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This chapter describes the cultural anxieties and rehabilitation of the crooner persona, then discusses the complex reasons for early crooners’ popularity and the ensuing backlash against them that precipitated the establishment of new middle-class vocal norms for white male popular (“pop”) singers. It discusses class-based singing aesthetics, an etymology of crooning, the impact of modern microphones and radio broadcasting, vocal variety in popular performance of the 1920s, the pivotal role of American youth and women in popularizing romantic crooning, the growing influence of racial assimilation and cultural nationalism, and the establishment of a sexual binary.

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Bibliography

ARCHIVAL SOURCES

J. Walter Thompson Archive. The John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising and Marketing History. Duke University, Durham, NC.

Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, Beverly Hills (MHL).

Rudy Vallée Collection. Scrapbooks, Correspondence, Scripts, Periodicals, and Recordings. The American Radio Archives, The Thousand Oaks Library, Thousand Oaks, CA (RVC).

UCLA Film and Television Archive, University of California, Los Angeles.

Wendall Hall papers, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison.

RECORDINGS: A NOTE

I have noted in the text both the original recording dates of popular songs and the release date of the “best of” CD reissues of them in the 1990s, where I first heard them. Most of the early 1920s crooners were released on specialty imprints by English companies such as Living Era (ASV Records) and Flapper (Pavilion Records); small U.S. labels such as Audiophile Records (New Orleans), Diamond Cut Productions (Edison archive, Hibernia, NJ), and The Old Masters (George Morrow collection, San Mateo, CA); and specialty imprints from large multinational corporations such as Art Deco (Columbia, Sony Music). Since then, many of these songs have become available on streaming music channels such as Pandora and Spotify, as well as on YouTube (see especially the recording historian Tim Gracyk’s constantly updated treasure trove of early crooner recordings on his YouTube channel).

FILMOGRAPHY

Note: I first saw many of these films on VHS copies passed around in graduate school or on nitrate in the UCLA Film and Television Archives. Fortunately, many films have since been released on DVD, which I have noted. For the collections, I have not listed all the shorts on the DVDS, just the ones relevant to this project.

Selected Shorts
Clinching a Sale (with Harry Richman)
. Directed by
Cozine
Ray
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1930
.
UCLA Film Archives. YouTube
.
Crosby, Columbo, and Vallée (cartoon)
. Directed by
Isling
Rudolf
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1932
.
Private Collection. YouTube
.
Metro Movietone Revue I (Harry Rose, Van and Schenck, The Capitolians, Grace Rodgers)
. Directed by
Grinde
Nick
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1929
.
On The Dawn of Sound II. USA: MGM/UA Home Video, 1993. VHS. Also on The Broadway Melody. “Special Features.” USA: Turner Entertainment, 2005. DVD
.
Metro Movietone Revue II (Harry Rose, Johnny Marvin, George Dewey Washington, The Locust Sisters)
. Directed by
Grinde
Nick
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1929
.
On The Dawn of Sound II. USA: MGM/UA Home Video, 1993. VHS. Also on The Broadway Melody. “Special Features.” USA: Turner Entertainment, 2005. DVD
.
Metro Movietone Revue I (Jack Pepper, Joseph Regan)
. Directed by
Grinde
Nick
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1930
.
On The Dawn of Sound II. USA: MGM/UA Home Video, 1993. VHS. Also on The Broadway Melody. “Special Features.” USA: Turner Entertainment, 2005. DVD
.
Metro Movietone Revue II (Jack Pepper, Ella Shields, George Dewey Washington, Joseph Regan, The Ponce Sisters)
. Directed by
Grinde
Nick
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1930
.
On The Dawn of Sound II. USA: MGM/UA Home Video, 1993. VHS. Also on The Broadway Melody. “Special Features.” USA: Turner Entertainment, 2005. DVD
.
A Movietone Divertissement (Tom Waring, Johnny Marvin)
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1928
.
On The Broadway Melody. “Special Features” (as Movietone Revue #7). USA: Turner Entertainment, 2005. DVD
.
Our Gang: “Follies of 1938.”
Directed by
Douglas
Gordon
.
USA
:
Hal Roach Studios
,
1937
.
Private Collection. YouTube
.
Rudy Vallée and His Connecticut Yankees 771
. Directed by
Roth
Murray
.
USA
:
Warner Bros. Vitaphone
,
1929
.
Private Collection
.
Swooner Crooner
. Directed by
Tashlin
Frank
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1944
.
Private Collection
.
That Goes Double (with Russ Columbo) 1495–6
. Directed by
Henabery
Joseph
.
USA
:
Warner Bros. Vitaphone
,
1933
.
Private Collection
.
Selected Short Film Collections

Bing at Sennett, vols. 1–2. USA: Festival Films, 1995. VHS. Contains One More Chance (directed by Mack Sennett; Sennett Picture Corp., 1931); Sing, Bing, Sing (directed by Babe Stafford; Sennett Picture Corp., 1933); Billboard Girl (directed by Leslie Pearce; Sennett Picture Corp., 1932).

Hollywood Rhythm: The Paramount Musical Shorts, 1929–1941, Volumes 1–4. USA: Kino Video, 1997. VHS. Contains Musical Justice (directed by Aubrey Scotto; Paramount, 1931); Radio Rhythm (directed by Joseph Stanley; Paramount, 1929); I Surrender Dear (directed by Mack Sennett; Sennett Picture Corp., 1931).

Hollywood Rhythm: The Paramount Musical Shorts, Volume 2: The Best of Big Bands and Swing. USA: Kino Video, 2001. DVD. Contains Blue of the Night (directed by Leslie Pearce; Sennett Picture Corp., 1932); The Musical Doctor (directed by Ray Cozine; Paramount, 1932); Singapore Sue (directed by Casey Robinson; Paramount, 1932); Dream House (aka Crooner’s Holiday) (directed by Del Lord; Sennett Picture Corp., 1932).

The Jazz Singer Deluxe Edition. USA: Warner Bros. Home Video, 2007. DVD. Contains Al Jolson: A Plantation Act 359 (1926); Van and Schenck: The Pennant Winning Battery of Songland 395 (1926); The Police Quartette 2320 (1927); Adele Rowland: Stories in Song 2348 (1928); Dick Rich and His Melodious Monarchs 2595 (1928); Gus Arnheim and His Ambassadors 2585 (1928); Paul Tremaine and His Aristocrats 742 (1929); Baby Rose Marie: The Child Wonder 809 (1929); Larry Ceballas’ Roof Garden Revue 2627 (1928).

Vitaphone Cavalcade of Musical Comedy Shorts Collection. USA: Warner Bros. Home Video, 2010. DVD.

Vitaphone Varieties. USA: Warner Bros. Home Video, 2011. DVD. Contains The Revelers, 483 (1927), Morrissey and Miller Nightclub Revue 2293 (1927), Earl Burtnett (Collegiate Jazz Artist) and His Biltmore Hotel Orchestra 2285 (1927), Val and Ernie Stanton in “Cut Yourself a Piece of Cake” 2586 (1928), Jimmy Clemons in “The Dream Café” 2242 (1927), Gladys Brockwell in “Hollywood Bound” 2235 (1928), Jay C. Flippen in “The Ham What Am,” 2581 (1928), Dick Rich and His Synco-Symphonists 2594 (1928), Eddie White in “I Thank You” 2689 (1928), Jack Waldron in “A Little Breath of Broadway” 2681 (1928), Earl Burtnett (Collegiate Jazz Artist) and His Biltmore Hotel Orchestra 2295 (1928), The Rangers in “ After the Round Up” 2900 (1928), Frank Whitman in “The Surprising Fiddler” 703 (1929), Harry Fox and His Six American Beauties, 828 (1929), Jack White “The Premiere Clown of Broadway” and His Montrealers 791 (1929), Oklahoma Bob Albright and His Rodeo Do Flappers 810 (1920), Mel Klee in “The Prince of Wails” 826 (1929), The Gotham Rhythm Boys 832 (1929), Poor Aubrey 3674–5 (1929), Revival Day 367 (1926?).

Vitaphone Varieties. Vol. 2. USA: Warner Bros. Home Video, 2012. DVD. Contains Hawaiian Nights, 422 (1927), Waring’s Pennsylvanians 427, 428 (1927), The Happiness Boys 537 (1927), Harry Wayman and His Debutantes 2261 (1927), Earl Burtnett (Collegiate Jazz Artist) and His Biltmore Hotel Orchestra 2294 (1928), Abe Lyman and His Orchestra 2338 (1928), Eddie Peabody in Banjoland 2560 (1928), Roy Fox “The Whispering Cornettist” 2819.

Warner Bros. Big Band, Jazz and Swing Short Subject Collection. USA: Turner Entertainment Co., 2009. DVD. Contains Rambling Round Radio Row 1–6, 1932–33 Season; Rambling Round Radio Row 1–2, 1933–34 Season; Rambling Round Radio Row 1934–35 Season.

Feature Films
Anchors Away
. Directed by
Sidney
George
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1945
.
DVD
.
Ann Carver’s Profession
. Directed by
Buzzell
Edward
.
USA
:
Columbia
,
1933
.
Private Collection. DVD
.
Anything Goes
. Directed by
Milestone
Lewis
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1936
.
DVD
.
Applause
. Directed by
Mamoulian
Rouben
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1929
.
DVD
.
The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer
. Directed by
Reis
Irving
.
USA
:
RKO
,
1947
.
DVD
.
The Big Broadcast of 1932
. Directed by
Tuttle
Frank
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1932
.
Private Collection
.
Blessed Event
. Directed by
Ruth
Roy Del
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1932
.
DVD
.
Bondage
. Directed by
Santell
Alfred
.
USA
:
Fox Film Corp.
,
1933
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Bonnie and Clyde
. Directed by
Penn
Arthur
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1967
.
DVD
.
The Broadway Melody
. Directed by
Beaumont
Henry
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1929
.
DVD
.
Broadway thru a Keyhole
. Directed by
Sherman
Lowell
.
USA
:
Twentieth Century Pictures
,
1933
.
DVD
.
The Call of the Flesh
. Directed by
Brabin
Charles
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1930
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Chasing Rainbows (excerpts)
. Directed by
Reisner
Charles
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1930
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Close Harmony
. Directed by
Cromwell
John
and
Sutherland
A. Edward
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1929
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
College Humor
. Directed by
Ruggles
Wesley
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1933
.
UCLA Film Archives. DVD
.
Crooner
. Directed by
Bacon
Lloyd
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1922
.
UCLA Film Archives / TCM Channel
.
Cuban Love Song
. Directed by
Dyke
W. S. Van
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1931
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Dames
. Directed by
Enright
Ray
and
Berkeley
Busby
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1934
.
DVD
.
Devil May Care
. Directed by
Franklin
Sidney
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1929
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Devil’s Holiday
. Directed by
Goulding
Edmund
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1930
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Do I Sound Gay?
Directed by
Thorpe
David
.
USA
:
IFC Films / Sundance Selects
,
2015
.
Theater
.
Double or Nothing
. Directed by
Reed
Theodore
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1937
.
DVD
.
Follow Thru
. Directed by
Corrigan
Lloyd
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1930
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Footlight Parade
. Directed by
Bacon
Lloyd
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1933
.
DVD
.
42nd Street
. Directed by
Bacon
Lloyd
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1933
.
DVD
.
The Gay Divorcee
. Directed by
Sandrich
Mark
.
USA
:
RKO
,
1934
.
DVD
.
George White’s Scandals
. Directed by
Freeland
Thornton
,
Lachman
Harry
, and
White
George
.
USA
:
Fox
,
1934
.
TCM Channel / DVD
.
Glorifying the American Girl
. Directed by
Webb
Millard
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1929
.
TCM Channel
.
Going Hollywood
. Directed by
Walsh
Raoul
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1933
.
DVD
.
Going My Way
. Directed by
McCarey
Leo
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1944
.
DVD
.
Gold Diggers of Broadway (excerpts)
. Directed by
Ruth
Roy Del
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1929
.
UCLA Film Archives. On The Dawn of Sound I. USA: MGM/UA Home Video, 1992. VHS. Also on The Jazz Singer Deluxe Edition. USA: Warner Bros. Home Video, 2007. DVD
.
Gold Diggers of 1933
. Directed by
LeRoy
Mervyn
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1933
.
DVD
.
Good News (excerpts)
. Directed by
Grinde
Nick
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1930
.
UCLA Film and Television Archives
.
Good News
. Directed by
Walters
Charles
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1947
.
DVD
.
Hallelujah
. Directed by
Vidor
King
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1929
.
DVD
.
Holiday Inn
. Directed by
Sandrich
Mark
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1942
.
DVD
.
The Hollywood Revue of 1929
. Directed by
Reisner
Charles
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1929
.
VHS Private Collection. DVD
.
How to Succeed in Business without Really Trying
. Directed by
Swift
David
.
USA
:
United Artists
,
1967
.
DVD
.
In Gay Madrid
. Directed by
Leonard
Robert Z.
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1930
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
International House
. Directed by
Sutherland
A. Edward
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1933
.
DVD
.
The Jazz Singer
. Directed by
Crosland
Alan
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1927
.
DVD
.
The King of Jazz
. Directed by
Anderson
John Murray
.
USA
:
Universal
,
1930
.
DVD
.
The Letter
. Directed by
Limur
Jean De
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1929
.
DVD
.
Love Me Tonight
. Directed by
Mamoulian
Rouben
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1932
.
DVD
.
Mississippi
. Directed by
Sutherland
Edward
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1935
.
UCLA Film Archives. DVD
.
Mother’s Boy
. Directed by
Barker
Bradley
.
USA
:
Pathé Exchange
,
1929
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Moulin Rouge
. Directed by
Lanfield
Sidney
.
USA
:
Twentieth Century Pictures
,
1934
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
My Own Private Idaho
. Directed by
Sant
Gus Van
.
USA
:
New Line Cinema
,
1991
.
DVD
.
On the Town
. Directed by
Kelly
Gene
and
Donen
Stanley
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1949
.
DVD
.
The Palm Beach Story
. Directed by
Sturges
Preston
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1942
.
DVD
.
Paramount on Parade
. Directed by
Arzner
Dorothy
(10 others).
USA
:
Paramount
,
1930
.
Private Collection. VHS
.
Pennies from Heaven
. Directed by
McLeod
Norman
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1936
.
UCLA Film Archives. DVD
.
Radio Days
. Directed by
Allen
Woody
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1987
.
DVD
.
Rhythm on the Range
. Directed by
Taurog
Norman
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1936
.
DVD
.
Road to Morocco
. Directed by
Butler
David
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1942
.
DVD
.
Road to Singapore
. Directed by
Schertzinger
Victor
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1940
.
DVD
.
The Rogue Song
. Directed by
Barrymore
Lionel
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1930
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Sadie McKee
. Directed by
Brown
Clarence
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1934
.
DVD
.
Second Fiddle
. Directed by
Lanfield
Sidney
.
USA
:
Twentieth Century Fox
,
1939
.
DVD
.
The Show of Shows
. Directed by
Adolfi
John G.
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1929
.
DVD
.
The Singing Fool
. Directed by
Bacon
Lloyd
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1928
.
DVD
.
Song o’ My Heart
. Directed by
Borzage
Frank
.
USA
.
1930
.
UCLA Film Archives. DVD
.
So This Is College
. Directed by
Wood
Sam
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1929
.
DVD
.
Stage Struck
. Directed by
Berkeley
Busby
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1936
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Sweet Music
. Directed by
Green
Alfred E.
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1935
.
TCM Channel
.
Take Me Out to the Ballgame
. Directed by
Berkeley
Busby
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1949
.
DVD
.
Three on a Match
. Directed by
LeRoy
Mervyn
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1932
.
DVD
.
Too Much Harmony
. Directed by
Sutherland
Edward
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1933
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Top Hat
. Directed by
Sandrich
Mark
.
USA
:
RKO
,
1935
.
DVD
.
20 Million Sweethearts
. Directed by
Enright
Ray
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1934
.
TCM Channel
.
Unfaithfully Yours
. Directed by
Sturges
Preston
.
USA
:
Fox
,
1948
.
DVD
.
The Vagabond Lover
. Directed by
Neilan
Marshall
.
USA
:
RKO
,
1929
.
TCM Channel
.
Waikiki Wedding
. Directed by
Tuttle
Frank
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1937
.
DVD
.
We’re Not Dressing
. Directed by
Milestone
Lewis
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1936
.
DVD
.
Young at Heart
. Directed by
Douglas
Gordon
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1954
.
DVD
.
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Abbott
,
Lynn
, and
Seroff
Doug
.
Out of Sight: The Rise of African American Popular Music, 1889–1895
.
Jackson
:
University Press of Mississippi
,
2002
.
Abbott
,
Lynn
, and
Seroff
Doug
.
Ragged but Right: Black Traveling Shows, “Coon Songs,” and the Dark Pathway to Blues and Jazz
.
Jackson
:
University Press of Mississippi
,
2007
.
Abel
,
Richard
.
Americanizing the Movies and “Movie-Mad” Audiences, 1910–1914
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2006
.
Abel
,
Richard
. “
The Most American of Attractions, the Illustrated Song
.” In
The Sounds of Early Cinema
, ed.
Abel
Richard
and
Altman
Rick
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
2001
.
Abel
,
Richard
, and
Altman
Rick
, eds.
The Sounds of Early Cinema
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
2001
.
Abelove
,
Henry
. “
Freud, Male Homosexuality and the Americans
.” In
The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader
, ed.
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Henry
,
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Michele Aina
, and
Halperin
David
.
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:
Routledge
,
1993
.
Acland, Charles
,
R.
, ed.
Residual Media
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2007
.
Addison
,
Heather
.
Hollywood and the Rise of Physical Culture
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
2003
.
Adickes
,
Sandra
.
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.
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:
St. Martin’s Press
,
1997
.
Adorno
,
Theodor
. “
On Jazz
.”
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12
, no.
1
(
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69
.
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,
Theodor
.
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.
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:
Stanford University Press
,
1999
.
Albertson
,
Chris
.
Bessie
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
,
2003
.
Allen
,
Frederick Lewis
.
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.
New York
:
Harper-Collins
,
2000
.
Allen
,
Robert C.
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.
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
1991
.
Altman
,
Rick
.
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.
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:
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,
1987
.
Altman
,
Rick
. “
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Arthur
.
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Duke University Press
,
2001
.
Altman
,
Rick
.
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.
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Columbia University Press
,
2004
.
Altman
,
Rick
, ed.
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.
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,
1992
.
Altman
,
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. “
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.”
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20
.
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,
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. “
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18
.
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. “
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,
July
1931
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510
.
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.
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American Academy of Teachers in Singing
,
1933
.
Anderson
,
Mark Lynn
.
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.
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,
2011
.
Anderton
,
Barries
.
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.
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,
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.
Antler
,
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.
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.
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,
2007
.
Armstrong
,
Louis
.
Swing That Music
.
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:
Da Capo Press
,
1993
.
Arnheim
,
Rudolf
.
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.
1936
.
New York
:
Arno Press
,
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.
Baade
,
Christina L.
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.
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:
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,
2012
.
Balio
,
Tino
.
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.
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:
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,
1993
.
Balk
,
Alfred
.
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.
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,
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.
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Figures & Tables

Contents

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References

Bibliography

ARCHIVAL SOURCES

J. Walter Thompson Archive. The John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising and Marketing History. Duke University, Durham, NC.

Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, Beverly Hills (MHL).

Rudy Vallée Collection. Scrapbooks, Correspondence, Scripts, Periodicals, and Recordings. The American Radio Archives, The Thousand Oaks Library, Thousand Oaks, CA (RVC).

UCLA Film and Television Archive, University of California, Los Angeles.

Wendall Hall papers, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison.

RECORDINGS: A NOTE

I have noted in the text both the original recording dates of popular songs and the release date of the “best of” CD reissues of them in the 1990s, where I first heard them. Most of the early 1920s crooners were released on specialty imprints by English companies such as Living Era (ASV Records) and Flapper (Pavilion Records); small U.S. labels such as Audiophile Records (New Orleans), Diamond Cut Productions (Edison archive, Hibernia, NJ), and The Old Masters (George Morrow collection, San Mateo, CA); and specialty imprints from large multinational corporations such as Art Deco (Columbia, Sony Music). Since then, many of these songs have become available on streaming music channels such as Pandora and Spotify, as well as on YouTube (see especially the recording historian Tim Gracyk’s constantly updated treasure trove of early crooner recordings on his YouTube channel).

FILMOGRAPHY

Note: I first saw many of these films on VHS copies passed around in graduate school or on nitrate in the UCLA Film and Television Archives. Fortunately, many films have since been released on DVD, which I have noted. For the collections, I have not listed all the shorts on the DVDS, just the ones relevant to this project.

Selected Shorts
Clinching a Sale (with Harry Richman)
. Directed by
Cozine
Ray
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1930
.
UCLA Film Archives. YouTube
.
Crosby, Columbo, and Vallée (cartoon)
. Directed by
Isling
Rudolf
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1932
.
Private Collection. YouTube
.
Metro Movietone Revue I (Harry Rose, Van and Schenck, The Capitolians, Grace Rodgers)
. Directed by
Grinde
Nick
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1929
.
On The Dawn of Sound II. USA: MGM/UA Home Video, 1993. VHS. Also on The Broadway Melody. “Special Features.” USA: Turner Entertainment, 2005. DVD
.
Metro Movietone Revue II (Harry Rose, Johnny Marvin, George Dewey Washington, The Locust Sisters)
. Directed by
Grinde
Nick
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1929
.
On The Dawn of Sound II. USA: MGM/UA Home Video, 1993. VHS. Also on The Broadway Melody. “Special Features.” USA: Turner Entertainment, 2005. DVD
.
Metro Movietone Revue I (Jack Pepper, Joseph Regan)
. Directed by
Grinde
Nick
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1930
.
On The Dawn of Sound II. USA: MGM/UA Home Video, 1993. VHS. Also on The Broadway Melody. “Special Features.” USA: Turner Entertainment, 2005. DVD
.
Metro Movietone Revue II (Jack Pepper, Ella Shields, George Dewey Washington, Joseph Regan, The Ponce Sisters)
. Directed by
Grinde
Nick
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1930
.
On The Dawn of Sound II. USA: MGM/UA Home Video, 1993. VHS. Also on The Broadway Melody. “Special Features.” USA: Turner Entertainment, 2005. DVD
.
A Movietone Divertissement (Tom Waring, Johnny Marvin)
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1928
.
On The Broadway Melody. “Special Features” (as Movietone Revue #7). USA: Turner Entertainment, 2005. DVD
.
Our Gang: “Follies of 1938.”
Directed by
Douglas
Gordon
.
USA
:
Hal Roach Studios
,
1937
.
Private Collection. YouTube
.
Rudy Vallée and His Connecticut Yankees 771
. Directed by
Roth
Murray
.
USA
:
Warner Bros. Vitaphone
,
1929
.
Private Collection
.
Swooner Crooner
. Directed by
Tashlin
Frank
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1944
.
Private Collection
.
That Goes Double (with Russ Columbo) 1495–6
. Directed by
Henabery
Joseph
.
USA
:
Warner Bros. Vitaphone
,
1933
.
Private Collection
.
Selected Short Film Collections

Bing at Sennett, vols. 1–2. USA: Festival Films, 1995. VHS. Contains One More Chance (directed by Mack Sennett; Sennett Picture Corp., 1931); Sing, Bing, Sing (directed by Babe Stafford; Sennett Picture Corp., 1933); Billboard Girl (directed by Leslie Pearce; Sennett Picture Corp., 1932).

Hollywood Rhythm: The Paramount Musical Shorts, 1929–1941, Volumes 1–4. USA: Kino Video, 1997. VHS. Contains Musical Justice (directed by Aubrey Scotto; Paramount, 1931); Radio Rhythm (directed by Joseph Stanley; Paramount, 1929); I Surrender Dear (directed by Mack Sennett; Sennett Picture Corp., 1931).

Hollywood Rhythm: The Paramount Musical Shorts, Volume 2: The Best of Big Bands and Swing. USA: Kino Video, 2001. DVD. Contains Blue of the Night (directed by Leslie Pearce; Sennett Picture Corp., 1932); The Musical Doctor (directed by Ray Cozine; Paramount, 1932); Singapore Sue (directed by Casey Robinson; Paramount, 1932); Dream House (aka Crooner’s Holiday) (directed by Del Lord; Sennett Picture Corp., 1932).

The Jazz Singer Deluxe Edition. USA: Warner Bros. Home Video, 2007. DVD. Contains Al Jolson: A Plantation Act 359 (1926); Van and Schenck: The Pennant Winning Battery of Songland 395 (1926); The Police Quartette 2320 (1927); Adele Rowland: Stories in Song 2348 (1928); Dick Rich and His Melodious Monarchs 2595 (1928); Gus Arnheim and His Ambassadors 2585 (1928); Paul Tremaine and His Aristocrats 742 (1929); Baby Rose Marie: The Child Wonder 809 (1929); Larry Ceballas’ Roof Garden Revue 2627 (1928).

Vitaphone Cavalcade of Musical Comedy Shorts Collection. USA: Warner Bros. Home Video, 2010. DVD.

Vitaphone Varieties. USA: Warner Bros. Home Video, 2011. DVD. Contains The Revelers, 483 (1927), Morrissey and Miller Nightclub Revue 2293 (1927), Earl Burtnett (Collegiate Jazz Artist) and His Biltmore Hotel Orchestra 2285 (1927), Val and Ernie Stanton in “Cut Yourself a Piece of Cake” 2586 (1928), Jimmy Clemons in “The Dream Café” 2242 (1927), Gladys Brockwell in “Hollywood Bound” 2235 (1928), Jay C. Flippen in “The Ham What Am,” 2581 (1928), Dick Rich and His Synco-Symphonists 2594 (1928), Eddie White in “I Thank You” 2689 (1928), Jack Waldron in “A Little Breath of Broadway” 2681 (1928), Earl Burtnett (Collegiate Jazz Artist) and His Biltmore Hotel Orchestra 2295 (1928), The Rangers in “ After the Round Up” 2900 (1928), Frank Whitman in “The Surprising Fiddler” 703 (1929), Harry Fox and His Six American Beauties, 828 (1929), Jack White “The Premiere Clown of Broadway” and His Montrealers 791 (1929), Oklahoma Bob Albright and His Rodeo Do Flappers 810 (1920), Mel Klee in “The Prince of Wails” 826 (1929), The Gotham Rhythm Boys 832 (1929), Poor Aubrey 3674–5 (1929), Revival Day 367 (1926?).

Vitaphone Varieties. Vol. 2. USA: Warner Bros. Home Video, 2012. DVD. Contains Hawaiian Nights, 422 (1927), Waring’s Pennsylvanians 427, 428 (1927), The Happiness Boys 537 (1927), Harry Wayman and His Debutantes 2261 (1927), Earl Burtnett (Collegiate Jazz Artist) and His Biltmore Hotel Orchestra 2294 (1928), Abe Lyman and His Orchestra 2338 (1928), Eddie Peabody in Banjoland 2560 (1928), Roy Fox “The Whispering Cornettist” 2819.

Warner Bros. Big Band, Jazz and Swing Short Subject Collection. USA: Turner Entertainment Co., 2009. DVD. Contains Rambling Round Radio Row 1–6, 1932–33 Season; Rambling Round Radio Row 1–2, 1933–34 Season; Rambling Round Radio Row 1934–35 Season.

Feature Films
Anchors Away
. Directed by
Sidney
George
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1945
.
DVD
.
Ann Carver’s Profession
. Directed by
Buzzell
Edward
.
USA
:
Columbia
,
1933
.
Private Collection. DVD
.
Anything Goes
. Directed by
Milestone
Lewis
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1936
.
DVD
.
Applause
. Directed by
Mamoulian
Rouben
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1929
.
DVD
.
The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer
. Directed by
Reis
Irving
.
USA
:
RKO
,
1947
.
DVD
.
The Big Broadcast of 1932
. Directed by
Tuttle
Frank
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1932
.
Private Collection
.
Blessed Event
. Directed by
Ruth
Roy Del
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1932
.
DVD
.
Bondage
. Directed by
Santell
Alfred
.
USA
:
Fox Film Corp.
,
1933
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Bonnie and Clyde
. Directed by
Penn
Arthur
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1967
.
DVD
.
The Broadway Melody
. Directed by
Beaumont
Henry
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1929
.
DVD
.
Broadway thru a Keyhole
. Directed by
Sherman
Lowell
.
USA
:
Twentieth Century Pictures
,
1933
.
DVD
.
The Call of the Flesh
. Directed by
Brabin
Charles
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1930
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Chasing Rainbows (excerpts)
. Directed by
Reisner
Charles
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1930
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Close Harmony
. Directed by
Cromwell
John
and
Sutherland
A. Edward
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1929
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
College Humor
. Directed by
Ruggles
Wesley
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1933
.
UCLA Film Archives. DVD
.
Crooner
. Directed by
Bacon
Lloyd
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1922
.
UCLA Film Archives / TCM Channel
.
Cuban Love Song
. Directed by
Dyke
W. S. Van
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1931
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Dames
. Directed by
Enright
Ray
and
Berkeley
Busby
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1934
.
DVD
.
Devil May Care
. Directed by
Franklin
Sidney
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1929
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Devil’s Holiday
. Directed by
Goulding
Edmund
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1930
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Do I Sound Gay?
Directed by
Thorpe
David
.
USA
:
IFC Films / Sundance Selects
,
2015
.
Theater
.
Double or Nothing
. Directed by
Reed
Theodore
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1937
.
DVD
.
Follow Thru
. Directed by
Corrigan
Lloyd
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1930
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Footlight Parade
. Directed by
Bacon
Lloyd
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1933
.
DVD
.
42nd Street
. Directed by
Bacon
Lloyd
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1933
.
DVD
.
The Gay Divorcee
. Directed by
Sandrich
Mark
.
USA
:
RKO
,
1934
.
DVD
.
George White’s Scandals
. Directed by
Freeland
Thornton
,
Lachman
Harry
, and
White
George
.
USA
:
Fox
,
1934
.
TCM Channel / DVD
.
Glorifying the American Girl
. Directed by
Webb
Millard
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1929
.
TCM Channel
.
Going Hollywood
. Directed by
Walsh
Raoul
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1933
.
DVD
.
Going My Way
. Directed by
McCarey
Leo
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1944
.
DVD
.
Gold Diggers of Broadway (excerpts)
. Directed by
Ruth
Roy Del
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1929
.
UCLA Film Archives. On The Dawn of Sound I. USA: MGM/UA Home Video, 1992. VHS. Also on The Jazz Singer Deluxe Edition. USA: Warner Bros. Home Video, 2007. DVD
.
Gold Diggers of 1933
. Directed by
LeRoy
Mervyn
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1933
.
DVD
.
Good News (excerpts)
. Directed by
Grinde
Nick
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1930
.
UCLA Film and Television Archives
.
Good News
. Directed by
Walters
Charles
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1947
.
DVD
.
Hallelujah
. Directed by
Vidor
King
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1929
.
DVD
.
Holiday Inn
. Directed by
Sandrich
Mark
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1942
.
DVD
.
The Hollywood Revue of 1929
. Directed by
Reisner
Charles
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1929
.
VHS Private Collection. DVD
.
How to Succeed in Business without Really Trying
. Directed by
Swift
David
.
USA
:
United Artists
,
1967
.
DVD
.
In Gay Madrid
. Directed by
Leonard
Robert Z.
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1930
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
International House
. Directed by
Sutherland
A. Edward
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1933
.
DVD
.
The Jazz Singer
. Directed by
Crosland
Alan
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1927
.
DVD
.
The King of Jazz
. Directed by
Anderson
John Murray
.
USA
:
Universal
,
1930
.
DVD
.
The Letter
. Directed by
Limur
Jean De
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1929
.
DVD
.
Love Me Tonight
. Directed by
Mamoulian
Rouben
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1932
.
DVD
.
Mississippi
. Directed by
Sutherland
Edward
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1935
.
UCLA Film Archives. DVD
.
Mother’s Boy
. Directed by
Barker
Bradley
.
USA
:
Pathé Exchange
,
1929
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Moulin Rouge
. Directed by
Lanfield
Sidney
.
USA
:
Twentieth Century Pictures
,
1934
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
My Own Private Idaho
. Directed by
Sant
Gus Van
.
USA
:
New Line Cinema
,
1991
.
DVD
.
On the Town
. Directed by
Kelly
Gene
and
Donen
Stanley
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1949
.
DVD
.
The Palm Beach Story
. Directed by
Sturges
Preston
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1942
.
DVD
.
Paramount on Parade
. Directed by
Arzner
Dorothy
(10 others).
USA
:
Paramount
,
1930
.
Private Collection. VHS
.
Pennies from Heaven
. Directed by
McLeod
Norman
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1936
.
UCLA Film Archives. DVD
.
Radio Days
. Directed by
Allen
Woody
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1987
.
DVD
.
Rhythm on the Range
. Directed by
Taurog
Norman
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1936
.
DVD
.
Road to Morocco
. Directed by
Butler
David
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1942
.
DVD
.
Road to Singapore
. Directed by
Schertzinger
Victor
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1940
.
DVD
.
The Rogue Song
. Directed by
Barrymore
Lionel
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1930
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Sadie McKee
. Directed by
Brown
Clarence
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1934
.
DVD
.
Second Fiddle
. Directed by
Lanfield
Sidney
.
USA
:
Twentieth Century Fox
,
1939
.
DVD
.
The Show of Shows
. Directed by
Adolfi
John G.
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1929
.
DVD
.
The Singing Fool
. Directed by
Bacon
Lloyd
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1928
.
DVD
.
Song o’ My Heart
. Directed by
Borzage
Frank
.
USA
.
1930
.
UCLA Film Archives. DVD
.
So This Is College
. Directed by
Wood
Sam
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1929
.
DVD
.
Stage Struck
. Directed by
Berkeley
Busby
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1936
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Sweet Music
. Directed by
Green
Alfred E.
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1935
.
TCM Channel
.
Take Me Out to the Ballgame
. Directed by
Berkeley
Busby
.
USA
:
MGM
,
1949
.
DVD
.
Three on a Match
. Directed by
LeRoy
Mervyn
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1932
.
DVD
.
Too Much Harmony
. Directed by
Sutherland
Edward
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1933
.
UCLA Film Archives
.
Top Hat
. Directed by
Sandrich
Mark
.
USA
:
RKO
,
1935
.
DVD
.
20 Million Sweethearts
. Directed by
Enright
Ray
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1934
.
TCM Channel
.
Unfaithfully Yours
. Directed by
Sturges
Preston
.
USA
:
Fox
,
1948
.
DVD
.
The Vagabond Lover
. Directed by
Neilan
Marshall
.
USA
:
RKO
,
1929
.
TCM Channel
.
Waikiki Wedding
. Directed by
Tuttle
Frank
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1937
.
DVD
.
We’re Not Dressing
. Directed by
Milestone
Lewis
.
USA
:
Paramount
,
1936
.
DVD
.
Young at Heart
. Directed by
Douglas
Gordon
.
USA
:
Warner Bros.
,
1954
.
DVD
.
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