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In chapter 11, Alfred Babo explores the ongoing Ivory Coast political crisis by emphasizing controversies in the development and application of citizenship policy during recent decades. The chapter examines the concept of ivoirité and has particular relevance for the study of the implementation of regulations pertaining to documentation and proof of identity. It discusses the laws of ivoirité and how they challenged the prevailing electoral, nationality, land, and labor acts. As well as looking at how the policy affected Ivorian society, Babo investigates how ordinary citizens navigated laws by focusing on the evidence residents were requested to produce to demonstrate their ivoirité. Identity documents, such as birth certificates, nationality certificates, passports, and national identity cards, were systemically viewed as false or fraudulent for a particular class of citizens. An Ivorian policy of “authenticity” enhanced the political power of particular individuals, and identity challenges were enacted in discrete circumstances and locations.

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