy by Ernesto Galarza.

Salinas
,
Judy
. “
The Image of Woman in Chicano Literature.
Revista Chicano-Riqueiña 4,
no.
4
(Fall
1976
):
139
48
.

Salinas traces the traditional roles and stereotypes of the Chicana in Chicano literature.

Sánchez
,
Marta Ester
.
Contemporary Chicana Poetry: A Critical Approach
to
an Emerging Literature.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1985
.

A survey of several seminal Chicana poets and the cultural, sexual, political, and critical issues and the appearance of such topics in their poetry.

Sánchez
,
Rosaura
.
Chicano Discourse: Socia-Historic Perspectives.
Rowley, Mass.
:
Newbury House
,
1983
.

A semiotic, ideological, social, and historical look at the dynamics of Chicano bilingualism.

Sánchez
,
Rosaura
. “
La crítica marxista: Propuesta para la crítica literaria chicana.
Revista Chicano Riqueña
8
, no.
3
(
1980
):
93
96
.

An examination of Chicano literature as a product of economic and historical circumstances and conditions.

Sánchez
,
Rosaura
. “
Ethnicity, Ideology and Academia.
Americas Review
15
, no.
1
(
1987
):
80
88
.

A discussion of the notion of cultural boundaries as related to academia and the status of ethnic studies programs and minority intellectuals

.
Sánchez
,
Rosaura
Postmodernism and Chicano Literature.
Aztlán
18
, no.
2
(Fall
1987
):
1
14
.

An exploration of postmodernist theory and its possible application to a wide variety of Chicano works. Sánchez concludes that there are no Chicano postmodernist works.

Sánchez
,
Rosaura
. “
Voces, códigos y cronotopos en la literatura chicana.
Revista Chicano-Requeña
13
, no.
2
(
1985
):
54
63
.

An intertextual analysis of Chicano literature in light of the theories of Mikhail Bakhtin and Edward Said.

Sommers
,
Joseph
. “
From the Critical Premise to the Product: Critical Modes and Their Applications to a Chicano Literary Text.
New Directions in Chicano Scholarship,
ed. Ricardo Romo and Raymund Paredes,
51
80
.
La Jolla
:
Chicano Studies program, University of California, San Diego
,
1978
.

A discussion of three modes of literary criticism—traditionalist, culturalist, and historical-dialectical—and their relation to Chicano literature as applied to Tomás Rivera’s ... Y no se 10 tragó 1a tierra.

Sommers
,
Joseph
and
Tomás
Ybarra-Frausto
, eds.
Modern Chicano Writers: A Collection of Critical Essays.
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
:
Prentice-Hall
,
1979
. (Twentieth Century Views, A Spectrum Book).

A series of essays concerning the conceptual framework of Chicano literary history and critical approaches, as well as the characteristics of Chicano narrative, poetry, and theater

.
Yarbro-Bejarano
,
Yvonne
. “
Cherríe Moraga’s Giving Up the Ghost: The Representation of Female Desire.
Third Woman
3
, no.
1–2
(
1986
):
113
20
.

An analysis of sexism, racism, feminism, homophobia, and the complex and the multifaceted structures of oppression created from these issues in relation to the Chicana experience

.
Ybarra-Frausto
,
Tomás
. “
The Chicano Movement and the Emergence of a Chicano Poetic Consciousness.
New Directions in Chicano Scholarship,
ed.
Ricardo
Ramo
and
Raymund
Paredes
,
81
109
.
La Jolla
:
Chicano Studies Program, University of California, San Diego
,
1978
.

Ybarra-Frausto describes the historical emergence of Chicano poetic consciousness as a long process of militance and resistance, from the eighteenth-century concept of revolution borrowed from Mexico to the mobilization of campesinos in California in the 1960s and the emergence of the teatro campesino

.

Figures & Tables

Contents

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References

Alarcón
,
Norma.
Chicanas’ Feminist Literature: A Re-Vision Through Malinntzin/or Malintzin: Putting Flesh Back on the Object.
” In
This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color,
ed.
Cherríe
Moraga
and
Gloria
Anzaldúa
,
182
90
.
New York
:
Kitchen Table/Women of Color Press
,
1983
.

An essay examining the traditional image of Malintzin in Chicano culture and its recuperation by Chicana writers.

Alarcón
,
Norma.
, “
Making Familia From Scratch: Split Subjectivities in the Work of Helena María Viramontes and Cherrie Moraga.
” In
Chícana Creativity and Criticism: Charting New Frontiers in American Literature,
ed.
María
Herrera-Sobek
and
Helena
María Viramontes
,
147
59
.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1988
.

Alarcón explores the refusal to speak as woman (wife/mother) and the crisis of meaning that this position engenders for two Chicana writers.

Alarcón
,
Norma.
, “
Traddutura, Traditora: A Paradigmatic Figure of Chicana Feminism.
The Construction of Gender and Modes of Social Division,
ed.
Donna
Przybylowicz
,
Nancy
Hartsock
, and
Pamela
McCallum
. Special issue of
Cultural Critique,
no.
13
(Fall
1989
):
57
87
.

An overview of the Malinche figure drawn from both Mexican and Chicana creative and critical traditions.

Alarcón
,
Norma.
, “
What Kind of Lover Have You Made Me Mother?: Towards a Theory of Chicana’s Feminism and Cultural Identity Through Poetry.
” In
Women of Color: Perspectives on Feminism and Identity,
ed.
Audrey T
.
McCluskey
,
85
110
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University
, Women’s Studies Program Occasional Papers Series, vol.
I
, no.
I
,
1985
.

In this essay Alarcón maps the emergence of Chicana poetry in Evangelina Vigil, Lorna Dee Cervantes, Cherríe Moraga, Carmen Tafolla, Pat Mora, Barbara Brinson Curiel, and Sandra Cisneros by focusing on how the intimate relations with mothers and lovers are interconnected in ways that help define the daughter.

Alurista (Alberto Urista)
. “
Cultural Nationalism and Chicano Literature During the Decade of 1965–1975.
MELUS: The Journal of the Society for the Study of the MultiEthnic Literature of the United States
8
, no.
2
(Summer
1981
):
22
34
.

An explication of the sociopolitical factors contributing to the emergence of a poetic consciousness and nationalism as manifest in Chicano narrative, poetry, and drama.

Bardeleben
,
Renate von
, et al., eds.
Missions in Conflict: Essays on U.S.-Mexican Relations and Chicano Culture.
Tübingen
:
Narr
,
1986
.

Includes twenty-six essays from scholars both in Europe and the United States on Chicano culture and literature; specifically Chicano poetry, fiction, theater, and criticism; as well as language, education, and the impact of Chicano culture in American discourse. The essays were presented at the First International Symposium on Chicano Culture in 1984 at the University of Mainz at Germersheim, Germany.

Bassnett
,
Susan
. “
Bilingual Poetry: A Chicano Phenomenon.
Revista Chicano-Riqueña
13
, no.
3–4
(
1985
):
137
47
.

A survey exploring the history, influences, polemics, and characteristics of Chicano poetry as an emergent phenomenon in contemporary literature.

Bauder
Thomas A.
The Triumph of White Magic in Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless Me, Ultima.
Mester
14
, no.
I
(Spring
1985
):
41
54
.

A thorough analysis of Christian cosmology, pre-Columbian myth, and Nahuatl Indian magic in Anaya’s novel.

Binder
,
Wolfgang
. “
Die Lyrik der Chicanos seit den sechziger Jahren: Sprache als soziokulturelle Bestandsauf nähme und emanzipatorisches Verfahren.
Die Legitimation der Alltagssprache in der modernen Lyrik: Antworten aus Europa und Lateinamerika.
Erlangen
:
Universitätsbund Erlangen-Nürnberg
, (
1984
):
85
111
.

A study of the evolution and importance of Chicano poetry since the 1960s, exploring language as a sociocultural factor; examines the work of Juan Rodríguez, Lucha Corpi, Américo Paredes, José Montoya, Luis Valdez, Rodolfo Gonzales, Alurista, Raúl Salinas, Lorna Dee Cervantes, and Tino Villanueva, among others.

Bruce-Novoa
Juan.
Chicano Authors: Inquiry by Interview.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
,
1980
.

Interviews with fourteen Chicano authors and their opinions and beliefs within the context of Chicano letters.

Bruce-Novoa
Juan.
Chicano Poetry: A Response to Chaos.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
,
1982
.

A formalist analysis of Chicano poetry including critical applications and explications of the works of José Montoya, J. L. Navarro, Abelardo Delgado, Raúl Salinas, Rodolfo Gonzales, Alurista, Sergio Elizondo, Miguel Mendez, Tino Villanueva, Ricardo Sanchez, Bernice Zamora, and Gary Soto.

Bruce-Novoa
Juan.
RetroSpace: Collected Essays on Chicano Literature, Theory and History
.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1990
.

A collection of mostly previously published essays on literary space with a critical bibliography.

Bruce-Novoa
Juan.
The Space of Chicano Literature.
De Colores
I
, no.
4
(
1975
):
22
42
.

An explication of the polemics of Chicano literary space and the critical implications of nothingness, chaos, unity, and universality in Chicano literature.

Calderón
,
Héctor
. “
At the Crossroads of History, on the Borders of Change: Chicano Literary Studies Past, Present, and Future.
” In
Left Politics and the Literary Profession,
ed.
Lennard J
.
Davis
and
M
.
Bella Mirabella
,
211
35
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
1990
.

Calderón argues that Chicano literature should be seen as a branch of American literature that offers in its literary pursuits a valid picture of the history and politics of the Southwest. With this in mind Calderón goes on to give an overview of the institutional history of Chicano literary studies.

Calderón
,
Héctor
. “
On the Uses of Chronicle, Biography and Sketch in Rolando Hinojosa’s Generaciones y semblanzas.
The Rolando Hinojosa Reader: Essays Historical and Critical,
ed.
José
David Saldívar
,
133
42
.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1985
.

A look at Hinojosa’s formal and thematic use of the Spanish Medieval and Renaissance forms of the chronicle, biography, and sketch as narrative strategies to represent a collective Texas-Mexican character.

Calderón
,
Héctor
. “
Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless Me Ultima. A Chicano Romance of the Southwest.
Crítica
I
, no.
3
(Fall
1986
):
21
47
.

Calderón argues that the romance genre is possible during periods of cultural transformation, and that the reading and critical interpretation of Anaya’s novel follows that paradigm.

Calderón
,
Héctor
. “
To Read Chicano Narrative: Commentary and Metacommentary.
Mester
II
, no.
2
(
1983
):
3
14
.

An interpretation of Chicano narrative genres based on Fredric Jameson’s dialectical criticism, Northrop Frye’s theory of genres, and Wolfgang Iser’s theory of aesthetic response with particular attention to romance in Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless Me, Ultima and satire in Oscar Zeta Acosta’s Autobiography of a Brown Buffalo.

Candelaria
,
Cordelia
.
Chicano Poetry: A Critical Introduction.
Westport, Conn.
:
Greenwood Press
,
1986
.

A critical and interpretive guide of Chicano poetry from I967-present; the critical theories and methodologies used in interpreting Chicano verse; and the application of bilingual, multicultural perspectives to the Chicano literary movement.

Carrasco
,
David
. “
A Perspective for the Study of Religious Dimensions in Chicano Experience: Bless Me, Ultima as Religious Text.
Aztlán
13
, no.
1–2
(Spring-Fall
1982
):
195
221
.

A study of the quasireligious dimensions of Anaya’s novel with special attention to shamanism, landscape sacrality, etc. and these implications in the Chicano experience and imagination.

Chabram
,
Angie
. “
Chicano Critical Discourse: An Emerging Cultural Practice.
Aztlán
18
, no. 2 (Fall
1987
):
45
90
.

An examination and an assessment of both the internal and external factors that have shaped Chicano literary criticism since its inception in the sixties. The essay also charts out the role of Chicano literary critics with respect to mainstream criticism.

Chabram
,
Angie
, and
Rosalinda
Fregoso
, eds.
Chicana/o Cultural Representations: Reframing Critical Discourses.
Special Issue of
Cultural Studies
4
, no.
3
(
1990
).

Nine essays examining the field of Chicano studies, its past and future, through cultural institutions and practices, educational and critical theory, and cultural forms in literature, theater, film, and ethnography. The collection features art by Malaquías Montoya.

Cisneros
,
Sandra
. “
Cactus Flowers: In Search of Tejana Feminist Poetry.
Third Woman
3
, no.
1–2
(
1986
):
73
80
.

A critical introduction to the varied and rich voices of sexual politics, oppression and identity in Tejana feminist poetry; featuring the poets Angela de Hoyos, Pat Mora, Rosemary Catacalos, et al.

Cota-Cárdenas
,
Margarita
. “
The Chicana in the City as Seen in Her Literature.
Frontiers: A Journal of Woman Studies
6
, no.
1–2
(Spring-Summer
1981
):
13
18
.

A critical survey of contemporary urban Chicana poets and their issues; e.g., selfawareness, identity formation, and dissatisfaction with imposed stereotypes and roles.

Eger
Ernestina N. A
A Bibliography of Criticism of Contemporary Chicano Literature.
Berkeley
:
Chicano Studies Library Publications, University of California
,
1982
. (Chicano Studies Library Publications Series, NO.5.)

An exhaustive compilation and index of over two thousand critical citations in contemporary Chicano literature.

Elizondo
Sergio D.
A Question of Origins and Presence in Chicano Literature.
Latin American Literary Review
II
, no.
21
(Fall-Winter
1982
):
39
43
.

Stressing dialectics of authenticity, legitimacy, autochthony, quality, and cultural verisimilitude, the author traces the history of Chicano literature as well as proposes criteria for future criticism.

Epple
,
Juan Armando
. “
Literatura Chicana y Crítica Literaria.
Ideologies & Literature: A Journal of Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian Studies
4
, no.
16
(
1983
):
149
71
.

A reevaluation of the sociohistoric parameters of Chicano literary criticism.

Fabre
,
Geneviève
, ed.
European Perspectives on Hispanic Literature of the United States.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1988
.

A collection of essays presented at the 1986 conference “ Hispanic Cultures and Identities in the United States” at the University of Paris; includes essays on Chicano writers Rudolfo Anaya, Alurista, Lorna Dee Cervantes, Sandra Cisneros, and Rolando Hinojosa by European and American critics.

Fischer
Michael M. J
. “
Ethnicity and the Post-Modern Arts of Memory.
Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography: A School of Research Advanced Seminar,
ed.
James
Clifford
and
George E
.
Marcus
,
194
233
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1985
.
Fischer
Michael. J
. “
Ethnicity and the Post-Modern Arts of Memory.
Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography: A School of Research Advanced Seminar,
ed.
James
Clifford
and
George E
.
Marcus
,
194
233
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1985
.

An intertextual analysis of the dynamics of contemporary ethnic autobiography; includes references to the works of Chicano writers Sandra Cisneros, Alurista, Rolando Hinojosa, Bernice Zamora, José Montoya, Rudolfo Anaya, et al.

Flores
Lauro.
Narrative Strategies in Rolando Hinojosa’s Rites and Witnesses.
The Rolando Hinojosa Reader: Essays Historical and Critical,
ed.
José David
Saldívar
,
170
79
.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1985
.

Flores argues that Hinojosa’s narrative project is based on the dynamics between individual and collective history.

Flores
Lauro.
Notas básicas para la crítica literaria chicana.
La Palabra: Revista de Literatura Chicana
3
, no.
1–2
(Spring-Autumn
1981
):
21
29
.

Basic definitions of the limitations and polemics needed to critically approach Chicano literature.

Flores
,
Lauro
, and
Mark
McCaffrey
. “
Miguel Méndez: El subjetivismo frente ala historia.
De Colores
3
, no.
4
(
1977
):
46
57
.

An explication of Méndez’s poetry and his use of the historical-generational metaphor of experience.

González-Berry
Erlinda
, and
Tey Diana
Rebolledo
. “
Growing Up Chicano: Tomás Rivera and Sandra Cisneros.
International Studies in Honor of Tomás Rivera,
ed.
Julián
Olivares
,
109
19
.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1985
.

A comparative analysis of the Chicano bildungsroman through the short-story cycles of Rivera and Cisneros.

Gonzales-Berry
,
Erlinda
, ed.
Pasó por Aquí: Critical Essays on the New Mexican Literary Tradition.
Albuquerque
:
University of New Mexico Press
,
1989
.

Sixteen thematic essays distributed among five historical divisions from the Spanish chroniclers to the contemporary period. The collection also includes a selected bibliography of New Mexican Hispanic literature.

González-
T.
,
César
A.
, ed.
Rudolfo A. Anaya: Focus on Criticism.
La Jolla
:
Lalo Press
,
1990
.

Fifteen essays, a few previously published, on Bless Me, Ultima, Heart of Aztlán, Tortuga, and themes in Anaya’s work. In addition the volume includes a brief autobiography, a selected bibliography, and interviews with Anaya.

Grajeda
Rafael.
The Pachuco in Chicano Poetry: The Process of Legend-Creation.
Revista-Chicano-Riqueña
8
, no.
4
(
1988
):
45
59
.

Grajeda traces the historical creation of the Pachuco as myth and its subsequent manifestations in contemporary Chicano poetry.

Hernández
Guillermo.
El México de fuera: notas para su historia cultural.
Critica
I
, no.
3
(
1986
):
61
80
.

A study of the sociocultural and historical problematics of what literary tradition Chicano letters belong to: Mexican-Latin American or Anglo American? Can Chicano literature be considered an independent corpus?

Hernández
Guillermo.
On the Theoretical Bases of Chicano Literature.
De Colores
5
, no.
1–2
(
1980
):
5
18
.

Hernández argues for the necessity of establishing a coherence of Chicano literature independent from strict geopolitical and linguistic considerations that are based on a Chicano historical foundation.

Herrera-Sobek
María.
Chicano Literary Folklore.
Chicano Studies: A Multidisciplinary Approach,
ed.
E.
García
, et al.,
151
70
.
New York
:
Teachers Collective Press
,
1984
.

An analysis of the cultural phenomenon of Chicano folklore including: (I) prose narratives, (2) folk songs, (3) folk speech, (4) proverbs and proverbial expressions, (5) folk drama, (6) children’s songs and games, (7) riddles, and (8) beliefs and folk medicine.

Herrera-Sobek
María
, ed.
Beyond Stereotypes: The Critical Analysis of Chicana Literature.
Binghamton, N.Y.
:
Bilingual Press/Editorial Bilingüe
,
1985
.

A collection of six critical essays concerning Chicana prose and poetry; topics include: the Chicana fictive voice, the female hero, the personal vision, humor, and the search for feminine identity.

Hinojosa-Smith
Rolando R.
This Writer’s Sense of Place.
The Texas Literary Tradition: Fiction, Folklore, History,
ed.
Don
Graham
et al.,
120
24
.
Austin
:
College of Liberal Arts, University of Texas at Austin, Texas State Historical Association
,
1983
.

Essay discusses the importance of the perception of literary place and its essential role in Chicano letters.

Huerta
Jorge A.
Chicano Theater: Themes and Forms.
Ypsilanti, Mich.
:
Bilingual Press/ Editorial Bilingüe
,
1982
. (Studies in Language and Literature of United States Hispanics.)

A thorough study of the history, themes, and contemporary forms in Chicano drama.

Jiménez
Francisco
, ed.
The Identification and Analysis of Chicano Literature.
New York
:
Bilingual Press/Editorial Bilingüe
,
1979
.

A series of previously published essays examining the origins of Chicano literature, as well as the development of critical trends and their applications in specific works. Features essays by Tomás Rivera, Rolando Hinojosa, Luis Leal, et al.

Kanellos
Nicolás.
The History of Hispanic Theatre in the United States: Origins to 1940
.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
,
1990
.

Kanellos situates the book around the cities where Hispanic theatre flourished: Los Angeles, San Francisco, Tucson, Laredo, San Antonio, New York, and Tampa. From vaudeville and tent theatre to an examination of the individual careers of actors, writers, and directors, Kanellos charts the rise of Hispanic theatre in the United States. Includes photographs.

Kanellos
Nicolás.
Mexican American Theater: Then and Now.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1983
.
(Revista Chicano-Riqueña
1I
, no.
I
[Spring
1983
].)

A collection of sketches, essays, and interviews conveying the breadth of Mexican American theater.

Lattin
Vernon E.
, ed.
Contemporary Chicano Fiction: A Critical Survey.
Binghamton, N.Y.
:
Bilingual Press/Editorial Bilingüe
,
1986
.

Survey contains four chapters each containing mostly previously published essays, including: (1) critical overviews; (2) the early writers in English: Villarreal, Acosta, Barrio; (3) Tomás Rivera and the Spanish language novel; and (4) the accomplished voices, essays on Hinojosa, Anaya, Méndez, Arias, Portillo Trambley, et a1.

Leal
Luis.
Aztlán y México: Perfiles literarios e históricos.
Binghamton, N.Y.
:
Bilingual Press/Editorial Bilingüe
,
1985
.

This collection brings together both new and previously published essays on both Chicano and Mexican literature and culture. Essays on literary history and folklore are distributed between the two major divisions for the volume, Aztlán and México.

Leal
Luis.
Cuatro siglos de prosa aztlanense.
La Palabra: Revista de Literatura Chicana
2
, no.
I
(Spring
1980
):
2
15
.

Leal leads a survey cataloging four decades of prose in Aztlán, with special emphasis on the didactic forms which prevailed in early writings; those being, memorias, diarios, viajes, crónicas, relaciones, and cartas.

Leal
Luis.
Literary Criticism and Minority Literatures: The Case of the Chicano Writer.
Confluencia: Revista Hispánica de Cultura y Literatura
I
, no.
2
(Spring
1986
):
4
9
.

Leal argues for the integration and legitimization of Chicano literature into the mainstream of American literature by literary historians.

Leal
Luis.
Mexican-American Literature: A Historical Perspective.
Revista ChicanoRiqueiia
I
, no.
I
(Spring
1973
):
32
44
.

A study of the emergence of Chicano literature through successive historical periods: Hispanic to 1821; Mexican 1821–1848; transition 1848–1910; interaction 1910–1942; and the Chicano period 1943 to the present.

Leal
Luis.
and
Pepe
Barrón
. “
Chicano Literature: An Overview.
Three American Literatures: Essays in Chicano, Native American, and Asian-American Literature for Teachers of American Literature,
ed.
Houston A
.
Baker
,Jr.
,
9
32
.
New York
:
Modem Language Association
,
1982
.

A historical survey of the genesis, context, characteristics, and roots of Chicano literature, specifically: pre-Chicano literature to 1884; literature of transition 1848–1910; emergence of a group consciousness 1910–1943; and literature of confrontation 1943–1981.

Lewis
Marvin.
Introduction to the Chicano Novel.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1984
.

A brief analysis outlining the historical, environmental, migratory, and sociomythical realities as found in the Chicano novel.

Lizάrraga
Sylvia.
Observaciones acerca de la crítica literaria chicana.
Revista ChicanoRiqueña
10
, no.
4
(Fall
1982
):
55
64
.

A critical evaluation of Juan Bruce-Novoa’s theory of literary space.

Lomeli
Francisco A.
En tomo a la literatura de la frontera: ¿Convergencia o divergencia?
Plural: Revista Cultural de Excelsior
15
, no.
II
(
August
1986
):
24
32
.

This essay explores the cultural milieu of the border and how this area is manifest in the sociological, interlingual, and intersymbolic relationships between Chicano and Mexican literature.

Lomeli
Francisco A
An Overview of Chicano Letters: From Origins to Resurgence.
Chicano Studies:A Multidisciplinary Approach,
ed.
E.
García
et al.,
103
19
.
New York
:
Teachers Collective Press
,
1984
.

An overview of the history of Chicano literature, as well as an analysis of the stigmas and misperceptions that hinder its inclusion into mainstream American literature and canon.

Lomeli
Francisco A
and
Donaldo W.
Urioste
.
Chicano Perspectives in Literature: A Critical and Annotated Bibliography
.
Albuquerque
:
Pajarito
,
1976
.

An extensive annotated bibliography with citations in poetry, novel, short fiction,theater, anthology, literary criticism, oral tradition in print, journal, and “literature Chicanesca.” Also illustrated by José Antonio Burciaga.

Madrid-Barela
Arturo.
Identidad y creatividad chicana.
Ideologies & Literature: A Journal of Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian Studies
2
, no.
10
(
1979
):
36
44
.

Madrid traces the historical, geographical, economic, and cultural vitality found in Chicano literature.

Madrid-Barela
Arturo.
In Search of the Authentic Pachuco.
Aztlán
4
, no.
1
(Spring
1973
):
31
60
.

A study of the mythical and cultural dimensions of the Pachuco and its significance in Chicano poetry, art, drama, film, etc.

Madrid-Barela
Arturo.
La problemática de la experiencia y la literatura chicana.
Casa de las Américas
114
(
1979
):
60
63
.

Examines the problems of the Chicano condition and Chicano literature as a historical-dialectical process of the search for identity between the Anglo and Mexican cultures.

Márquez
Antonio C.
Richard Rodriguez’ Hunger of Memory and the Poetics of Experience.
Arizona Quarterly
40
, no.
2
(Summer
1984
):
130
41
.

Márquez explores the development of a shift in modem autobiography, that of historiography to literature in Rodriguez’s prose.

Martínez
Julio A.
, and
Francisco A
.
Lomelí
.
Chicano Literature: A Reference Guide.
Westport, Conn.
:
Greenwood Press
,
1985
.

This guide includes comprehensive information on authors; pivotal articles on the history of the literature, as well as three literary genres (the novel, ’poetry, and theater), Chicano children’s literature, and Chicano philosophy; and a chronology of Chicano literature and glossary of useful terms.

Méndez M.
,
Miguel
.
La Palabra: Revista de Literatura Chicana
3
, no.
1–2
(
1981
):
3
120
.Thematic issue of La Palabra.

Special issue of La Palabra focusing on the work of Miguel Méndez M.; includes an interview with Méndez, a collection of critical writings on his work (especially Peregrinos de Aztlán), and several of his poems and short stories.

Monsiváis
Carlos.
Literatura comparada: literatura chicana y literatura mexicana.
Fomento Literario
I
, no.
3
(
1983
):
42
49
.

Monsiváis establishes the validity of a parallelism between Chicano and Mexican literatures and points out the seminal differences.

Olivares
,
Julián
, ed.
International Studies in Honor of Tomás Rivera
.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1986
.

The collection includes ten essays by Rivera’s colleagues and friends on his life and work plus six others on Chicano and Hispanic literature of the United States

.
Olivares
,
Julián
,
U.S. Hispanic Autobiography.
Special issue of
The Americas Review
16
, no.
3–4
(
1988
).

Thematic issue containing essays on Anthony Quinn, Gary Soto, Oscar Zeta Acosta,border narratives, and nineteenth-century narratives by women

.
Ordóñez
Elizabeth J.
Chicana Literature and Related Sources: A Selected and Annotated Bibliography.
Bilingual Review
7
, no.
2
(
May-August
1980
):
143
64
.

An exhaustive annotated compilation of critical essays, bibliographies, anthologies, poetry, and prose focusing on or written by Chicana authors.

Ordóñez
Elizabeth.
The Concept of Cultural Identity in Chicana Poetry.
Third Women
2
, no.
1
(
1984
):
75
82
.

Ordóñez critically evaluates the quest for and definition of Chicana cultural identity through Chicana poetry. Essay focuses on poetry by Lucha Corpi, Lorna Dee Cervantes, Alma Villanueva, et al.

Ordóñez
Elizabeth.
Sexual Politics and the Theme of Sexuality in Chicana Poetry.
Women in Hispanic Literature: Icons and Fallen Idols
, ed.
Beth
Miller
,
316
39
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1983
.

A study of the Chicana feminist polemic relevant to the sexual politics of the Chicano movement, with specific attention to the poetry of Lorna Dee Cervantes, Evangelina Vigil, Bernice Zamora, et al.

Ortego
Philip D.
, and
David
Conde
, eds.
The Chicano Literary World 1974: Proceedings of the National Symposium on Chicano Literature and Critical Analysis, November 1974
.
Las Vegas, N.M
:
New Mexico Highlands University
,
1975
. 94 leaves..

Papers stress the themes of national character and identity through literary “space,” as well as satire and humor in Chicano literature.

Padilla
Genaro.
The Recovery of Nineteenth-Century Chicano Autobiography: ‘tis not vengeance, it is regaining a loss,’
American Quarterly
40
, no.
3
(
1988
):
286
307
.

An exploration of autobiography as a rhetorical response to the threat of cultural,social, and historical effacement after the Mexican-American War of 1846–48 with a focus on Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo’s “Recuerdos históricos de alta California.”

Padilla
Genaro.
The Self as Cultural Metaphor in Acosta’s Autobiography of a Brown Buffalo.
Journal of General Education
35
, no.
4
(
1984
):
242
5 8

Padilla argues that the genre of autobiography, in particular Acosta’s work, can stand as a faithful documentary record of the Chicano’s search for cultural identity, political consciousness, and struggle for dignity in face of assimilation.

Padilla
Genaro.
‘Yo Sola Aprendí’: Mexican Women’s Nineteenth-Century California Personal Narratives.
Revealing Lives: Autobiography and Gender,
ed.
Marilyn
Yalom
and
Susan Groag
Bell
,
115
31
.
Albany
:
State University of New York Press
.

A group of narratives by California women originally collected by Hubert H. Bancroft is read to reveal a critique of the patriarchy as well as a subversion of the transcription process.

Paredes
,
Américo
. “
El folklore de los grupos de origen mexicano en Estados Unidos.
Folklore Americano
14
, no.
14
(
1964
):
146
63
.

A look at Mexican-American folklore as an expression of historical conflict of cultures.

Paredes
,
Américo
. “
The Folk Base of Chicano Literature.
Modern Chicano Writers: A Collection of Critical Essays,
ed.
Joseph
Sommers
and
Tomás
Ybarra-Frausto
,
4
17
.
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
:
Prentice-Hall
,
1979
.

A translated, abbreviated version of the above article.

Paredes
,
Américo
. “
Nearby Places and Strange-Sounding Names.
The Texas Literary Tradition: Fiction, Folklore, History,
ed.
Don
Graham
et al.
130
38
.
Austin
:
College of Liberal Arts, University of Texas at Austin, Texas State Historical Association
1983
.

Paredes analyzes the persistent stereotypes, the uses of bilingualism, and sense of place in the realm of Chicano literature.

Paredes
,
Américo
.
"With His Pistol in His Hand": A Border Ballad and Its Hero.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
,
1958
.

The seminal study of the corrido of Gregorio Cortez against the history of cultural conflict in the Río Grande Valley of Texas.

Paredes
,
Raymund.
The Evolution of Chicano Literature
”.
Three American Literatures: Essays in Chicano, Native American, and Asian-American Literature for Teachers of American Literature,
ed.
Houston A
.
Baker
, Jr.
,
33
79
.
New York
:
Modern Language Association
,
1982
.

An historical account of the development of Chicano literature from folklore and the birth of the corrido to its manifestations in the contemporary Chicano novel and poetry.

Pino
,
Frank
, Jr
. “
A Chicano Perspective on American Cultural History.
Journal of Popular Culture
13
, no.
3
(
1980
):
488
500
.

Pino argues that American historians must undertake a broader interpretive approach including the history of the Mexican-American for a more accurate account of this nation’s history.

Rebolledo
,
Tey Diana
. “
The Maturing of Chicana Poetry: The Quiet Revolution of the 1980’S.
For Alma Mater: Theory and Practice in Feminist Scholarship,
ed.
Paula
A
.
Treichler
et aI.,
143
58
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
,
1985
.

An essay asserting the emergence of Chicana poetry as a genre and discussing the various themes it expresses, for example, growing up, self-identity, search for myth, social criticism, and sexuality.

Rebolledo
,
Tey Diana
. “
Witches, Bitches and Midwives: The Shaping of Poetic Consciousness in Chicana Literature.
The Chicano Struggle: Analyses of Past and Present Efforts,
ed.
John A
.
García
,
166
77
.
Binghamton, N.Y.
:
Bilingual Review/Press
,
1984
.

This critical essay explores the unique and powerful poetic voices and consciousnesses of Chicana poets, specifically the processes of creation linked to motherhood, midwifery, and tale spinning, as well as witchery and magic.

Rebolledo
,
Tey Diana
,
Erlinda
Gonzales-Berry
, and
Teresa
Márquez
, eds.
Las Mujeres Hablan: An Anthology of Nuevo Mexicana Writers.
Albuquerque
:
El Norte Publications
,
1989
.

Varied works of poetry, short fiction, artwork, folklore, and testimonios in English, Spanish, and bilingual combinations by forty-four Chicanas from New Mexico. The collection emphasizes daily activities as lived by women.

Rivera
,
Tomás
. “
Chicano Literature: Life in Search of Form.
Bridging Two Cultures: Multidisciplinary Readings in Bilingual Bicultural Education,
ed.
Martha
Cotera
and
Larry
Hufford
,
333
41
.
Austin
:
National Educational Library
,
1980
.

An inquiry into literary form as a unique reflection of Chicano life as manifest in the Chicano novel, poetry, and the essay.

Rivera
,
Tomás
. “
Mexican-American Literature: The Establishment of Community.
The Texas Literary Tradition: Fiction, Folklore, History,
ed.
Don
Graham
et al.,
124
30
.
Austin
:
College of Liberal Arts, University of Texas at Austin, Texas State Historical Association
,
1983
.

Rivera traces the importance and development of community in Mexican-American Iiterature.

Rivera
,
Tomás
. “
Richard Rodriguez‘ Hunger of Memory as Humanistic Antithesis.
MELUS: The Journal of the Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States 11
, no.
4
(Winter
1984
):
5
13
.

A thorough critique of Rodriguez’s Hunger of Memory as based on narrow presuppositions and cultural dimensions.

Robinson
,
Cecil
.
Mexico and the Hispanic Southwest in American Literature
. Revised from
With the Ears of Strangers
(
1963
).
Tucson
:
University of Arizona Press
,
1977
.

A study of the sociohistorical relationship between the Mexican-Hispanic Southwest and Anglo-America as revealed through American literature. The 1977 edition includes a section on Chicano literature.

Rocard
,
Marcienne
.
Les fils du solei1: La minorité mexicaine a través 1a 1ittérature des Etats- Unis.
Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose, 1980. English translation
Children of the Sun: The Mexican American in the Literature of the United States.
Trans.
Edward G
.
Brown
, Jr.
Tucson
:
University of Arizona Press
,
1989
.

The author presents the changing image of the Chicano in American literature from the “ romantic” aristocracy of the hacienda of Mexican California through the contrasting image of the “ inferior, immoral, lazy” Mexican to the sympathetic portrayals of migrant workers of Hemingway, Steinbeck, and Saroyan and finally to the contemporary Chicano facing the dilemma of assimilation or ethnic preservation.

Rocard
,
Marcienne
. “
La Lutte du Chicano sur Ie plan de l’écriture: Ou la face littéraire du movement chicano.
Les Langues Modernes
80
, no.
3
(
1986
):
45
52
.

As essay outlining the difficulties of Chicano literature as the expression of a collective consciousness rather than individual statement.

Romo
,
Ricardo
, and
Raymund
Paredes
, eds.
New Directions in Chicano Scholarship.
La Jolla
:
Chicano Studies Program, University of California, San Diego
,
1978
.
Chicano Studies Monograph Series

Essays representing a wide range of Chicano research such as: folklore-ethnography, critical literary theory, linguistics, and sociology.

Rosaldo
,
Renato
. “
Politics, Patriarchs and Laughter.
Cultural Critique
6
(Spring
1987
):
65
86
.

Through a study of Américo Paredes and Ernesto Galarza, the author takes exception to a concept of minor literature which uses canonical European examples not readily applicable to Chicano letters. He asserts that Chicano narrative uses an understated politics of humor and “ the border” as a creative space of resistance.

Saldívar
,
José David
. “
The Limits of Cultural Studies.
American Literary History
2
, no.
2
(
1990
):
251
-
66
.

An examination of the limitations of the cultural studies movement in the United States through the work of Michael M. J. Fischer, Rolando Hinojosa, Guillermo Gómez-Peña, Renato Rosaldo, and Gloria Anzaldúa. Saldívar moves beyond the static category of ethnicity as a self-contained and totalizing form to a global and interactive perspective.

Saldívar
,
José David
The Ideological and the Utopian in Tomás Rivera’s ... y no se lo tragó la tierra and Ron Arias’ The Road to Tamazuncha1e.
Missions in Conflict: Essays on U. S.Mexican Relations and Chicano Culture,
ed.
Renate von
Bardeleben
et al.,
203
14
.
Tübingen
:
Narr, 1986
.

Studies the shared political and aesthetic world views through the unfolding of both fictional plot and history in the mentioned works by Rivera and Arias.

Saldívar
,
José David
Towards a Chicano-Poetics: The Making of the Chicano-Chicana Subject, 19691982.
Confluencia: Revista Hispánica de Cultura y Literatura
1
, no.
2
(Spring
1986
):
10
17
.

Saldívar analyzes the development of the Chicano subject through the work of three Chicano contemporary poets: José Montoya, Bernice Zamora, and Alberto Ríos.

Saldívar
,
José David
, ed.
The Rolando Hinojosa Reader: Essays Historical and Critical.
Houston
:
Arte Público Press
,
1985
.

A collection of thirteen new critical essays concluding with an interview with Hinojosa. Sections are divided among (1) essays by Hinojosa, (2) essays on his Klail City Death Trip series, and (3) on individual works.

Saldívar
,
Ramón
.
Chicano Narrative: The Dialectics of Difference.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin Press
,
1990
.

A deconstructionist-Marxist study of Chicano narrative from Américo Paredes and José Antonio Villarreal to Cherríe Moraga and Sandra Cisneros.

Saldívar
,
Ramón
. “
A Dialectic of Difference: Towards a Theory of the Chicano Novel.
MELUS: The Journal of the Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States
6
, no.
3
(Fall
1979
):
73
92
.

An evaluation and reassessment of Chicano literary theory and criticism through the dialectics of history and “difference.”

Saldívar
,
Ramón
. “
The Form of Texas-Mexican Fiction.
The Texas Literary Tradition: Fiction, Folklore, History,
ed. Don Graham et al.,
139
44
.
Austin
:
College of Liberal Arts, University of Texas at Austin, Texas State Historical Association
,
1983
.

An examination of the similarities and differences between the Texas-Mexican novel and Texas-Anglo novel and their uses of realism, forms, synthesis, etc.

Saldívar
,
Ramón
. “
Ideologies of Self: Chicano Autobiography.
Diacritics: A Review of Contemporary Criticism
15
, no.
3
(Fall
1985
):
25
34
.

Saldívar explores the themes of history, time, and space, as well as the issues of self and history, self and place, within the context of the emergence of racial, ethnic, and gender consciousness in the Chicano autobiographies Hunger of Memory by Richard Rodriguez and Barrio Boy by Ernesto Galarza.

Salinas
,
Judy
. “
The Image of Woman in Chicano Literature.
Revista Chicano-Riqueiña 4,
no.
4
(Fall
1976
):
139
48
.

Salinas traces the traditional roles and stereotypes of the Chicana in Chicano literature.

Sánchez
,
Marta Ester
.
Contemporary Chicana Poetry: A Critical Approach
to
an Emerging Literature.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1985
.

A survey of several seminal Chicana poets and the cultural, sexual, political, and critical issues and the appearance of such topics in their poetry.

Sánchez
,
Rosaura
.
Chicano Discourse: Socia-Historic Perspectives.
Rowley, Mass.
:
Newbury House
,
1983
.

A semiotic, ideological, social, and historical look at the dynamics of Chicano bilingualism.

Sánchez
,
Rosaura
. “
La crítica marxista: Propuesta para la crítica literaria chicana.
Revista Chicano Riqueña
8
, no.
3
(
1980
):
93
96
.

An examination of Chicano literature as a product of economic and historical circumstances and conditions.

Sánchez
,
Rosaura
. “
Ethnicity, Ideology and Academia.
Americas Review
15
, no.
1
(
1987
):
80
88
.

A discussion of the notion of cultural boundaries as related to academia and the status of ethnic studies programs and minority intellectuals

.
Sánchez
,
Rosaura
Postmodernism and Chicano Literature.
Aztlán
18
, no.
2
(Fall
1987
):
1
14
.

An exploration of postmodernist theory and its possible application to a wide variety of Chicano works. Sánchez concludes that there are no Chicano postmodernist works.

Sánchez
,
Rosaura
. “
Voces, códigos y cronotopos en la literatura chicana.
Revista Chicano-Requeña
13
, no.
2
(
1985
):
54
63
.

An intertextual analysis of Chicano literature in light of the theories of Mikhail Bakhtin and Edward Said.

Sommers
,
Joseph
. “
From the Critical Premise to the Product: Critical Modes and Their Applications to a Chicano Literary Text.
New Directions in Chicano Scholarship,
ed. Ricardo Romo and Raymund Paredes,
51
80
.
La Jolla
:
Chicano Studies program, University of California, San Diego
,
1978
.

A discussion of three modes of literary criticism—traditionalist, culturalist, and historical-dialectical—and their relation to Chicano literature as applied to Tomás Rivera’s ... Y no se 10 tragó 1a tierra.

Sommers
,
Joseph
and
Tomás
Ybarra-Frausto
, eds.
Modern Chicano Writers: A Collection of Critical Essays.
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
:
Prentice-Hall
,
1979
. (Twentieth Century Views, A Spectrum Book).

A series of essays concerning the conceptual framework of Chicano literary history and critical approaches, as well as the characteristics of Chicano narrative, poetry, and theater

.
Yarbro-Bejarano
,
Yvonne
. “
Cherríe Moraga’s Giving Up the Ghost: The Representation of Female Desire.
Third Woman
3
, no.
1–2
(
1986
):
113
20
.

An analysis of sexism, racism, feminism, homophobia, and the complex and the multifaceted structures of oppression created from these issues in relation to the Chicana experience

.
Ybarra-Frausto
,
Tomás
. “
The Chicano Movement and the Emergence of a Chicano Poetic Consciousness.
New Directions in Chicano Scholarship,
ed.
Ricardo
Ramo
and
Raymund
Paredes
,
81
109
.
La Jolla
:
Chicano Studies Program, University of California, San Diego
,
1978
.

Ybarra-Frausto describes the historical emergence of Chicano poetic consciousness as a long process of militance and resistance, from the eighteenth-century concept of revolution borrowed from Mexico to the mobilization of campesinos in California in the 1960s and the emergence of the teatro campesino

.

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