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With the end of state socialism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union there was increased attention to the issue of human trafficking. In particular, there was a rise in political concern for postsocialist women who were trafficked to Europe and the United States. This chapter analyzes how these new victims of trafficking were viewed and how these views shaped the revising of antitrafficking policy after the Cold War. It is argued that government understandings of postsocialist trafficking facilitated an emphasis on anticrime legislation. The anticrime approach worked in conjunction with how feminists had politicized trafficking as “violence against women.” The main antitrafficking laws developed by the un, the eu, and the United States focus on anticrime and not addressing the underlying economic and social vulnerabilities that sustain trafficking.

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