Skip to Main Content
This content is made freely available by the publisher. It may not be redistributed or altered. All rights reserved.

This chapter outlines the methodological, theoretical, and ethical arguments of the book. It does so by examining the subjective positions of the ethnographer and the ethical dilemmas encountered. Juxtaposing the iconic figures of the birangona and the razakar (collaborator), the introduction shows how both, as memories of a past, are shaping the present. It draws from and engages critically with the scholarship of feminist oral history. The chapter develops the analytical and theoretical concepts of “testimonial cultures,” “combing” (to hide and to search), “absence-presence,” and “spectral” to examine how the raped woman emerges as a horrific “wound” in the public memory of wartime rape during 1971. The public secrecies and “combing” inherent in this history making are explored throughout the book by examining the processes of historiography, documentation, scorn, local politics, masculinities, rehabilitation, violation of men, literary and visual representations, perceptions of the birangona as a traitor, and human rights testimonies.

References

References
Primary Sources
Bulletin of Ain-O-Shalish-Kendra
.
1997
.
December
.
Dhaka
.
Communalism Combat
.
2002
. Genocide Gujarat.
March–April
, year 8, no.
76
. .
Government of Pakistan
.
2007
.
Hamoodur Rahman Commission of Inquiry Into the 1971 India-Pakistan War
.
Arc Manor
.
International Commission of Jurists
.
1972
.
The Events in East Pakistan of 1971
.
Geneva
.
Kendriyo Mohila Punorbashon Shongstha (Bangladesh Central Association for the Rehabilitation of Women)
.
1972
.
Constitution of Organization
.
National Board of Bangladesh Women’s Rehabilitation Program (NBBWRP)
.
1974
.
Women’s Work
.
Dhaka
:
Bangladesh Co-operative Book Society.
Parliamentary proceedings
.
April
11
,
1972
.
Secondary Sources
BOOKS AND ARTICLES
Abu-Lughod
,
L
.
1988
.
Veiled Sentiments: Honor and Poetry in a Bedouin Society
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Agarwal
,
P
.
1995
. “
Surat, Savarkar and Draupadi: Legitimizing Rape as a Political Weapon
.” In
Women and Right-Wing Movements: Indian Experiences
, edited by
Butalia
U.
and
Sarkar
T.
,
29
57
.
London
:
Zed Books
.
Ahmed
,
F
.
1973
. “
The Structural Matrix of the Struggle in Bangladesh
.” In
Imperialism and Revolution in South Asia
, edited by
Geogh
K.
and
Sharma
H. P.
,
419
48
.
London
:
Monthly Review Press
.
Ahmed
,
L
.
1992
.
Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
.
Ahmed
,
R
.
1988
. “
Conflict and Contradictions in Bengali Islam: Problems of Change and Adjustment
.” In
Shariat and Ambiguity in South Asian Islam
, edited by
Ewing
K. P.
,
114
42
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Ahmed
,
S
.
2004
.
The Cultural Politics of Emotion
.
Edinburgh
:
Edinburgh University Press
.
Ahmed
,
S. A. F.
1997
. “
Twenty-Sixth March and Aftermath: Some Reflections
.”
The Independent: Special Supplement on Silver Jubilee of Independence
,
March
16
.
Ahmed
,
S.
, and
Stacey
J.
2001
. “
Testimonial Cultures: An Introduction
.”
Cultural Values
5
(
1
):
1
6
.
Akhtar
,
F.
, ed.
1994
.
Mohila Muktijoddha [Women liberation fighters]
.
Dhaka
:
Nari Grontho Probortona.
Akhtar
,
S.
,
2001a
.
“Firdousi Priyobhashini: Ekok nari” (Firdousi Priyobhashini: The lone woman)
. In
Narir Ekattor o Juddhoporoborti Koththo Kahini [Oral history accounts of women’s experiences during 1971 and after the war]
, edited by
Akhtar
S.
,
Begum
S.
,
Hossein
H.
,
Kamal
S.
, and
Guhathakurta
M.
,
57
79
.
Dhaka
:
Ain-O-Shalish-Kendro
.
Akhtar
,
S.
,
Begum
S.
Hossein
H.
,
Kamal
S.
, and
Guhathakurta
M.
, eds.
2001b
.
Narir Ekattor O Juddhoporoborti Koththo Kahini [Oral history accounts of women’s experiences during 1971 and after the war]
.
Dhaka
:
Ain-O-Shalish-Kendro.
Ali
,
T
.
1983
.
Can Pakistan Survive? The Death of a State
.
London
:
Penguin
.
Amin
,
S
.
1995
.
Event, Metaphor and Memory: Chauri Chaura 1922–1992
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Amin
,
S
.
1996
.
The World of Muslim Women in Colonial Bengal, 1876–1939
.
Leiden
:
Brill
.
Anam
,
Tahmima
.
2008
. “
The War That Time Forgot
.”
Guardian
,
April
10
. .
Anisuzzaman
,
M
.
1995
.
Identity, Religion and Recent History
.
Calcutta
:
Naya Udyog for Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Institute of Asian Studies
.
Antze
,
P.
, and
Lambek
M.
, eds.
1996
.
Tense Past: Cultural Essays in Trauma and Memory
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Appadurai
,
A
.
1988
. “
Putting Hierarchy in Its Place
.”
Cultural Anthropology
3
(
1
):
36
49
.
Argenti-Pillen
Alex
.
2002
.
Masking Terror: How Women Contain Violence in Southern Sri Lanka
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Asad
,
A
.
1996
.
Ekatorer Gonohotta O Nari Nirjaton [71’s genocide and violence against women]
.
Dhaka
:
Somoy
.
Baaz
,
Maria Eriksson
, and
Stern
Maria
.
2013
.
Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War? Perceptions, Prescriptions and Problems in the Congo and Beyond
.
London
:
Zed Books
.
Barthes
,
R
.
1981
.
Camera Lucida
.
New York
:
Hill and Wang
.
Bass
,
G. J.
2013
.
The Blood Telegram: Nixon, Kissinger and a Forgotten Genocide
.
New York
:
Knopf
.
Begum
,
S
.
2001
. “
Kushtiar Charjon Grihobodhu
[The four housewives of Kushtia]
. In
Narir Ekattor O Juddhoporoborti Koththo Kahini [Oral history of women’s 1971 and postwar]
, edited by
Akhtar
S.
,
Begum
S.
,
Hossein
H.
,
Kamal
S.
, and
Guhathakurta
M.
,
80
107
.
Dhaka
:
Ain-O-Shalish-Kendro
.
Benjamin
,
Walter
.
(1939) 2003
. “
The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducability
.” In
Walter Benjamin: Selected Writings. Vol. 4, 1938–1940
, edited by
Eiland
Howard
and
Jennings
Michael W.
,
251
83
. Translated by
Jephcott
Edmund
and others.
Cambridge, MA
:
Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
.
Bose
,
Purnima
.
1996
. “
Engendering the Armed Struggle: Women, Writing and the Bengali ‘Terrorist’ Movement
.” In
Bodies of Writing, Bodies in Performance
, edited by
Foster
Thomas
,
Siegel
Carol
, and
Berry
Ellen E.
,
145
83
.
New York
:
New York University Press
.
Bose
,
Sarmila
.
2011
.
Dead Reckoning: Memories of the 1971 Bangladesh War
.
London
:
C. Hurst and Co
.
Bourdieu
,
P
. (
1990
)
1992
.
Logic of Practice
.
Oxford
:
Polity Press
.
Bracken
,
P
.
1998
. “
Hidden Agendas: Deconstructing the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
.” In
Rethinking the Trauma of War
, edited by
Bracken
P.
and
Petty
C.
,
38
59
.
London
:
Free Association Books
.
Brilliant
,
Richard
.
1991
.
Portraiture
.
London
:
Reaktion Books
.
Broomfield
,
J. H.
1968
.
Elite Conflict in a Plural Society
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Brown
,
Wendy
.
1995
.
States of Injury: Power and Freedom in Late Modernity.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Brownmiller
,
S
.
1975
. “
Bangladesh
.” In
Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape
,
78
86
.
London
:
Secker and Warburg
.
Brownmiller
,
S
.
1994
. “
Making Female Bodies the Battlefield
.” In
Mass Rape: The War against Women in Bosnia
, edited by
Stiglmayer
A.
,
180
82
. Translated by
Faber
Marion
.
Lincoln
:
University of Nebraska Press
.
Burke
,
Edmund
.
2008
.
A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful
. Edited with an introduction and notes by
Phillips
Adam
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Buse
,
Peter
, and
Stott
Andrew
, eds.
1999
.
Ghosts: Deconstruction, Psychoanalysis and History
.
London
:
Macmillan
.
Butalia
,
U
.
1998
.
The Other Side of Silence: Voices from the Partition of India
.
New Delhi
:
Viking Penguin India
.
Butalia
,
U.
, and
Sarkar
T.
, eds.
1995
.
Women and Right-Wing Movements: Indian Experiences
.
London
:
Zed Books
.
Butler
,
J
.
1990
.
Gender Trouble
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Butler
,
J.
2008
. “
Sexual Politics, Torture and Secular Time: A Response to Ali, Beckford, Bhatt, Modood and Woodhead
.”
British Journal of Sociology
59
(
1
):
255
60
.
Cameron
,
D.
, and
Frazer
E.
1994
. “
Cultural Difference and the Lust to Kill
.” In
Sex and Violence: Issues in Representation and Experience
, edited by
Harvey
P.
and
Gow
P.
,
156
71
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Canetti
,
E
.
1984
.
Crowds and Power
. Translated by
Stewart
C.
.
New York
:
Farrar, Straus and Giroux
.
Caruth
,
Cathy
.
1996
. “
Introduction: The Wound and the Voice
.” In
Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History
,
1
9
.
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
Chakravarty
,
S
.
1995
.
Bangladesh under Mujib, Zia and Ershad: Dilemma of a New Nation
.
New Delhi
:
Har Anand
.
Chatterjee
,
P
.
1994
.
Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Chatterji
,
J
.
1995
.
Bengal Divided: Hindu Communalism and Partition
,
1932
1947
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Chaudhury
,
Kalyan
.
1972
.
Genocide in Bangladesh
.
London
:
Orient Longman
.
Chowdhury
,
Afsan
.
2001
. “
Dhaka in the ’70s
.”
Himal
,
August
.
Chowdhury
,
Afsan
.
2007
.
Bangladesh 1971
.
4
vols.
Dhaka
:
Mowla Brothers
.
Coetzee
,
J. M.
1999
.
Disgrace
.
London
:
Secker and Warburg
.
Cohen
,
D. W.
1994
.
The Combing of History
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Collard
,
A
.
1989
. “
Investigating Social Memory in a Greek Context
.” In
History and Ethnicity
, edited by
Tonkin
E.
,
McDonald
M.
, and
Chapman
M.
,
89
103
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Collingwood
,
R. G.
1945
.
The Idea of History
.
Oxford
:
Clarendon Press
.
Connerton
,
P.
1989
.
How Societies Remember
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Cooke
,
M.
, and
Rustomji-Kerns
R.
, eds.
1994
.
Blood into Ink: South Asian and Middle Eastern Women on War
.
Boulder, CO
:
Westview Press
.
Copelon
,
R.
1994
. “
Surfacing Gender: Reconceptualizing Crimes against Women in Time of War
.” In
Mass Rape: The War against Women in Bosnia–Herzegovina
, edited by
Stiglmayer
A.
,
197
218
. Translated by
Faber
Marion
.
Lincoln
:
University of Nebraska Press
.
Cvetkovich
,
Ann
.
2003
.
An Archive of Feelings: Trauma, Sexuality and Lesbian Public Cultures
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
.
Daniel
,
E. V.
1996
.
Charred Lullabies: Chapters in an Anthropology of Violence
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Das
,
V.
, ed.
1990
.
Mirrors of Violence: Community, Riots and Survivors in South Asia
.
New Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Das
,
V
.
1995
.
Critical Events: An Anthropological Perspective on Contemporary India
.
Delhi
,
Oxford University Press
.
Das
,
V
.
1996
. “
Sexual Violence, Discursive Formations and the State
.”
Special issue, Economic and Political Weekly
31
(
35/37
):
2411
23
.
Das
,
V.
2000
. “
The Act of Witnessing: Violence, Poisonous Knowledge and Subjectivity
.” In
Violence and Subjectivity
, edited by
Das
V.
,
Kleinman
A.
,
Ramphele
M.
, and
Reynolds
P.
,
205
25
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Das
,
V
.
2006
.
Life and Words: Violence and the Descent into the Ordinary
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Das
,
V.
,
Kleinman
A.
,
Ramphele
M.
, and
Reynolds
P.
, eds.
2000
.
Violence and Subjectivity
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Dasgupta
,
S
.
1998
.
An Elegy on Partition: Akhtaruzzaman Elias’ Khowabnama
.
Calcutta
:
Azad Institute
.
Day
,
S
.
1994
. “
What Counts as Rape? Physical Assault and Broken Contracts: Contrasting View of Rape among London Sex Workers
.” In
Sex and Violence: Issues in Representation and Experience
, edited by
Harvey
P.
and
Gow
P.
,
172
89
.
London
:
Routledge
.
D’Costa
,
Bina
.
2002
. “
(Dis) Appearing Women in Nationalist Narratives Interview with Dr. Geoffrey Davis (Part 2)
.” .
D’Costa
,
Bina
.
2011
.
Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia
.
London
:
Routledge
.
De
,
T. K.
1998
.
Muktijuddhe Nari Shomaj [Women’s society in the liberation war]
.
Dhaka
:
New Age Publications
.
de Certeau
,
M
.
1980
. “
On the Oppositional Practices of Everyday Life
.”
Social Text
3
:
3
43
.
Deleuze
,
G.
1986
.
Cinema 1: The Movement-Image
. Translated by
Tomlinson
H.
and
Habberjam
B.
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Deleuze
,
G
.
1995
.
Negotiations 1972–1990
. Translated by
Joughin
Martin
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
.
Derrida
,
J
.
1976
.
Of Grammatology
. Translated from the French by
Chakravorty Spivak
Gayatri
.
Baltimore, MD
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
Derrida
,
J
.
1994
.
Specters of Marx
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Dowd
,
D
.
1964
. “
Thorstein Veblen and C. Wright Mills: Social Science and Social Criticism
.” In
The New Sociology
, edited by
Horowitz
I.
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
:
54
66
.
Dutta
,
Michael Madhusudan
.
2004
.
Birangona Kabbo (Birangona Novel)
.
Dhaka
:
Student Ways
.
Eaton
,
R. M.
2001
. “
Who Are the Bengali Muslims? Conversion and Islamization in Bengal
.” In
Understanding the Bengali Muslims: Interpretative Essays
, edited by
Ahmed
R.
,
26
51
.
Dhaka
:
University Press
.
Edwards
,
E.
, ed.
1992
.
Anthropology and Photography
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
.
Ellis
,
William S
.
1972
. “
Bangladesh: Hope Nourishes a New Nation
.”
National Geographic
,
September
,
295
333
.
Enloe
,
C
.
2000
. “
When Soldiers Rape
.” In
Maneuvers: The International Politics of Militarizing Women’s Lives
,
108
52
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Evans-Pritchard
,
E. E.
1953
. “
The Sacrificial Role of Cattle among the Nuer
.”
Africa
23
:
181
97
.
Ewing
,
K. P.
, ed.
1988
.
Shariat and Ambiguity in South Asian Islam
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Fabian
,
J
.
1983
.
Time and the Other: How Anthropology Makes Its Object
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
.
Feldman
,
A
.
2000
. “
Violence and Vision: The Prosthetics and Aesthetics of Terror
.” In
Violence and Its Subjectivity
, edited by
Das
V.
,
Kleinman
A.
,
Ramphele
M.
, and
Reynolds
P.
,
46
78
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Fields
,
R
.
2007
. “
Tracing Rape: The Trauma on Slavery in Toni Morrison’s Beloved.
Paper presented at the conference Women Writing Rape: Literary and Theoretical Narratives of Sexual Violence
.
Warwick University
,
April 24
.
Fiske
,
J
.
1987
.
Television Culture
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Foucault
,
M
.
1976
.
The History of Sexuality. Vol. 1. An Introduction
.
London
:
Penguin
.
French
,
Lindsay
.
1994
. “
The Political Economy of Injury and Compassion: Amputees on the Thai-Cambodia Border
.” In
Embodiment and Experience: The Existential Ground of Culture and Self
, edited by
Csordas
T. J.
,
69
99
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Freud
,
S
. (
1941
)
2003
.
The Uncanny
. Translated by
Mclintock
David
and with an introduction by
Haughton
Hugh
.
New York
:
Penguin
.
Freud
,
S
.
1959
. “
Screen Memories
.” In
The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud
, edited and translated by
Strachey
J.
,
3
:
303
22
.
London
:
Hogarth
.
Gardner
,
K
.
1991
.
Songs at the River’s Edge: Stories from a Bangladeshi Village
.
London
:
Virago
.
Gazi
,
L
.
2014
.
“Matir duniya shunte ki pai?” [Can the earthly world hear this?]
.
Bangladesh News
, .
Geertz
,
Clifford
.
2000
. “
Thinking as a Moral Act: Ethical Dimensions of Anthropological Fieldwork in the New States
.” In
Available Light: Anthropological Reflections on Philosophical Topics
,
21
41
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Ghosh
,
Amitav
.
1988
.
Shadow Lines
.
Delhi
:
Ravi Dayal
.
Ghosh
,
Anjan
.
2008
. “
The Role of Rumour in History Writing
.”
History Compass
6
(
5
):
1235
43
.
Ghosh
,
B
.
1998a
.
“Bangladesher Pochish Bochrer Natto Sahitter Dhara: 1971–1995.” [The flow of literature and theater in the twenty-five years of Bangladesh: 1971–1995]
.
Unpublished manuscript
.
Ghosh
,
Papiya
.
1998b
. “
Partition’s Biharis
.” In
Islam, Communities and the Nation: Muslim Identities in South Asia and Beyond
, ed.
Hasan
Mushirul
,
229
65
.
Delhi
:
Manohar
.
Gilsenan
,
M
.
1976
. “
Lying, Honor and Contradiction
.” In
Transaction and Meaning: Directions in the Anthropology of Exchange and Symbolic Behavior
, edited by
Kapferer
B.
,
191
219
.
Philadelphia
:
Institute for the Study of Human Issues
.
Goffman
,
E
.
1963
.
Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoilt Identity
.
London
:
Penguin
.
Goody
,
J
.
2000
.
The Power of the Written Tradition
.
Washington, DC
:
Smithsonian Institute Press
.
Gordon
,
A. F.
1997
.
Ghostly Matters: Haunting and the Sociological Imagination
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Gordon
,
L. A.
1993
. “
Divided Bengal: The Problems of Nationalism and Identity in the 1947 Partition
.” In
India’s Partition: Process, Strategy and Mobilisation
, edited by
Hasan
M.
,
274
317
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Greer
,
G
.
1972
. “
The Rape of the Bengali Women
.”
Sunday Times
,
April
9
.
Guhathakurta
,
M
.
1985
. “
Gender Violence in Bangladesh: Role of the State
.”
Journal of Social Studies
30
:
77
90
.
Guhathakurta
,
M
.
1996
.
“Dhorshon Ekti Juddhaporadh” [Rape is a war crime]
.
Bulletin of Ain-O-Shalish Kendra
,
February
,
6
8
.
Guhathakurta
,
M
.
1997
.
“Sonar Bangla: Inspiration, Illusion and Extortion
.”
Journal of Social Studies
,
78
:
1
21
.
Habib
,
H.
2005
. “
Rising Terror in Bangladesh
.”
Frontline
22
(
5
).
Halbwachs
,
M
.
1980
.
The Collective Memory
. Translated from the French by
Ditter
Francis J.
.
New York
:
Harper Colophon
.
Hansen
,
Kathryn
.
1988
. “
The Virangana in North Indian History: Myth and Popular Culture
.”
Economic and Political Weekly
23
(
18
):
ws25
ws33
.
Harlan
,
Lindsey
.
1991
.
Religion and Rajput Women: The Ethic of Protection in Contemporary Narratives
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Hartmann
,
B.
, and
Boyce
J. K.
1983
.
A Quiet Violence: Views from a Bangladesh Village
.
Dhaka
:
University Press
.
Harvey
,
P.
, and
Gow
P.
, eds.
1994
.
Sex and Violence: Issues in Representation and Experience
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Hasan
,
M. A.
2002
.
Juddho O Nari [War and women]
.
Dhaka
:
War Crimes Fact-Finding Committee (Trust) and Genocide Archive and Human Studies Centre
.
Hastrup
,
K
.
1987
. “
Fieldwork among Friends: Ethnographic Exchange within the Northern Civilization
.” In
Anthropology at Home
, edited by
Jackson
A.
,
94
108
.
London
:
Tavistock
.
Hitchens
,
C
.
2001
.
The Trial of Henry Kissinger
.
London
:
Verso
.
Hobsbawm
,
E.
and
Ranger
T.
1988
.
Invention of Tradition
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Hoose
,
Phil
.
2009
.
Claudette Colvin: Twice toward Justice
.
New York
:
Farrar, Straus and Giroux
.
Hossain
,
Rubaiyat
.
2009
. “
Trauma of the Women, Trauma of the Nation: A Feminist Discourse on Izzat
.”
Paper presented at the Second International Conference on Genocide, Truth and Justice, organized by the Liberation War Museum
.
Dhaka, Bangladesh
.
July 30–31
.
Hubert
,
H.
, and
Mauss
.
M.
1981
.
Sacrifice: Its Nature and Function
. Translated by
Halls
W. D.
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Ibrahim
,
N
.
1994, 1994–95
.
Ami Birangona Bolchi. [I am the birangona speaking]
.
2
vols.
Dhaka
:
Jagriti
.
Islam
,
S
.
1992
.
History of Bangladesh, 1704–1971
.
2
vols.
Dhaka
:
Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
.
Jahangir
,
B. K.
1979
.
Differentiation, Polarization and Confrontation in Rural Bangladesh
.
Dhaka
:
Centre for Social Studies
.
James
,
Mark
.
2005
. “
Remembering Rape: Divided Social Memory and the Red Army in Hungary 1944–1945
.”
Past and Present
188
:
133
61
.
Kabeer
,
N
.
1989
. “
The Quest for National Identity: Women, Islam and the State in Bangladesh
.”
Discussion Paper 268
.
Falmer, Sussex
:
Institute of Development Studies
.
Kabeer
,
N
.
1994
.
Reverse Realities: Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought
.
London
:
Verso
.
Kader
,
Mirza Tarequl
.
1993
.
Bangladeshi Films
.
Dhaka
:
Bangla Academy
.
Kandiyoti
,
D
.
1991a
. “
Identity and Its Discontents: Women and the Nation
.”
Millennium
20
(
1
):
429
43
.
Kandiyoti
,
D.
, ed.
1991b
.
Women, Islam and the State
.
Basingstoke, UK
:
Macmillan
.
Karim
,
Lamia
.
2004
. “
Democratizing Bangladesh: State, NGOs and Militant Islam
.”
Cultural Dynamics
16
(
2 and 3
):
291
318
.
Karim
,
Lamia
.
2011
.
Microfinance and Its Discontents: Women in Debt in Bangladesh
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Kaviraj
,
S
.
1992
. “
The Imaginary Institution of India
.” In
Subaltern Studies VII: Writings on South Asian History and Society
, edited by
Chatterjee
P.
and
Pandey
G.
,
1
39
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Kaviraj
,
S.
, and
Khilnani
S.
2001
.
Civil Society: History and Possibilities
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Kenny
,
M.
.
1978
. “
Latah: The Symbolism of a Putative Mental Disorder Culture
.”
Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
2
:
209
33
.
Khan
,
M
.
2000
. “
Class, Clientalism, and Communal Politics in Contemporary Bangladesh
.” In
The Making of History: Essays Presented to Irfan Habib
, edited by
Byers
T. J.
,
Panikkar
K. N.
, and
Patnaik
U.
,
572
606
.
New Delhi
:
Tulika
.
Kirkpatrick
,
Joanna
.
2003
.
Transports of Delight: The Ricksha Arts in Bangladesh
. CD-ROM.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Kirmayer
,
L. J.
1996
. “
Landscapes of Memory: Trauma, Narrative and Dissociation
.” In
Tense Past: Cultural Essays in Trauma and Memory
, edited by
Antze
P.
and
Lambek
M.
,
173
97
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Kleinman
,
A.
, and
Kleinman
.
J.
1994
. “
How Bodies Remember: Social Memory and Bodily Experience of Criticism, Resistance and Delegitimation Following China’s Cultural Revolution
.”
New Literary History
25
(
3
):
707
23
.
Kobir
,
S.
, ed.
1999
.
Ekatorrer Dushshoho Sriti [71’s unbearable memories]
.
Dhaka
:
Ekatorrer Ghatok Dalal Nirmul Committee, Dana Printers
.
Kotalova
,
J
.
1996
.
Belonging to Others: Cultural Construction of Womanhood in a Village in Bangladesh
.
Dhaka
:
University Press
.
Kwon
,
Heonik
.
2008
.
Ghosts of War in Vietnam
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Leach
,
E
.
1957
. “
Magical Hair
.”
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
88
:
147
64
.
Leatherman
,
Janie L
.
2013
.
Sexual Violence and Armed Conflict
.
New York
:
Wiley
.
Lévi-Strauss
,
C
.
1969
.
Elementary Structures of Kinship
. Rev. ed. Translated by
Bill
J. H.
,
Sturmore
J. R.
, and
Needham
Rodney
.
London
:
George Allen and Unwin
.
Lévi-Strauss
,
C.
1972
.
The Savage Mind
.
London
:
Wiedenfeld and Nicolson
.
Lifschultz
,
L.
1979
.
Bangladesh: The Unfinished Revolution
.
London
:
Zed Books
.
Lindisfarne
,
N
.
1994
. “
Variant Masculinities, Variant Virginities: Rethinking ‘Honor and Shame.’
” In
Dislocating Masculinities: Comparative Ethnographies
, edited by
Cornwall
A.
and
Lindisfarne
N.
.
London
:
Routledge
:
82
96
.
Littlewood
,
R
.
1997
. “
Military Rape
.”
Anthropology Today
13
(
2
):
7
16
.
Low
,
S. M.
1994
. “
Embodied Metaphors: Nerves as Lived Experience
.” In
Embodiment and Experience: The Existential Ground of Culture and Self
, edited by
Csordas
T. J.
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
:
139
62
.
MacKinnon
,
C. A.
1987
.
Feminism Unmodified: Discourses on Life and Law
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
.
Mamoon
,
M.
, and
Ray
J.
1995
.
Bangladeshe Civil Shomaj Protishthar Shongram [The struggle to establish a civil society in Bangladesh]
.
Dhaka
:
Oboshor
.
Mankekar
,
Punima
.
1993
. “
Television Tales and a Woman’s Rage: A Nationalist Recasting of Draupadi’s ‘Disrobing.’
Public Culture
5
:
469
92
.
Marcus
,
George
.
1998
. “
The Uses of Complicity in the Changing Mise-en-Scene of Anthropological Fieldwork (1997)
.” In
Ethnography through Thick and Thin
,
105
32
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Marcus
,
S.
1992
. “
Fighting Bodies, Fighting Words: A Theory and Politics of Rape Prevention
.” In
Feminists Theorize the Political
, edited by
Butler
J.
and
Scott
J. W.
,
385
403
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Mardorossian
,
C.
2002
. “
Toward a New Feminist Theory of Rape
.”
Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society
27
(
3
):
743
75
.
Mascarenhas
,
A.
1971
.
The Rape of Bangladesh
.
Calcutta
:
Vikas Publications
.
Masud
,
Mehedi
.
1998
.
“Ki Bhabe Tola Muktijuddher Ei Chobi?” [How is this photograph of the liberation war taken?]
.
Prothom Alo
,
December
9
.
Mehta
,
D.
2000
. “
Circumcision, Body, Masculinity: The Ritual Wound and Collective Violence
.” In
Violence and Subjectivity
, edited by
Das
V.
,
Kleinman
A.
,
Ramphele
M.
, and
Reynolds
P.
,
79
101
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Menon
,
N
.
2001
. “
Embodying the Self: Feminism, Sexual Violence and the Law
.” In
Subaltern Studies XI: Community, Gender and Violence
, edited by
Chatterjee
P.
and
Jeganathan
P.
,
66
105
.
London
:
Hurst
.
Menon
,
R.
, and
Bhasin
K.
1998
.
Borders and Boundaries: Women in India’s Partition
.
New Delhi
:
Kali for Women
.
Metz
,
C
.
1985
. “
Photography and Fetish
.”
October
34
:
81
90
.
Mizan
,
M. R.
1988
.
Bongobondhur Bhashon [Friend of Bengal’s speeches]
.
Dhaka
:
Novel Publications
.
Moinuddin
.
1978
.
Muslim Birangona
.
Dhaka
:
Al Hamra Library
.
Monk
,
J.
, and
Norwood
,
V.
eds.
1987
.
The Desert Is No Lady: Southwestern Landscapes in Women’s Writing and Art
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2001
. “
Dressed for Fieldwork: Sartorial Borders and Negotiations
.”
Anthropology Matters
3
(
1
).
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2003
. “
Ethical Issues Concerning Representation of Narratives of Sexual Violence
.”
http://www.drishtipat.org/1971/war.htm. (Address no longer active.)
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2004
. “
‘My Man (Honor) Is Lost but I Still Have My Iman (Principle)’: Sexual Violence and Articulations of Masculinity
.” In
South Asian Masculinities
, edited by
Chopra
R.
,
Osella
C.
, and
Osella
F.
,
131
59
.
New Delhi
:
Kali for Women
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2006a
. “
Bangladesh War of 1971: A Prescription for Reconciliation?
Economic and Political Weekly
41
(
36
):
3901
3
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2006b
. “
‘Remembering to Forget’: Public Secrecy and Memory of Sexual Violence in Bangladesh
.”
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
12
(
2
):
433
50
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2007a
. “
Available Motherhood: Legal Technologies, ‘State of Exception’ and the Dekinning of ‘War Babies’ in Bangladesh.” Special Issue: The State and Children’s Fate: Reproduction in Traumatic Times
.
Childhood: A Journal of Global Child Research
14
(
3
):
339
54
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2007b
.
“‘The “Dead and Their Double Duties’: Mourning, Melancholia and the Martyred Intellectual Memorials in Bangladesh.” Special Issue: The Material and Visual Culture of Cities
.
Space and Culture
10
(
2
):
271
91
.
Translated in Sinhala and Tamil
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2007c
. “
‘Research’ on Bangladesh War
.”
Economic and Political Weekly
42
(
50
):
118
21
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2008
. “
Friendships and Ethnographic ‘Encounters’ within Left-Liberal Politics in Bangladesh,
” in
Taking Sides: Politics and Ethnography (A Nancy Lindisfarne Festschrift)
, edited by
Armbruster
H.
and
Laerke
A.
,
65
87
,
Oxford
:
Berghahn
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2008a
.
“Culinary Boundaries and the Making of Place in Bangladesh.” Special Issue: Food: Memory, Pleasure and Politics, edited by C. Osella and F. Oscella
.
South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies
31
(
1
):
56
75
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2008b
.
“Gendered Embodiments: Mapping the Body-Politic of the Raped Woman and the Nation in Bangladesh.” Special issue on war
.
Feminist Review
88
(
1
):
36
53
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2011a
. “
Love in the Time of 71: The Furor over Meherjann.
Economic and Political Weekly
46
(
12
):
25
27
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2011b
.
“‘Never Again’: Aesthetics of ‘Genocidal’ Cosmopolitanism and the Bangladesh Liberation War Museum.” Special issue, edited by N. Mookherjee and C. Pinney
.
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
S71
S91
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2011c
. “
This Account of the Bangladesh War Should Not Be Seen as Unbiased
.”
Guardian
, .
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2012a
. “
The Absent Piece of Skin: Sexual Violence in the Bangladesh War and Its Gendered and Racialized Inscriptions
.”
Modern Asian Studies
46
(
6
):
1572
601
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2012b
. “
Discussion with Prof. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak: Reproductive Heteronormativity and Sexual Violence in the Bangladesh War of 1971
.”
Social Text
111
:
30
(
2
):
123
31
.
Moore
,
H. L.
1994
.
A Passion of Difference: Essays in Anthropology and Gender
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Motin
,
A
.
1992
.
Bhasha Andolan: Itihash O Tatparjo [Language Movement: History and analysis]
.
Dhaka
:
Jatiya Sahityo Prokashoni
.
Moudud
,
B.
1994
.
Bangladesher Nari [Women of Bangladesh]
.
Dhaka
:
Agami Prokashoni
.
Nandy
,
A.
1983
.
The Intimate Enemy: Loss and Recovery of Self under Colonialism
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Nash
,
J
.
1994
. “
Remapping the Body/Land: New Cartographies of Identity, Gender and Landscape in Ireland
.” In
Writing Women and Space: Colonial and Postcolonial Geographies
, edited by
Blunt
A.
and
Rose
G.
,
227
50
.
New York
:
Guilford
.
Nasreen
,
T.
1993
.
Lajja [Shame]
.
Calcutta
:
Anando Publishers
.
Navaro-Yashin
Yael
.
2002
:
Faces of the State: Secularism and Public Life in Turkey
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Navaro-Yashin
Yael
.
2007
.
Make-Believe Papers, Legal Forms and the Counterfeit: Affective Interactions between Documents and People in Britain and Cyprus
.
Anthropological Theory
7
(
1
):
79
98
.
Nora
,
P
.
1989
. “
Between Memory and History: Les Lieux de Memoire.
” Translated by
Roudebush
Marc
.
Representations
, no.
26
:
7
25
.
Nordstrom
,
C.
, and
Robben
A. C. G.
, eds.
1995
.
Fieldwork under Fire: Studies of Survival and Violence
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Novick
,
P
.
2000
.
Holocaust and Collective Memory
.
London
:
Bloomsbury
.
Ong
,
W
. (
1982
)
1995
.
Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Pandey
,
Gyanendra
.
1999
. “
Violence” and “Civilization
.” In
Memory, History and the Question of Violence: Reflections on the Reconstruction of Partition
,
1
22
.
Calcutta
:
Center for Studies in Social Sciences
.
Parekh
,
K.
1972
.
Bangladesh: A Brutal Birth
. Foreword by S. Mulgaokar.
Hong Kong
:
Image Photographic Services
.
Pasha
,
A
.
1976
.
Rifle. Roti. Aurat [Rifles, bread, and women]
. Translated by
Chowdhury
Kabir
.
Dhaka
:
Bangla Academy
.
Paxton
,
N
.
1999
.
Writing under the Raj: Gender, Race and Rape in the British Colonial Imagination
,
1830
1947
.
New Brunswick, NJ
:
Rutgers University Press
.
Peirce
,
C. S.
1940
.
Philosophy of Peirce
.
New York
:
Routledge and Kegan Paul
.
Peterson
,
Spike V
.
1999
. “
Sexing Political Identities/Nationalism as Heterosexism
.”
International Feminist Journal of Politics
1
(
1
):
34
65
.
Pinney
,
C.
1997
.
Camera Indica: The Social Life of Indian Photographs
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press and Reaktion Books
.
Pinney
,
Christopher
.
1999
. “
Indian Magical Realism
.” In
Subaltern Studies X: Writings on South Asian History and Society
, edited by
Bhadra
G.
,
Prakash
G.
, and
Tharu
S.
,
201
33
.
New Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Pitt-Rivers
,
J.
1971
.
The People of the Sierra
.
2nd ed.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Poole
,
D
.
1997
.
Vision, Race and Modernity: A Visual Economy of the Andean Image World
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Prunier
,
Gerard
.
2005
.
Darfur: The Ambiguous Genocide
.
Oxford and London
:
Hurst and Company
.
Puar
,
J. K.
2004
. “
Abu Ghraib
.”
Argui
2
:
522
34
.
Rahman
,
Mahbubar M.
, and
van Schendel
Willem
.
2003
. “
‘I Am Not a Refugee’: Rethinking Partition Migration
.”
Modern Asian Studies
37
(
3
):
551
84
.
Rahman
,
Shamima Binte
.
2002
.
“Bibhotso jouno nirjaton, kintu eriye gechen shobai” [Horrific sexual violence, but all have avoided it]
.
Bhorer Kagoj
,
May
18
.
Rahmana
,
Hasan H.
, ed.
1982–85
.
Bangladesher Swadhinota Juddho Dolilpotro [Documents of the Bangladesh Independence War]
.
16
vols.
Dhaka
:
People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Information Ministry
.
Ramaswamy
,
S
.
1997
.
Passions of the Tongue: Language Devotion in Tamil India 1891–1970
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Renan
,
E
.
1896
. “
What Is a Nation?
” In
The Poetry of the Celtic Races and Other Studies
,
163
76
. Translated by
Hutchinson
W. G.
.
London
:
Walter Scott
.
Riaz
,
A
.
1996
. “
Crucifixion and Resurrection of Islam in Bangladesh: A Power Game
.”
Paper presented at the conference Bangladesh 1971–1996: Past, Present and Future
.
London
,
December
13–15
.
Ross
,
Fiona
.
2003
. “
On Having Voice and Being Heard: Some After-Effects of Testifying before the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission
.”
Anthropological Theory
3
(
3
):
325
41
.
Roy
,
A
.
1983
.
The Islamic Syncretic Tradition in Bengal
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Rozario
,
S
.
1992
.
Purity and Communal Boundaries: Women and Social Change in a Bangladeshi Village
.
London
:
Zed Books
.
Rushdie
,
S
.
1983
.
Shame
.
London
:
Picador
.
Saikia
,
Yasmin
.
2011
.
Women, War and the Making of Bangladesh: Remembering 1971
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
.
Salek
,
S
.
1977
.
Witness to Surrender
.
New Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Samaddar
,
R
.
1995
.
Many Histories and Few Silences: The Nationalist History of Nationalism in Bangladesh. Paper no. 1
.
Calcutta
:
Azad Institute
.
Sarkar
,
M
.
2006
. “
Difference in Memory
.”
Society for Comparative Study of Society and History
48
(
1
):
139
68
.
Sarkar
,
Tanika
.
1984
. “
Politics and Women in Bengal: The Conditions and Meaning of Participation
.”
Indian Economic Social History Review
21
(
1
):
91
101
.
Scarry
,
E
.
1985
.
The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
.
Scheper-Hughes
,
Nancy
, and
Bourgois
Philippe
.
2004
. “
Introduction: Making Sense of Violence
.” In
Violence in War and Peace: An Anthology
, edited by
Scheper-Hughes
Nancy
and
Bourgois
Philippe
,
1
31
.
Oxford
:
Blackwell
.
Sekula
,
A
.
1982
. “
On the Invention of Photographic Meaning
.” In
Thinking Photography
, edited by
Burgin
V.
,
84
109
.
London
:
Macmillan
.
Sekula
,
A
.
1986
. “
The Body and the Archive
.”
October
39
:
3
64
.
Seltzer
,
Mark
.
1997
. “
Wound Culture: Trauma in the Pathological Public Sphere
.”
October
80
(Spring
1997
):
3
26
.
Siddiqi
,
M. D.
1998
. “
Taslima Nasreen and Others
.” In
Women in Muslim Societies: Diversity within Unity
, edited by
Bodman
H.
and
Tohidi
N.
,
205
27
.
Boulder, CO
:
Lynne Rienner
.
Simmel
,
G
.
1950
. “
The Secret and the Secret Society
.” In
The Sociology of Georg Simmel
, edited and translated by
Wolff
K.
,
307
76
.
New York
:
Free Press
.
Simons
,
R. C.
1985
. “
The Resolution of the Latah Paradox
.” In
The Culture-Bound Syndrome: Folk Illnesses of Psychological and Anthropological Interest
, edited by
Simon
R.
and
Hughes
C.
,
43
62
.
Dordrecht
:
D. Reidel
.
Sinha
,
M
.
1995
.
Colonial Masculinity: The “Manly Englishman” and the “Effeminate Bengali” in the Late Nineteenth Century
.
Manchester, UK
:
Manchester University Press
.
Sissons
,
J
.
1997
. “
Nation or Desti-nation? Cook Islands Nationalism since 1965
.” In
Narratives of Nation in South Pacific
, edited by
Otto
T.
and
Thomas
N.
.
Amsterdam
:
Harwood Academic Publishers
:
163
88
.
Skjelsbæk
,
Inger
.
2012
.
The Political Psychology of War Rape: Studies from Bosnia and Herzegovina
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Sobhan
,
R.
1979
. “
Politics of Food and Famine in Bangladesh
.”
Economic and Political Weekly
,
December
1
:
24
28
.
Spencer
,
J
.
1990
.
A Sinhala Village in the Times of Trouble
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Spivak
,
G. C.
1993
. “
Can the Subaltern Speak?
” In
Colonial Discourse and Postcolonial Theory Reader
, edited by
Williams
Patrick
and
Chrisman
Laura
,
66
111
.
Hemel Hempstead, UK
:
Harvester
.
Stephens
,
J.
1989
. “
Feminist Fictions: A Critique of the Category ‘Non-Western Woman’ in Feminist Writings on India
.” In
Subaltern Studies VI: Writings on South Asian History and Society
, edited by
Guha
R.
,
92
125
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Stewart
,
F. H.
1994
.
Honor
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Stiglmayer
,
A
.
1994
.
Mass Rape: The War against Women in Bosnia-Herzegovina
. Translated by
Faber
Marion
.
Lincoln
:
University of Nebraska Press
.
Strathern
,
A.
1977
. “
Why Is Shame on the Skin?
” In
The Anthropology of Body
, edited by
Blacking
J.
,
99
110
.
London
:
Academic Press
.
Strathern
,
M.
1988
.
Gender of the Gift
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Tagg
,
J.
1988
.
The Burden of Representation: Essays on Photographies and Histories
.
London
:
Macmillan Education
.
Tanaka
,
Y.
1996
.
Hidden Horror: Japanese War Crimes in World War II
.
Boulder, CO
:
Westview Press
.
Taussig
,
M.
1987
.
Shamanism, Colonialism and the Wild Man: A Study in Terror and Healing
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Taussig
,
M.
1999
.
Defacement: Public Secrecy and the Labor of the Negative
.
Stanford, CA
:
Stanford University Press
.
Taylor
,
C.
1999
.
Sacrifice as Terror: The Rwandan Genocide of 1994
.
Oxford
:
Berg
.
Tonkin
,
E.
,
McDonald
M.
, and
Chapman
M.
, eds.
1989
.
History and Ethnicity
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Totten
,
S.
,
Parsons
W. S.
,
Charney
I. W.
, eds.
2012
.
Century of Genocide: Essays and Eyewitness Accounts
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Vansina
,
J
.
1985
.
Oral Tradition as History
.
London
:
James Currey and Heinneman
.
Virgili
,
Fabrice
.
2002
.
Shorn Women: Gender and Punishment in Liberation France
.
Oxford
:
Berg
.
Walker
,
J
.
2003
. “
The Traumatic Paradox: Autobiographical Documentary and the Psychology of Memory
.” In
Contested Pasts: The Politics of Memory
, ed.
Radestone
S.
and
Hodgkins
K.
,
104
19
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Warner
,
Michael
.
1991
. “
Introduction: Fear of a Queer Planet
.”
Social Text
4
(
29
):
3
17
.
Warner
,
Michael
.
2002
.
“Publics and Counterpublics.” Special Issue: New Imaginaries, edited by D. P. Gaonkar
.
Public Culture
14
(
1
):
49
90
.
Wilson
,
R.
, ed.
1997
.
Human Rights, Culture and Context: Anthropological Perspectives
.
London
:
Pluto Press
.
Winkler
,
C
.
1991
. “
Rape as Social Murder
.”
Anthropology Today
7
(
3
):
12
14
.
Woodall
,
Joanna
, ed.
1997
. “
Introduction: Facing the Subject
.” In
Portraiture
, edited by
Woodall
J.
,
1
25
.
Manchester, UK
:
Manchester University Press
.
Wright
,
T
.
1992
. “
Photography: The Theories of Realism and Convention
.” In
Anthropology and Photography, 1860–1920
, edited by
Edwards
E.
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
.
Young
,
A
.
1995
.
The Harmony of Illusions: Inventing Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Yuval-Davis
,
N.
, and
Anthias
F. Y.
, eds.
1989
.
Woman-Nation-State
.
London
:
Macmillan
.
Zarkov
,
D
.
2001
. “
The Body of the Other Man: Sexual Violence and the Construction of Masculinity, Sexuality and Ethnicity in the Croatian Media
.” In
Victims, Perpetrators or Actors? Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence
, edited by
Moser
C.
and
Clark
F.
,
69
82
.
New Delhi
:
Kali for Women
.
Ziring
,
L
.
1992
.
Bangladesh: From Mujib to Ershad: An Interpretive Study
.
Karachi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Zur
,
J
.
1998
.
Violent Memories: Mayan War Widows in Guatemala
.
Boulder, CO
:
Westview Press
.
Poems
Akhtar
,
A. Z. M. M.
1993
.
“Amar Shadhinota” [My independence]
. In
Shadhinotar Kobitaguchcho [Poems of independence]
,
55
.
Dhaka
:
Shahityomala
.
Choudhury
,
A. G.
1984
.
“Amar Dukhini Bangla” [My sorrowful Bengal
]. In
Muktijuddher Kobita
,
25
Compiled by
Hasnat
Abul
.
Dhaka
:
Shondhani Prokashoni
.
Rahmana
,
H. H.
(1379) 1975
.
‘Birangona.’
Chittagong
:
Boighor
.
Tagore
,
R.
1905
.
“Amar Sonar Bangla, ami tomai bhalobashi” [O my golden Bengal, how I do love you]
. In
Tagore
R.
,
1905
.
Swarabitan
46
.
Santiniketan
:
Visva-Bharati University
.
Novels
Akhtar
,
S
.
2011
.
The Search (Talash)
. Translated by
Dutta
Ella
.
New Delhi
:
Zubaan
.
Ibrahim
,
N
.
1974a
.
Je Oronne Alo Nei [The forest which has no light]
Ibrahim
,
N
.
1974b
.
Lal Golap Dojoke [Red rose in hell]
Manto
,
Saadat Hasan
.
(1950) 1990
. “
Khol Do” [Open it
]. In
Nimrud ki Khudai (Nimrod the God)
.
Delhi
:
Saqi Book Depot
.
Osman
,
S
.
1973
.
Nekre Oronno [The forest of wolves]
Saber
,
M. A.
1981
.
Pathor Somoy [Difficult times]
.
Dhaka
:
Pallab
.
Saber
,
M. A.
1991
.
Sotero Bochor Pore [Seventeen years later]
.
Dhaka
:
Ananya
.
Plays
Ahmad
,
M.
1985
.
Ki Chaho Shonkhocheel? [What do you want Falcon?]
.
Dhaka
:
Bangla Academy
.
Astitwa [Existence]
.
2007
.
Television play, March 25
.
Haq
,
S. S.
1992
.
Juddho Ebong Juddho [War and war]
.
Haq
,
Syed Shamsul
.
(1976) 1991
.
Payer Aoaj Paoa Jai
. In
Kabbo Natto Songroho (Collection of Poetry and Plays)
. Dhaka, Bidyaprokash: 55.
Shamuk Bash [Life of a snail]
.
1998
. Dhaka, Theatre Center.
Street Play

Ekhane Ekhono [Here and even now]. 1993. Somoy.

Documentary Films

Ami Birangona Bolchi [I am the birangona speaking]. 1996. Rodela Productions.

Channel 4: The Bangladesh Story. 1996.

Chaudhuri, Afsan. 2001. Tahader Juddho [Their war].

Dateline Bangladesh. 1972. India: Films Division.

Eclipse, Ain-O-Shalish-Kendra. Dhaka, 1996.

The Frost Programme from Bangladesh. 1972. Reported by David Frost.

Kabir Yasmin 2003. Aro Ekti Shadhinota [Another liberation].

Masud, Tareque, and Catherine Masud, 2000. Women and War. Dhaka: Ain-O-Shalish-Kendra and Audiovision.

Masud, Tareque, and Catherine Masud. 1999. Muktir Katha [Words of freedom]. Dhaka: Audiovision.

Mokammel, Tanvir. 2007. Swapnabhumi [The promised land]. Kino-Eye Films and Shafiur Rahman.

Stop Genocide. 1971. Zahir Raihan.

Tajiri, R. 1991. History and Memory: For Akiko and Takashige.

War Crimes File. 1995. Howard Bradburn. London: Twenty Twenty Television.

Commercial Films

Bagha Bangali [Brave Bengali]. 1972. Ananda.

Children of War. 2014. Mrityunjay Devvrat.

Dhire Bohe Meghna [The Meghna flows slowly]. 1973. Alamgir Kabir.

Guerrilla. 2011. Naseruddin Yusuf.

Itihash Konna [Daughter of history]. 2001. Shamim Akhtar.

Jai Bangladesh [Hail Bangladesh]. 1971. I.S.Johar.

Joy Bangla [Hail Bengal]. 1972. Uma Proshad Moitra.

Khelaghor [Play house]. 2006. Morshedul Islam.

Kolmilota [The edible creeper]. 1986. Shahidul Huq Khan.

Megher Onek Rong [Clouds have many colors]. 1976. Harunur Rashid.

Ora Egaro Jon [They are eleven]. 1972. Chashi Nazrul Islam.

Orunodoyer Ognisakhi [Pledge to a new dawn]. 1972. Subhash Dutta.

Roktakto Bangla [Bloodied Bengal]. 1972. Momtaz Ali.

Press (Newspapers and Television)

Bangla Bajar (Nehal Adel): January 12, 2000.

Banglar Bani [The voice of Bengal] (Dhaka, Bangladesh): February 26, 1972; February 28, 1972; March 3, 1972; April 22, 1972; October 13, 1972; December 1972 (special issue on genocide).

Begum [Woman] (Dhaka, Bangladesh): December 16, 1972.

Bhorer Kagoj [The morning paper] (Dhaka, Bangladesh): March 27, 1992; June 29, 1996; May 13, 1998 (“Birangona Bokul in the mental hospital”), June 16, 1998; December 1999; October 2001.

Daily Star (Dhaka, Bangladesh): March 31, 1997; 03/05/04/1998; October 2001; December 14, 2007.

Daily Star Weekend Magazine: December 12, 1997 (“The burden of being a birangona”); December 14, 1997 (“We demand that 71’s Pakistani armies and their cohorts who raped and killed be tried and punished”).

Doinik Bangla [Daily Bengali] (Dhaka, Bangladesh): January 14, 1972; February 24, 1972; February 28, 1972; March 26, 1972; April 11, 1972; April 21, 1972; March 27, 1973; December 15, 1973.

Doinik Jonokontho: December 12, 1997; November 11, 1999.

Doinik Songbad: March 16, 1997 (“Birangona Rizia is leading a life of poverty”).

Ittefaq [Harmony] (Dhaka, Bangladesh): March 3, 1972; March 30, 2002; August 13, 2002; September 2002.

Jonokontho: June 12, 2000; August 13, 2000; December 2000; January 18, 2002.

Jugantor: December 11, 2002.

New Age: March 26, 2005.

Newsweek (USA): November 15, 1971.

New York Times (USA): January 24, 1972.

Observer (Dhaka, Bangladesh): October 9, 1972.

People (Dhaka, Bangladesh): April 26, 1972.

Prothom Alo [The first light]: 1998; March 22, 2000.

Purbodesh [Eastern country] (Dhaka, Bangladesh): December 23, 1971; December 26, 1971; December 31, 1971; January 7, 1972; February 16, 1972; March 26, 1972; April 2, 1972; April 20, 1972; May 13, 1972; January 22, 1973.

Songbad: December 24, 2000.

Bangladesh Television (BTV). Ongoing coverage from 1997–1998 and in subsequent years.

Figures & Tables

Contents

Advertisement

References

References

References
Primary Sources
Bulletin of Ain-O-Shalish-Kendra
.
1997
.
December
.
Dhaka
.
Communalism Combat
.
2002
. Genocide Gujarat.
March–April
, year 8, no.
76
. .
Government of Pakistan
.
2007
.
Hamoodur Rahman Commission of Inquiry Into the 1971 India-Pakistan War
.
Arc Manor
.
International Commission of Jurists
.
1972
.
The Events in East Pakistan of 1971
.
Geneva
.
Kendriyo Mohila Punorbashon Shongstha (Bangladesh Central Association for the Rehabilitation of Women)
.
1972
.
Constitution of Organization
.
National Board of Bangladesh Women’s Rehabilitation Program (NBBWRP)
.
1974
.
Women’s Work
.
Dhaka
:
Bangladesh Co-operative Book Society.
Parliamentary proceedings
.
April
11
,
1972
.
Secondary Sources
BOOKS AND ARTICLES
Abu-Lughod
,
L
.
1988
.
Veiled Sentiments: Honor and Poetry in a Bedouin Society
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Agarwal
,
P
.
1995
. “
Surat, Savarkar and Draupadi: Legitimizing Rape as a Political Weapon
.” In
Women and Right-Wing Movements: Indian Experiences
, edited by
Butalia
U.
and
Sarkar
T.
,
29
57
.
London
:
Zed Books
.
Ahmed
,
F
.
1973
. “
The Structural Matrix of the Struggle in Bangladesh
.” In
Imperialism and Revolution in South Asia
, edited by
Geogh
K.
and
Sharma
H. P.
,
419
48
.
London
:
Monthly Review Press
.
Ahmed
,
L
.
1992
.
Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
.
Ahmed
,
R
.
1988
. “
Conflict and Contradictions in Bengali Islam: Problems of Change and Adjustment
.” In
Shariat and Ambiguity in South Asian Islam
, edited by
Ewing
K. P.
,
114
42
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Ahmed
,
S
.
2004
.
The Cultural Politics of Emotion
.
Edinburgh
:
Edinburgh University Press
.
Ahmed
,
S. A. F.
1997
. “
Twenty-Sixth March and Aftermath: Some Reflections
.”
The Independent: Special Supplement on Silver Jubilee of Independence
,
March
16
.
Ahmed
,
S.
, and
Stacey
J.
2001
. “
Testimonial Cultures: An Introduction
.”
Cultural Values
5
(
1
):
1
6
.
Akhtar
,
F.
, ed.
1994
.
Mohila Muktijoddha [Women liberation fighters]
.
Dhaka
:
Nari Grontho Probortona.
Akhtar
,
S.
,
2001a
.
“Firdousi Priyobhashini: Ekok nari” (Firdousi Priyobhashini: The lone woman)
. In
Narir Ekattor o Juddhoporoborti Koththo Kahini [Oral history accounts of women’s experiences during 1971 and after the war]
, edited by
Akhtar
S.
,
Begum
S.
,
Hossein
H.
,
Kamal
S.
, and
Guhathakurta
M.
,
57
79
.
Dhaka
:
Ain-O-Shalish-Kendro
.
Akhtar
,
S.
,
Begum
S.
Hossein
H.
,
Kamal
S.
, and
Guhathakurta
M.
, eds.
2001b
.
Narir Ekattor O Juddhoporoborti Koththo Kahini [Oral history accounts of women’s experiences during 1971 and after the war]
.
Dhaka
:
Ain-O-Shalish-Kendro.
Ali
,
T
.
1983
.
Can Pakistan Survive? The Death of a State
.
London
:
Penguin
.
Amin
,
S
.
1995
.
Event, Metaphor and Memory: Chauri Chaura 1922–1992
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Amin
,
S
.
1996
.
The World of Muslim Women in Colonial Bengal, 1876–1939
.
Leiden
:
Brill
.
Anam
,
Tahmima
.
2008
. “
The War That Time Forgot
.”
Guardian
,
April
10
. .
Anisuzzaman
,
M
.
1995
.
Identity, Religion and Recent History
.
Calcutta
:
Naya Udyog for Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Institute of Asian Studies
.
Antze
,
P.
, and
Lambek
M.
, eds.
1996
.
Tense Past: Cultural Essays in Trauma and Memory
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Appadurai
,
A
.
1988
. “
Putting Hierarchy in Its Place
.”
Cultural Anthropology
3
(
1
):
36
49
.
Argenti-Pillen
Alex
.
2002
.
Masking Terror: How Women Contain Violence in Southern Sri Lanka
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Asad
,
A
.
1996
.
Ekatorer Gonohotta O Nari Nirjaton [71’s genocide and violence against women]
.
Dhaka
:
Somoy
.
Baaz
,
Maria Eriksson
, and
Stern
Maria
.
2013
.
Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War? Perceptions, Prescriptions and Problems in the Congo and Beyond
.
London
:
Zed Books
.
Barthes
,
R
.
1981
.
Camera Lucida
.
New York
:
Hill and Wang
.
Bass
,
G. J.
2013
.
The Blood Telegram: Nixon, Kissinger and a Forgotten Genocide
.
New York
:
Knopf
.
Begum
,
S
.
2001
. “
Kushtiar Charjon Grihobodhu
[The four housewives of Kushtia]
. In
Narir Ekattor O Juddhoporoborti Koththo Kahini [Oral history of women’s 1971 and postwar]
, edited by
Akhtar
S.
,
Begum
S.
,
Hossein
H.
,
Kamal
S.
, and
Guhathakurta
M.
,
80
107
.
Dhaka
:
Ain-O-Shalish-Kendro
.
Benjamin
,
Walter
.
(1939) 2003
. “
The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducability
.” In
Walter Benjamin: Selected Writings. Vol. 4, 1938–1940
, edited by
Eiland
Howard
and
Jennings
Michael W.
,
251
83
. Translated by
Jephcott
Edmund
and others.
Cambridge, MA
:
Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
.
Bose
,
Purnima
.
1996
. “
Engendering the Armed Struggle: Women, Writing and the Bengali ‘Terrorist’ Movement
.” In
Bodies of Writing, Bodies in Performance
, edited by
Foster
Thomas
,
Siegel
Carol
, and
Berry
Ellen E.
,
145
83
.
New York
:
New York University Press
.
Bose
,
Sarmila
.
2011
.
Dead Reckoning: Memories of the 1971 Bangladesh War
.
London
:
C. Hurst and Co
.
Bourdieu
,
P
. (
1990
)
1992
.
Logic of Practice
.
Oxford
:
Polity Press
.
Bracken
,
P
.
1998
. “
Hidden Agendas: Deconstructing the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
.” In
Rethinking the Trauma of War
, edited by
Bracken
P.
and
Petty
C.
,
38
59
.
London
:
Free Association Books
.
Brilliant
,
Richard
.
1991
.
Portraiture
.
London
:
Reaktion Books
.
Broomfield
,
J. H.
1968
.
Elite Conflict in a Plural Society
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Brown
,
Wendy
.
1995
.
States of Injury: Power and Freedom in Late Modernity.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Brownmiller
,
S
.
1975
. “
Bangladesh
.” In
Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape
,
78
86
.
London
:
Secker and Warburg
.
Brownmiller
,
S
.
1994
. “
Making Female Bodies the Battlefield
.” In
Mass Rape: The War against Women in Bosnia
, edited by
Stiglmayer
A.
,
180
82
. Translated by
Faber
Marion
.
Lincoln
:
University of Nebraska Press
.
Burke
,
Edmund
.
2008
.
A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful
. Edited with an introduction and notes by
Phillips
Adam
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Buse
,
Peter
, and
Stott
Andrew
, eds.
1999
.
Ghosts: Deconstruction, Psychoanalysis and History
.
London
:
Macmillan
.
Butalia
,
U
.
1998
.
The Other Side of Silence: Voices from the Partition of India
.
New Delhi
:
Viking Penguin India
.
Butalia
,
U.
, and
Sarkar
T.
, eds.
1995
.
Women and Right-Wing Movements: Indian Experiences
.
London
:
Zed Books
.
Butler
,
J
.
1990
.
Gender Trouble
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Butler
,
J.
2008
. “
Sexual Politics, Torture and Secular Time: A Response to Ali, Beckford, Bhatt, Modood and Woodhead
.”
British Journal of Sociology
59
(
1
):
255
60
.
Cameron
,
D.
, and
Frazer
E.
1994
. “
Cultural Difference and the Lust to Kill
.” In
Sex and Violence: Issues in Representation and Experience
, edited by
Harvey
P.
and
Gow
P.
,
156
71
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Canetti
,
E
.
1984
.
Crowds and Power
. Translated by
Stewart
C.
.
New York
:
Farrar, Straus and Giroux
.
Caruth
,
Cathy
.
1996
. “
Introduction: The Wound and the Voice
.” In
Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History
,
1
9
.
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
Chakravarty
,
S
.
1995
.
Bangladesh under Mujib, Zia and Ershad: Dilemma of a New Nation
.
New Delhi
:
Har Anand
.
Chatterjee
,
P
.
1994
.
Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Chatterji
,
J
.
1995
.
Bengal Divided: Hindu Communalism and Partition
,
1932
1947
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Chaudhury
,
Kalyan
.
1972
.
Genocide in Bangladesh
.
London
:
Orient Longman
.
Chowdhury
,
Afsan
.
2001
. “
Dhaka in the ’70s
.”
Himal
,
August
.
Chowdhury
,
Afsan
.
2007
.
Bangladesh 1971
.
4
vols.
Dhaka
:
Mowla Brothers
.
Coetzee
,
J. M.
1999
.
Disgrace
.
London
:
Secker and Warburg
.
Cohen
,
D. W.
1994
.
The Combing of History
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Collard
,
A
.
1989
. “
Investigating Social Memory in a Greek Context
.” In
History and Ethnicity
, edited by
Tonkin
E.
,
McDonald
M.
, and
Chapman
M.
,
89
103
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Collingwood
,
R. G.
1945
.
The Idea of History
.
Oxford
:
Clarendon Press
.
Connerton
,
P.
1989
.
How Societies Remember
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Cooke
,
M.
, and
Rustomji-Kerns
R.
, eds.
1994
.
Blood into Ink: South Asian and Middle Eastern Women on War
.
Boulder, CO
:
Westview Press
.
Copelon
,
R.
1994
. “
Surfacing Gender: Reconceptualizing Crimes against Women in Time of War
.” In
Mass Rape: The War against Women in Bosnia–Herzegovina
, edited by
Stiglmayer
A.
,
197
218
. Translated by
Faber
Marion
.
Lincoln
:
University of Nebraska Press
.
Cvetkovich
,
Ann
.
2003
.
An Archive of Feelings: Trauma, Sexuality and Lesbian Public Cultures
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
.
Daniel
,
E. V.
1996
.
Charred Lullabies: Chapters in an Anthropology of Violence
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Das
,
V.
, ed.
1990
.
Mirrors of Violence: Community, Riots and Survivors in South Asia
.
New Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Das
,
V
.
1995
.
Critical Events: An Anthropological Perspective on Contemporary India
.
Delhi
,
Oxford University Press
.
Das
,
V
.
1996
. “
Sexual Violence, Discursive Formations and the State
.”
Special issue, Economic and Political Weekly
31
(
35/37
):
2411
23
.
Das
,
V.
2000
. “
The Act of Witnessing: Violence, Poisonous Knowledge and Subjectivity
.” In
Violence and Subjectivity
, edited by
Das
V.
,
Kleinman
A.
,
Ramphele
M.
, and
Reynolds
P.
,
205
25
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Das
,
V
.
2006
.
Life and Words: Violence and the Descent into the Ordinary
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Das
,
V.
,
Kleinman
A.
,
Ramphele
M.
, and
Reynolds
P.
, eds.
2000
.
Violence and Subjectivity
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Dasgupta
,
S
.
1998
.
An Elegy on Partition: Akhtaruzzaman Elias’ Khowabnama
.
Calcutta
:
Azad Institute
.
Day
,
S
.
1994
. “
What Counts as Rape? Physical Assault and Broken Contracts: Contrasting View of Rape among London Sex Workers
.” In
Sex and Violence: Issues in Representation and Experience
, edited by
Harvey
P.
and
Gow
P.
,
172
89
.
London
:
Routledge
.
D’Costa
,
Bina
.
2002
. “
(Dis) Appearing Women in Nationalist Narratives Interview with Dr. Geoffrey Davis (Part 2)
.” .
D’Costa
,
Bina
.
2011
.
Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia
.
London
:
Routledge
.
De
,
T. K.
1998
.
Muktijuddhe Nari Shomaj [Women’s society in the liberation war]
.
Dhaka
:
New Age Publications
.
de Certeau
,
M
.
1980
. “
On the Oppositional Practices of Everyday Life
.”
Social Text
3
:
3
43
.
Deleuze
,
G.
1986
.
Cinema 1: The Movement-Image
. Translated by
Tomlinson
H.
and
Habberjam
B.
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Deleuze
,
G
.
1995
.
Negotiations 1972–1990
. Translated by
Joughin
Martin
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
.
Derrida
,
J
.
1976
.
Of Grammatology
. Translated from the French by
Chakravorty Spivak
Gayatri
.
Baltimore, MD
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
Derrida
,
J
.
1994
.
Specters of Marx
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Dowd
,
D
.
1964
. “
Thorstein Veblen and C. Wright Mills: Social Science and Social Criticism
.” In
The New Sociology
, edited by
Horowitz
I.
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
:
54
66
.
Dutta
,
Michael Madhusudan
.
2004
.
Birangona Kabbo (Birangona Novel)
.
Dhaka
:
Student Ways
.
Eaton
,
R. M.
2001
. “
Who Are the Bengali Muslims? Conversion and Islamization in Bengal
.” In
Understanding the Bengali Muslims: Interpretative Essays
, edited by
Ahmed
R.
,
26
51
.
Dhaka
:
University Press
.
Edwards
,
E.
, ed.
1992
.
Anthropology and Photography
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
.
Ellis
,
William S
.
1972
. “
Bangladesh: Hope Nourishes a New Nation
.”
National Geographic
,
September
,
295
333
.
Enloe
,
C
.
2000
. “
When Soldiers Rape
.” In
Maneuvers: The International Politics of Militarizing Women’s Lives
,
108
52
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Evans-Pritchard
,
E. E.
1953
. “
The Sacrificial Role of Cattle among the Nuer
.”
Africa
23
:
181
97
.
Ewing
,
K. P.
, ed.
1988
.
Shariat and Ambiguity in South Asian Islam
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Fabian
,
J
.
1983
.
Time and the Other: How Anthropology Makes Its Object
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
.
Feldman
,
A
.
2000
. “
Violence and Vision: The Prosthetics and Aesthetics of Terror
.” In
Violence and Its Subjectivity
, edited by
Das
V.
,
Kleinman
A.
,
Ramphele
M.
, and
Reynolds
P.
,
46
78
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Fields
,
R
.
2007
. “
Tracing Rape: The Trauma on Slavery in Toni Morrison’s Beloved.
Paper presented at the conference Women Writing Rape: Literary and Theoretical Narratives of Sexual Violence
.
Warwick University
,
April 24
.
Fiske
,
J
.
1987
.
Television Culture
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Foucault
,
M
.
1976
.
The History of Sexuality. Vol. 1. An Introduction
.
London
:
Penguin
.
French
,
Lindsay
.
1994
. “
The Political Economy of Injury and Compassion: Amputees on the Thai-Cambodia Border
.” In
Embodiment and Experience: The Existential Ground of Culture and Self
, edited by
Csordas
T. J.
,
69
99
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Freud
,
S
. (
1941
)
2003
.
The Uncanny
. Translated by
Mclintock
David
and with an introduction by
Haughton
Hugh
.
New York
:
Penguin
.
Freud
,
S
.
1959
. “
Screen Memories
.” In
The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud
, edited and translated by
Strachey
J.
,
3
:
303
22
.
London
:
Hogarth
.
Gardner
,
K
.
1991
.
Songs at the River’s Edge: Stories from a Bangladeshi Village
.
London
:
Virago
.
Gazi
,
L
.
2014
.
“Matir duniya shunte ki pai?” [Can the earthly world hear this?]
.
Bangladesh News
, .
Geertz
,
Clifford
.
2000
. “
Thinking as a Moral Act: Ethical Dimensions of Anthropological Fieldwork in the New States
.” In
Available Light: Anthropological Reflections on Philosophical Topics
,
21
41
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Ghosh
,
Amitav
.
1988
.
Shadow Lines
.
Delhi
:
Ravi Dayal
.
Ghosh
,
Anjan
.
2008
. “
The Role of Rumour in History Writing
.”
History Compass
6
(
5
):
1235
43
.
Ghosh
,
B
.
1998a
.
“Bangladesher Pochish Bochrer Natto Sahitter Dhara: 1971–1995.” [The flow of literature and theater in the twenty-five years of Bangladesh: 1971–1995]
.
Unpublished manuscript
.
Ghosh
,
Papiya
.
1998b
. “
Partition’s Biharis
.” In
Islam, Communities and the Nation: Muslim Identities in South Asia and Beyond
, ed.
Hasan
Mushirul
,
229
65
.
Delhi
:
Manohar
.
Gilsenan
,
M
.
1976
. “
Lying, Honor and Contradiction
.” In
Transaction and Meaning: Directions in the Anthropology of Exchange and Symbolic Behavior
, edited by
Kapferer
B.
,
191
219
.
Philadelphia
:
Institute for the Study of Human Issues
.
Goffman
,
E
.
1963
.
Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoilt Identity
.
London
:
Penguin
.
Goody
,
J
.
2000
.
The Power of the Written Tradition
.
Washington, DC
:
Smithsonian Institute Press
.
Gordon
,
A. F.
1997
.
Ghostly Matters: Haunting and the Sociological Imagination
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Gordon
,
L. A.
1993
. “
Divided Bengal: The Problems of Nationalism and Identity in the 1947 Partition
.” In
India’s Partition: Process, Strategy and Mobilisation
, edited by
Hasan
M.
,
274
317
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Greer
,
G
.
1972
. “
The Rape of the Bengali Women
.”
Sunday Times
,
April
9
.
Guhathakurta
,
M
.
1985
. “
Gender Violence in Bangladesh: Role of the State
.”
Journal of Social Studies
30
:
77
90
.
Guhathakurta
,
M
.
1996
.
“Dhorshon Ekti Juddhaporadh” [Rape is a war crime]
.
Bulletin of Ain-O-Shalish Kendra
,
February
,
6
8
.
Guhathakurta
,
M
.
1997
.
“Sonar Bangla: Inspiration, Illusion and Extortion
.”
Journal of Social Studies
,
78
:
1
21
.
Habib
,
H.
2005
. “
Rising Terror in Bangladesh
.”
Frontline
22
(
5
).
Halbwachs
,
M
.
1980
.
The Collective Memory
. Translated from the French by
Ditter
Francis J.
.
New York
:
Harper Colophon
.
Hansen
,
Kathryn
.
1988
. “
The Virangana in North Indian History: Myth and Popular Culture
.”
Economic and Political Weekly
23
(
18
):
ws25
ws33
.
Harlan
,
Lindsey
.
1991
.
Religion and Rajput Women: The Ethic of Protection in Contemporary Narratives
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Hartmann
,
B.
, and
Boyce
J. K.
1983
.
A Quiet Violence: Views from a Bangladesh Village
.
Dhaka
:
University Press
.
Harvey
,
P.
, and
Gow
P.
, eds.
1994
.
Sex and Violence: Issues in Representation and Experience
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Hasan
,
M. A.
2002
.
Juddho O Nari [War and women]
.
Dhaka
:
War Crimes Fact-Finding Committee (Trust) and Genocide Archive and Human Studies Centre
.
Hastrup
,
K
.
1987
. “
Fieldwork among Friends: Ethnographic Exchange within the Northern Civilization
.” In
Anthropology at Home
, edited by
Jackson
A.
,
94
108
.
London
:
Tavistock
.
Hitchens
,
C
.
2001
.
The Trial of Henry Kissinger
.
London
:
Verso
.
Hobsbawm
,
E.
and
Ranger
T.
1988
.
Invention of Tradition
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Hoose
,
Phil
.
2009
.
Claudette Colvin: Twice toward Justice
.
New York
:
Farrar, Straus and Giroux
.
Hossain
,
Rubaiyat
.
2009
. “
Trauma of the Women, Trauma of the Nation: A Feminist Discourse on Izzat
.”
Paper presented at the Second International Conference on Genocide, Truth and Justice, organized by the Liberation War Museum
.
Dhaka, Bangladesh
.
July 30–31
.
Hubert
,
H.
, and
Mauss
.
M.
1981
.
Sacrifice: Its Nature and Function
. Translated by
Halls
W. D.
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Ibrahim
,
N
.
1994, 1994–95
.
Ami Birangona Bolchi. [I am the birangona speaking]
.
2
vols.
Dhaka
:
Jagriti
.
Islam
,
S
.
1992
.
History of Bangladesh, 1704–1971
.
2
vols.
Dhaka
:
Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
.
Jahangir
,
B. K.
1979
.
Differentiation, Polarization and Confrontation in Rural Bangladesh
.
Dhaka
:
Centre for Social Studies
.
James
,
Mark
.
2005
. “
Remembering Rape: Divided Social Memory and the Red Army in Hungary 1944–1945
.”
Past and Present
188
:
133
61
.
Kabeer
,
N
.
1989
. “
The Quest for National Identity: Women, Islam and the State in Bangladesh
.”
Discussion Paper 268
.
Falmer, Sussex
:
Institute of Development Studies
.
Kabeer
,
N
.
1994
.
Reverse Realities: Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought
.
London
:
Verso
.
Kader
,
Mirza Tarequl
.
1993
.
Bangladeshi Films
.
Dhaka
:
Bangla Academy
.
Kandiyoti
,
D
.
1991a
. “
Identity and Its Discontents: Women and the Nation
.”
Millennium
20
(
1
):
429
43
.
Kandiyoti
,
D.
, ed.
1991b
.
Women, Islam and the State
.
Basingstoke, UK
:
Macmillan
.
Karim
,
Lamia
.
2004
. “
Democratizing Bangladesh: State, NGOs and Militant Islam
.”
Cultural Dynamics
16
(
2 and 3
):
291
318
.
Karim
,
Lamia
.
2011
.
Microfinance and Its Discontents: Women in Debt in Bangladesh
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Kaviraj
,
S
.
1992
. “
The Imaginary Institution of India
.” In
Subaltern Studies VII: Writings on South Asian History and Society
, edited by
Chatterjee
P.
and
Pandey
G.
,
1
39
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Kaviraj
,
S.
, and
Khilnani
S.
2001
.
Civil Society: History and Possibilities
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Kenny
,
M.
.
1978
. “
Latah: The Symbolism of a Putative Mental Disorder Culture
.”
Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
2
:
209
33
.
Khan
,
M
.
2000
. “
Class, Clientalism, and Communal Politics in Contemporary Bangladesh
.” In
The Making of History: Essays Presented to Irfan Habib
, edited by
Byers
T. J.
,
Panikkar
K. N.
, and
Patnaik
U.
,
572
606
.
New Delhi
:
Tulika
.
Kirkpatrick
,
Joanna
.
2003
.
Transports of Delight: The Ricksha Arts in Bangladesh
. CD-ROM.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Kirmayer
,
L. J.
1996
. “
Landscapes of Memory: Trauma, Narrative and Dissociation
.” In
Tense Past: Cultural Essays in Trauma and Memory
, edited by
Antze
P.
and
Lambek
M.
,
173
97
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Kleinman
,
A.
, and
Kleinman
.
J.
1994
. “
How Bodies Remember: Social Memory and Bodily Experience of Criticism, Resistance and Delegitimation Following China’s Cultural Revolution
.”
New Literary History
25
(
3
):
707
23
.
Kobir
,
S.
, ed.
1999
.
Ekatorrer Dushshoho Sriti [71’s unbearable memories]
.
Dhaka
:
Ekatorrer Ghatok Dalal Nirmul Committee, Dana Printers
.
Kotalova
,
J
.
1996
.
Belonging to Others: Cultural Construction of Womanhood in a Village in Bangladesh
.
Dhaka
:
University Press
.
Kwon
,
Heonik
.
2008
.
Ghosts of War in Vietnam
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Leach
,
E
.
1957
. “
Magical Hair
.”
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
88
:
147
64
.
Leatherman
,
Janie L
.
2013
.
Sexual Violence and Armed Conflict
.
New York
:
Wiley
.
Lévi-Strauss
,
C
.
1969
.
Elementary Structures of Kinship
. Rev. ed. Translated by
Bill
J. H.
,
Sturmore
J. R.
, and
Needham
Rodney
.
London
:
George Allen and Unwin
.
Lévi-Strauss
,
C.
1972
.
The Savage Mind
.
London
:
Wiedenfeld and Nicolson
.
Lifschultz
,
L.
1979
.
Bangladesh: The Unfinished Revolution
.
London
:
Zed Books
.
Lindisfarne
,
N
.
1994
. “
Variant Masculinities, Variant Virginities: Rethinking ‘Honor and Shame.’
” In
Dislocating Masculinities: Comparative Ethnographies
, edited by
Cornwall
A.
and
Lindisfarne
N.
.
London
:
Routledge
:
82
96
.
Littlewood
,
R
.
1997
. “
Military Rape
.”
Anthropology Today
13
(
2
):
7
16
.
Low
,
S. M.
1994
. “
Embodied Metaphors: Nerves as Lived Experience
.” In
Embodiment and Experience: The Existential Ground of Culture and Self
, edited by
Csordas
T. J.
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
:
139
62
.
MacKinnon
,
C. A.
1987
.
Feminism Unmodified: Discourses on Life and Law
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
.
Mamoon
,
M.
, and
Ray
J.
1995
.
Bangladeshe Civil Shomaj Protishthar Shongram [The struggle to establish a civil society in Bangladesh]
.
Dhaka
:
Oboshor
.
Mankekar
,
Punima
.
1993
. “
Television Tales and a Woman’s Rage: A Nationalist Recasting of Draupadi’s ‘Disrobing.’
Public Culture
5
:
469
92
.
Marcus
,
George
.
1998
. “
The Uses of Complicity in the Changing Mise-en-Scene of Anthropological Fieldwork (1997)
.” In
Ethnography through Thick and Thin
,
105
32
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Marcus
,
S.
1992
. “
Fighting Bodies, Fighting Words: A Theory and Politics of Rape Prevention
.” In
Feminists Theorize the Political
, edited by
Butler
J.
and
Scott
J. W.
,
385
403
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Mardorossian
,
C.
2002
. “
Toward a New Feminist Theory of Rape
.”
Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society
27
(
3
):
743
75
.
Mascarenhas
,
A.
1971
.
The Rape of Bangladesh
.
Calcutta
:
Vikas Publications
.
Masud
,
Mehedi
.
1998
.
“Ki Bhabe Tola Muktijuddher Ei Chobi?” [How is this photograph of the liberation war taken?]
.
Prothom Alo
,
December
9
.
Mehta
,
D.
2000
. “
Circumcision, Body, Masculinity: The Ritual Wound and Collective Violence
.” In
Violence and Subjectivity
, edited by
Das
V.
,
Kleinman
A.
,
Ramphele
M.
, and
Reynolds
P.
,
79
101
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Menon
,
N
.
2001
. “
Embodying the Self: Feminism, Sexual Violence and the Law
.” In
Subaltern Studies XI: Community, Gender and Violence
, edited by
Chatterjee
P.
and
Jeganathan
P.
,
66
105
.
London
:
Hurst
.
Menon
,
R.
, and
Bhasin
K.
1998
.
Borders and Boundaries: Women in India’s Partition
.
New Delhi
:
Kali for Women
.
Metz
,
C
.
1985
. “
Photography and Fetish
.”
October
34
:
81
90
.
Mizan
,
M. R.
1988
.
Bongobondhur Bhashon [Friend of Bengal’s speeches]
.
Dhaka
:
Novel Publications
.
Moinuddin
.
1978
.
Muslim Birangona
.
Dhaka
:
Al Hamra Library
.
Monk
,
J.
, and
Norwood
,
V.
eds.
1987
.
The Desert Is No Lady: Southwestern Landscapes in Women’s Writing and Art
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2001
. “
Dressed for Fieldwork: Sartorial Borders and Negotiations
.”
Anthropology Matters
3
(
1
).
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2003
. “
Ethical Issues Concerning Representation of Narratives of Sexual Violence
.”
http://www.drishtipat.org/1971/war.htm. (Address no longer active.)
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2004
. “
‘My Man (Honor) Is Lost but I Still Have My Iman (Principle)’: Sexual Violence and Articulations of Masculinity
.” In
South Asian Masculinities
, edited by
Chopra
R.
,
Osella
C.
, and
Osella
F.
,
131
59
.
New Delhi
:
Kali for Women
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2006a
. “
Bangladesh War of 1971: A Prescription for Reconciliation?
Economic and Political Weekly
41
(
36
):
3901
3
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2006b
. “
‘Remembering to Forget’: Public Secrecy and Memory of Sexual Violence in Bangladesh
.”
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
12
(
2
):
433
50
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2007a
. “
Available Motherhood: Legal Technologies, ‘State of Exception’ and the Dekinning of ‘War Babies’ in Bangladesh.” Special Issue: The State and Children’s Fate: Reproduction in Traumatic Times
.
Childhood: A Journal of Global Child Research
14
(
3
):
339
54
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2007b
.
“‘The “Dead and Their Double Duties’: Mourning, Melancholia and the Martyred Intellectual Memorials in Bangladesh.” Special Issue: The Material and Visual Culture of Cities
.
Space and Culture
10
(
2
):
271
91
.
Translated in Sinhala and Tamil
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2007c
. “
‘Research’ on Bangladesh War
.”
Economic and Political Weekly
42
(
50
):
118
21
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2008
. “
Friendships and Ethnographic ‘Encounters’ within Left-Liberal Politics in Bangladesh,
” in
Taking Sides: Politics and Ethnography (A Nancy Lindisfarne Festschrift)
, edited by
Armbruster
H.
and
Laerke
A.
,
65
87
,
Oxford
:
Berghahn
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2008a
.
“Culinary Boundaries and the Making of Place in Bangladesh.” Special Issue: Food: Memory, Pleasure and Politics, edited by C. Osella and F. Oscella
.
South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies
31
(
1
):
56
75
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2008b
.
“Gendered Embodiments: Mapping the Body-Politic of the Raped Woman and the Nation in Bangladesh.” Special issue on war
.
Feminist Review
88
(
1
):
36
53
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2011a
. “
Love in the Time of 71: The Furor over Meherjann.
Economic and Political Weekly
46
(
12
):
25
27
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2011b
.
“‘Never Again’: Aesthetics of ‘Genocidal’ Cosmopolitanism and the Bangladesh Liberation War Museum.” Special issue, edited by N. Mookherjee and C. Pinney
.
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
S71
S91
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2011c
. “
This Account of the Bangladesh War Should Not Be Seen as Unbiased
.”
Guardian
, .
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2012a
. “
The Absent Piece of Skin: Sexual Violence in the Bangladesh War and Its Gendered and Racialized Inscriptions
.”
Modern Asian Studies
46
(
6
):
1572
601
.
Mookherjee
,
Nayanika
.
2012b
. “
Discussion with Prof. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak: Reproductive Heteronormativity and Sexual Violence in the Bangladesh War of 1971
.”
Social Text
111
:
30
(
2
):
123
31
.
Moore
,
H. L.
1994
.
A Passion of Difference: Essays in Anthropology and Gender
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Motin
,
A
.
1992
.
Bhasha Andolan: Itihash O Tatparjo [Language Movement: History and analysis]
.
Dhaka
:
Jatiya Sahityo Prokashoni
.
Moudud
,
B.
1994
.
Bangladesher Nari [Women of Bangladesh]
.
Dhaka
:
Agami Prokashoni
.
Nandy
,
A.
1983
.
The Intimate Enemy: Loss and Recovery of Self under Colonialism
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Nash
,
J
.
1994
. “
Remapping the Body/Land: New Cartographies of Identity, Gender and Landscape in Ireland
.” In
Writing Women and Space: Colonial and Postcolonial Geographies
, edited by
Blunt
A.
and
Rose
G.
,
227
50
.
New York
:
Guilford
.
Nasreen
,
T.
1993
.
Lajja [Shame]
.
Calcutta
:
Anando Publishers
.
Navaro-Yashin
Yael
.
2002
:
Faces of the State: Secularism and Public Life in Turkey
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Navaro-Yashin
Yael
.
2007
.
Make-Believe Papers, Legal Forms and the Counterfeit: Affective Interactions between Documents and People in Britain and Cyprus
.
Anthropological Theory
7
(
1
):
79
98
.
Nora
,
P
.
1989
. “
Between Memory and History: Les Lieux de Memoire.
” Translated by
Roudebush
Marc
.
Representations
, no.
26
:
7
25
.
Nordstrom
,
C.
, and
Robben
A. C. G.
, eds.
1995
.
Fieldwork under Fire: Studies of Survival and Violence
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Novick
,
P
.
2000
.
Holocaust and Collective Memory
.
London
:
Bloomsbury
.
Ong
,
W
. (
1982
)
1995
.
Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Pandey
,
Gyanendra
.
1999
. “
Violence” and “Civilization
.” In
Memory, History and the Question of Violence: Reflections on the Reconstruction of Partition
,
1
22
.
Calcutta
:
Center for Studies in Social Sciences
.
Parekh
,
K.
1972
.
Bangladesh: A Brutal Birth
. Foreword by S. Mulgaokar.
Hong Kong
:
Image Photographic Services
.
Pasha
,
A
.
1976
.
Rifle. Roti. Aurat [Rifles, bread, and women]
. Translated by
Chowdhury
Kabir
.
Dhaka
:
Bangla Academy
.
Paxton
,
N
.
1999
.
Writing under the Raj: Gender, Race and Rape in the British Colonial Imagination
,
1830
1947
.
New Brunswick, NJ
:
Rutgers University Press
.
Peirce
,
C. S.
1940
.
Philosophy of Peirce
.
New York
:
Routledge and Kegan Paul
.
Peterson
,
Spike V
.
1999
. “
Sexing Political Identities/Nationalism as Heterosexism
.”
International Feminist Journal of Politics
1
(
1
):
34
65
.
Pinney
,
C.
1997
.
Camera Indica: The Social Life of Indian Photographs
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press and Reaktion Books
.
Pinney
,
Christopher
.
1999
. “
Indian Magical Realism
.” In
Subaltern Studies X: Writings on South Asian History and Society
, edited by
Bhadra
G.
,
Prakash
G.
, and
Tharu
S.
,
201
33
.
New Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Pitt-Rivers
,
J.
1971
.
The People of the Sierra
.
2nd ed.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Poole
,
D
.
1997
.
Vision, Race and Modernity: A Visual Economy of the Andean Image World
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Prunier
,
Gerard
.
2005
.
Darfur: The Ambiguous Genocide
.
Oxford and London
:
Hurst and Company
.
Puar
,
J. K.
2004
. “
Abu Ghraib
.”
Argui
2
:
522
34
.
Rahman
,
Mahbubar M.
, and
van Schendel
Willem
.
2003
. “
‘I Am Not a Refugee’: Rethinking Partition Migration
.”
Modern Asian Studies
37
(
3
):
551
84
.
Rahman
,
Shamima Binte
.
2002
.
“Bibhotso jouno nirjaton, kintu eriye gechen shobai” [Horrific sexual violence, but all have avoided it]
.
Bhorer Kagoj
,
May
18
.
Rahmana
,
Hasan H.
, ed.
1982–85
.
Bangladesher Swadhinota Juddho Dolilpotro [Documents of the Bangladesh Independence War]
.
16
vols.
Dhaka
:
People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Information Ministry
.
Ramaswamy
,
S
.
1997
.
Passions of the Tongue: Language Devotion in Tamil India 1891–1970
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Renan
,
E
.
1896
. “
What Is a Nation?
” In
The Poetry of the Celtic Races and Other Studies
,
163
76
. Translated by
Hutchinson
W. G.
.
London
:
Walter Scott
.
Riaz
,
A
.
1996
. “
Crucifixion and Resurrection of Islam in Bangladesh: A Power Game
.”
Paper presented at the conference Bangladesh 1971–1996: Past, Present and Future
.
London
,
December
13–15
.
Ross
,
Fiona
.
2003
. “
On Having Voice and Being Heard: Some After-Effects of Testifying before the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission
.”
Anthropological Theory
3
(
3
):
325
41
.
Roy
,
A
.
1983
.
The Islamic Syncretic Tradition in Bengal
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Rozario
,
S
.
1992
.
Purity and Communal Boundaries: Women and Social Change in a Bangladeshi Village
.
London
:
Zed Books
.
Rushdie
,
S
.
1983
.
Shame
.
London
:
Picador
.
Saikia
,
Yasmin
.
2011
.
Women, War and the Making of Bangladesh: Remembering 1971
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
.
Salek
,
S
.
1977
.
Witness to Surrender
.
New Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Samaddar
,
R
.
1995
.
Many Histories and Few Silences: The Nationalist History of Nationalism in Bangladesh. Paper no. 1
.
Calcutta
:
Azad Institute
.
Sarkar
,
M
.
2006
. “
Difference in Memory
.”
Society for Comparative Study of Society and History
48
(
1
):
139
68
.
Sarkar
,
Tanika
.
1984
. “
Politics and Women in Bengal: The Conditions and Meaning of Participation
.”
Indian Economic Social History Review
21
(
1
):
91
101
.
Scarry
,
E
.
1985
.
The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
.
Scheper-Hughes
,
Nancy
, and
Bourgois
Philippe
.
2004
. “
Introduction: Making Sense of Violence
.” In
Violence in War and Peace: An Anthology
, edited by
Scheper-Hughes
Nancy
and
Bourgois
Philippe
,
1
31
.
Oxford
:
Blackwell
.
Sekula
,
A
.
1982
. “
On the Invention of Photographic Meaning
.” In
Thinking Photography
, edited by
Burgin
V.
,
84
109
.
London
:
Macmillan
.
Sekula
,
A
.
1986
. “
The Body and the Archive
.”
October
39
:
3
64
.
Seltzer
,
Mark
.
1997
. “
Wound Culture: Trauma in the Pathological Public Sphere
.”
October
80
(Spring
1997
):
3
26
.
Siddiqi
,
M. D.
1998
. “
Taslima Nasreen and Others
.” In
Women in Muslim Societies: Diversity within Unity
, edited by
Bodman
H.
and
Tohidi
N.
,
205
27
.
Boulder, CO
:
Lynne Rienner
.
Simmel
,
G
.
1950
. “
The Secret and the Secret Society
.” In
The Sociology of Georg Simmel
, edited and translated by
Wolff
K.
,
307
76
.
New York
:
Free Press
.
Simons
,
R. C.
1985
. “
The Resolution of the Latah Paradox
.” In
The Culture-Bound Syndrome: Folk Illnesses of Psychological and Anthropological Interest
, edited by
Simon
R.
and
Hughes
C.
,
43
62
.
Dordrecht
:
D. Reidel
.
Sinha
,
M
.
1995
.
Colonial Masculinity: The “Manly Englishman” and the “Effeminate Bengali” in the Late Nineteenth Century
.
Manchester, UK
:
Manchester University Press
.
Sissons
,
J
.
1997
. “
Nation or Desti-nation? Cook Islands Nationalism since 1965
.” In
Narratives of Nation in South Pacific
, edited by
Otto
T.
and
Thomas
N.
.
Amsterdam
:
Harwood Academic Publishers
:
163
88
.
Skjelsbæk
,
Inger
.
2012
.
The Political Psychology of War Rape: Studies from Bosnia and Herzegovina
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Sobhan
,
R.
1979
. “
Politics of Food and Famine in Bangladesh
.”
Economic and Political Weekly
,
December
1
:
24
28
.
Spencer
,
J
.
1990
.
A Sinhala Village in the Times of Trouble
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Spivak
,
G. C.
1993
. “
Can the Subaltern Speak?
” In
Colonial Discourse and Postcolonial Theory Reader
, edited by
Williams
Patrick
and
Chrisman
Laura
,
66
111
.
Hemel Hempstead, UK
:
Harvester
.
Stephens
,
J.
1989
. “
Feminist Fictions: A Critique of the Category ‘Non-Western Woman’ in Feminist Writings on India
.” In
Subaltern Studies VI: Writings on South Asian History and Society
, edited by
Guha
R.
,
92
125
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Stewart
,
F. H.
1994
.
Honor
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Stiglmayer
,
A
.
1994
.
Mass Rape: The War against Women in Bosnia-Herzegovina
. Translated by
Faber
Marion
.
Lincoln
:
University of Nebraska Press
.
Strathern
,
A.
1977
. “
Why Is Shame on the Skin?
” In
The Anthropology of Body
, edited by
Blacking
J.
,
99
110
.
London
:
Academic Press
.
Strathern
,
M.
1988
.
Gender of the Gift
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Tagg
,
J.
1988
.
The Burden of Representation: Essays on Photographies and Histories
.
London
:
Macmillan Education
.
Tanaka
,
Y.
1996
.
Hidden Horror: Japanese War Crimes in World War II
.
Boulder, CO
:
Westview Press
.
Taussig
,
M.
1987
.
Shamanism, Colonialism and the Wild Man: A Study in Terror and Healing
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Taussig
,
M.
1999
.
Defacement: Public Secrecy and the Labor of the Negative
.
Stanford, CA
:
Stanford University Press
.
Taylor
,
C.
1999
.
Sacrifice as Terror: The Rwandan Genocide of 1994
.
Oxford
:
Berg
.
Tonkin
,
E.
,
McDonald
M.
, and
Chapman
M.
, eds.
1989
.
History and Ethnicity
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Totten
,
S.
,
Parsons
W. S.
,
Charney
I. W.
, eds.
2012
.
Century of Genocide: Essays and Eyewitness Accounts
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Vansina
,
J
.
1985
.
Oral Tradition as History
.
London
:
James Currey and Heinneman
.
Virgili
,
Fabrice
.
2002
.
Shorn Women: Gender and Punishment in Liberation France
.
Oxford
:
Berg
.
Walker
,
J
.
2003
. “
The Traumatic Paradox: Autobiographical Documentary and the Psychology of Memory
.” In
Contested Pasts: The Politics of Memory
, ed.
Radestone
S.
and
Hodgkins
K.
,
104
19
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Warner
,
Michael
.
1991
. “
Introduction: Fear of a Queer Planet
.”
Social Text
4
(
29
):
3
17
.
Warner
,
Michael
.
2002
.
“Publics and Counterpublics.” Special Issue: New Imaginaries, edited by D. P. Gaonkar
.
Public Culture
14
(
1
):
49
90
.
Wilson
,
R.
, ed.
1997
.
Human Rights, Culture and Context: Anthropological Perspectives
.
London
:
Pluto Press
.
Winkler
,
C
.
1991
. “
Rape as Social Murder
.”
Anthropology Today
7
(
3
):
12
14
.
Woodall
,
Joanna
, ed.
1997
. “
Introduction: Facing the Subject
.” In
Portraiture
, edited by
Woodall
J.
,
1
25
.
Manchester, UK
:
Manchester University Press
.
Wright
,
T
.
1992
. “
Photography: The Theories of Realism and Convention
.” In
Anthropology and Photography, 1860–1920
, edited by
Edwards
E.
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
.
Young
,
A
.
1995
.
The Harmony of Illusions: Inventing Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Yuval-Davis
,
N.
, and
Anthias
F. Y.
, eds.
1989
.
Woman-Nation-State
.
London
:
Macmillan
.
Zarkov
,
D
.
2001
. “
The Body of the Other Man: Sexual Violence and the Construction of Masculinity, Sexuality and Ethnicity in the Croatian Media
.” In
Victims, Perpetrators or Actors? Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence
, edited by
Moser
C.
and
Clark
F.
,
69
82
.
New Delhi
:
Kali for Women
.
Ziring
,
L
.
1992
.
Bangladesh: From Mujib to Ershad: An Interpretive Study
.
Karachi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Zur
,
J
.
1998
.
Violent Memories: Mayan War Widows in Guatemala
.
Boulder, CO
:
Westview Press
.
Poems
Akhtar
,
A. Z. M. M.
1993
.
“Amar Shadhinota” [My independence]
. In
Shadhinotar Kobitaguchcho [Poems of independence]
,
55
.
Dhaka
:
Shahityomala
.
Choudhury
,
A. G.
1984
.
“Amar Dukhini Bangla” [My sorrowful Bengal
]. In
Muktijuddher Kobita
,
25
Compiled by
Hasnat
Abul
.
Dhaka
:
Shondhani Prokashoni
.
Rahmana
,
H. H.
(1379) 1975
.
‘Birangona.’
Chittagong
:
Boighor
.
Tagore
,
R.
1905
.
“Amar Sonar Bangla, ami tomai bhalobashi” [O my golden Bengal, how I do love you]
. In
Tagore
R.
,
1905
.
Swarabitan
46
.
Santiniketan
:
Visva-Bharati University
.
Novels
Akhtar
,
S
.
2011
.
The Search (Talash)
. Translated by
Dutta
Ella
.
New Delhi
:
Zubaan
.
Ibrahim
,
N
.
1974a
.
Je Oronne Alo Nei [The forest which has no light]
Ibrahim
,
N
.
1974b
.
Lal Golap Dojoke [Red rose in hell]
Manto
,
Saadat Hasan
.
(1950) 1990
. “
Khol Do” [Open it
]. In
Nimrud ki Khudai (Nimrod the God)
.
Delhi
:
Saqi Book Depot
.
Osman
,
S
.
1973
.
Nekre Oronno [The forest of wolves]
Saber
,
M. A.
1981
.
Pathor Somoy [Difficult times]
.
Dhaka
:
Pallab
.
Saber
,
M. A.
1991
.
Sotero Bochor Pore [Seventeen years later]
.
Dhaka
:
Ananya
.
Plays
Ahmad
,
M.
1985
.
Ki Chaho Shonkhocheel? [What do you want Falcon?]
.
Dhaka
:
Bangla Academy
.
Astitwa [Existence]
.
2007
.
Television play, March 25
.
Haq
,
S. S.
1992
.
Juddho Ebong Juddho [War and war]
.
Haq
,
Syed Shamsul
.
(1976) 1991
.
Payer Aoaj Paoa Jai
. In
Kabbo Natto Songroho (Collection of Poetry and Plays)
. Dhaka, Bidyaprokash: 55.
Shamuk Bash [Life of a snail]
.
1998
. Dhaka, Theatre Center.
Street Play

Ekhane Ekhono [Here and even now]. 1993. Somoy.

Documentary Films

Ami Birangona Bolchi [I am the birangona speaking]. 1996. Rodela Productions.

Channel 4: The Bangladesh Story. 1996.

Chaudhuri, Afsan. 2001. Tahader Juddho [Their war].

Dateline Bangladesh. 1972. India: Films Division.

Eclipse, Ain-O-Shalish-Kendra. Dhaka, 1996.

The Frost Programme from Bangladesh. 1972. Reported by David Frost.

Kabir Yasmin 2003. Aro Ekti Shadhinota [Another liberation].

Masud, Tareque, and Catherine Masud, 2000. Women and War. Dhaka: Ain-O-Shalish-Kendra and Audiovision.

Masud, Tareque, and Catherine Masud. 1999. Muktir Katha [Words of freedom]. Dhaka: Audiovision.

Mokammel, Tanvir. 2007. Swapnabhumi [The promised land]. Kino-Eye Films and Shafiur Rahman.

Stop Genocide. 1971. Zahir Raihan.

Tajiri, R. 1991. History and Memory: For Akiko and Takashige.

War Crimes File. 1995. Howard Bradburn. London: Twenty Twenty Television.

Commercial Films

Bagha Bangali [Brave Bengali]. 1972. Ananda.

Children of War. 2014. Mrityunjay Devvrat.

Dhire Bohe Meghna [The Meghna flows slowly]. 1973. Alamgir Kabir.

Guerrilla. 2011. Naseruddin Yusuf.

Itihash Konna [Daughter of history]. 2001. Shamim Akhtar.

Jai Bangladesh [Hail Bangladesh]. 1971. I.S.Johar.

Joy Bangla [Hail Bengal]. 1972. Uma Proshad Moitra.

Khelaghor [Play house]. 2006. Morshedul Islam.

Kolmilota [The edible creeper]. 1986. Shahidul Huq Khan.

Megher Onek Rong [Clouds have many colors]. 1976. Harunur Rashid.

Ora Egaro Jon [They are eleven]. 1972. Chashi Nazrul Islam.

Orunodoyer Ognisakhi [Pledge to a new dawn]. 1972. Subhash Dutta.

Roktakto Bangla [Bloodied Bengal]. 1972. Momtaz Ali.

Press (Newspapers and Television)

Bangla Bajar (Nehal Adel): January 12, 2000.

Banglar Bani [The voice of Bengal] (Dhaka, Bangladesh): February 26, 1972; February 28, 1972; March 3, 1972; April 22, 1972; October 13, 1972; December 1972 (special issue on genocide).

Begum [Woman] (Dhaka, Bangladesh): December 16, 1972.

Bhorer Kagoj [The morning paper] (Dhaka, Bangladesh): March 27, 1992; June 29, 1996; May 13, 1998 (“Birangona Bokul in the mental hospital”), June 16, 1998; December 1999; October 2001.

Daily Star (Dhaka, Bangladesh): March 31, 1997; 03/05/04/1998; October 2001; December 14, 2007.

Daily Star Weekend Magazine: December 12, 1997 (“The burden of being a birangona”); December 14, 1997 (“We demand that 71’s Pakistani armies and their cohorts who raped and killed be tried and punished”).

Doinik Bangla [Daily Bengali] (Dhaka, Bangladesh): January 14, 1972; February 24, 1972; February 28, 1972; March 26, 1972; April 11, 1972; April 21, 1972; March 27, 1973; December 15, 1973.

Doinik Jonokontho: December 12, 1997; November 11, 1999.

Doinik Songbad: March 16, 1997 (“Birangona Rizia is leading a life of poverty”).

Ittefaq [Harmony] (Dhaka, Bangladesh): March 3, 1972; March 30, 2002; August 13, 2002; September 2002.

Jonokontho: June 12, 2000; August 13, 2000; December 2000; January 18, 2002.

Jugantor: December 11, 2002.

New Age: March 26, 2005.

Newsweek (USA): November 15, 1971.

New York Times (USA): January 24, 1972.

Observer (Dhaka, Bangladesh): October 9, 1972.

People (Dhaka, Bangladesh): April 26, 1972.

Prothom Alo [The first light]: 1998; March 22, 2000.

Purbodesh [Eastern country] (Dhaka, Bangladesh): December 23, 1971; December 26, 1971; December 31, 1971; January 7, 1972; February 16, 1972; March 26, 1972; April 2, 1972; April 20, 1972; May 13, 1972; January 22, 1973.

Songbad: December 24, 2000.

Bangladesh Television (BTV). Ongoing coverage from 1997–1998 and in subsequent years.

Close Modal
This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only

Sign In or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal