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In chapter 2, Jacqueline Bhabha provides a case study of the flawed reach of citizenship benefits in the European Union, focusing on Europe’s Roma population, a community long subject to pervasive discrimination and other rights violations. Roma citizenship deficits are described by reference to three types of citizenship—national, regional, and global. Each citizenship status confers entitlements to a distinct set of rights and benefits—residence permits, rights of free movement, refugee protection. The chapter explores the evidentiary obstacles that vitiate proof of entitlement to each citizenship status. It concludes that though the Roma have been in Europe for many centuries, they are routinely treated as illegitimate outsiders, in Europe but not of Europe. The chapter suggests that normative changes and litigation strategies need to be linked to grassroots mobilization within the Roma community itself to correct current flaws in its access to the benefits of citizenship.

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