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This chapter takes up recent theories of “Life” as revolutionary excess, probing the origins of the vitalist turn to a Foucauldian “savage ontology.” According to Noys, both academic theorists and anarchist practitioners of vitalism share a common genesis in their rejection of the Hegelian “synthesis,” and their valorization of the power of a Nietzschean vitalism. Using the work of Mikhail Bakunin, Max Stirner, and Renzo Novatore to situate the development of our contemporary “savage ontology,” Noys then turns to a consideration of Deleuze via Alain Badiou to demonstrate that the classical insurrectionalist models are being resurrected in French philosophy’s re-tooling of a vitalist metaphysics. Similarly, thinkers such as Antonio Negri argue that capital unleashes life as a productive force it cannot finally control. Instead, and in productive contrast to de Bloois and Korsten, Noys argues that “Life” plays a more ambiguous role. Turning back to Marx and Foucault, he observes that both of these foundational thinkers never posited life as exterior to power. Noys concludes that we need a more nuanced, strategic thinking that does not simply repeat the mantra of the “excess” of life. This challenge to redefine vitalism within the emergent framework of a savage anthropology is taken up in the next section, “Indigeneity and Decoloniality,” in which the authors develop the motif of buen vivir (living well) and articulate a vital commitment to decolonial autonomist movements, which are actively reconfiguring the political and social meaning of “Life” brought into question by de Bloois, Korsten, and Noys.

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