Skip to Main Content
This content is made freely available by the publisher. It may not be redistributed or altered. All rights reserved.

This chapter begins with the story of the “blue marble,” the nickname for Earth in color photographs of the planet taken from outer space. These images present a paradox: they suggest Earth’s fragility and invite worldly care and stewardship, but they also testify to a desire to escape earthly limitations and transcend incarnate experience. Similar desires informed the mythology of the personal computer upon its debut. Yaakov Garb, credited with inventing the term “virtual reality,” called these desires “the dreams our culture has inscribed in silicon”; he critiqued the mythology surrounding computer technology and called for greater appreciation of its material supports. In a sense, Garb was asking for a greater synthesis of the analog and the digital, a synthesis that is captured in the original definition of the term “virtuality.” The introduction discusses this older, more philosophical sense of virtuality and related recent scholarship, and concludes with chapter summaries.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Agamben
,
Giorgio
.
Means without End: Notes on Politics
. Trans.
Binetti
Vincenzo
and
Casarino
Cesare
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2000
.
Agamben
,
Giorgio
.
Potentialities
. Trans.
Heller-Roazen
Daniel
.
Stanford
:
Stanford University Press
,
1999
.
Arendt
,
Hannah
.
The Human Condition
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1998
.
Arnold
,
Gina
. “
The Sound of Hippiesomething, or Drum Circles at ‘Occupy-WallStreet.’
Sounding Out!
,
November
7
,
2011
.
Accessed March 22, 2012. http://soundstudiesblog.com
.
Austin
,
J. L.
How to Do Things with Words
.
Cambridge
:
Harvard University Press
,
1975
.
Balász
,
Béla
.
Theory of Film: Character and Growth of a New Art
. Trans.
Bone
Edith
.
New York
:
Dover
,
1970
.
Barthes
,
Roland
.
Camera Lucida
. Trans.
Howard
Richard
.
New York
:
Hill and Wang
,
1981
.
Barthes
,
Roland
. “
The Third Meaning
.” In
Image—Music—Text
. Trans.
Heath
Stephen
.
New York
:
Hill and Wang
,
1977
.
Batchelder
,
Ann G.
The Seal of Orestes: Self-Reference and Authority in Sophocles’ Electra
.
Lanham, MD
:
Rowman and Littlefield
,
1995
.
Baudrillard
,
Jean
.
Passwords
.
London
:
Verso
,
2003
.
Baudrillard
,
Jean
.
The System of Objects
. Trans.
Benedict
James
.
London
:
Verso
,
1996
.
Bazin
,
André
. “
The Ontology of the Photographic Image
.” In
What Is Cinema?
Vol.
1
. Trans.
Gray
Hugh
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1967
.
Béar
,
Liza
. “
French Resistance: Agnès Varda
.”
Interview
39
.
5
(
2009
).
Bellour
,
Raymond
. “
D’un autre cinéma
.”
Trafic
34
(
June
2000
).
Benjamin
,
Walter
. “
On Some Motifs in Baudelaire
.” In
Illuminations: Essays and Reflections
. Trans.
Zohn
Harry
.
New York
:
Schocken
,
1968
.
Benjamin
,
Walter
. “
Theses on the Philosophy of History
.” In
Illuminations: Essays and Reflections
. Trans.
Zohn
Harry
.
New York
:
Schocken
,
1968
.
Benjamin
,
Walter
. “
The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction
.” In
Illuminations: Essays and Reflections
. Trans.
Zohn
Harry
.
New York
:
Schocken
,
1968
.
Bergson
,
Henri
.
Creative Evolution
. Trans.
Mitchell
Arthur
.
New York
:
Dover
,
1998
.
Bergson
,
Henri
.
The Creative Mind: An Introduction to Metaphysics
. Trans.
Andison
Mabelle L.
.
Mineola, NY
:
Dover
,
2007
.
Bergson
,
Henri
. “
Dreams
.” In
Mind-Energy
. Trans.
Carr
H. Wildon
.
New York
:
Henry Holt
,
1920
.
Bergson
,
Henri
. “
Intellectual Effort
.” In
Mind-Energy
. Trans.
Carr
H. Wildon
.
New York
:
Henry Holt
,
1920
.
Bergson
,
Henri
.
Matter and Memory
. Trans.
Paul
Nancy Margaret
and
Palmer
W. Scott
.
New York
:
Zone Books
,
1991
.
Bergson
,
Henri
. “
Memory of the Present and False Recognition
.” In
Mind-Energy
. Trans.
Carr
H. Wildon
.
New York
:
Henry Holt
,
1920
.
Bergson
,
Henri
. “
‘Phantasms of the Living’ and Psychical Research
.” In
Mind-Energy
. Trans.
Carr
H. Wildon
.
New York
:
Henry Holt
,
1920
.
Bergson
,
Henri
. “
The Soul and the Body
.” In
Mind-Energy
. Trans.
Carr
H. Wildon
.
New York
:
Henry Holt
,
1920
.
Bergson
,
Henri
.
Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness
. Trans.
Pogson
F. L.
.
London
:
George Allen and Unwin
,
1921
.
Bergson
,
Henri
.
The Two Sources of Morality and Religion
. Trans.
Audra
R. Ashleu
and
Brereton
Cloudesley
.
Garden City, NY
:
Doubleday
,
1954
.
Bersani
,
Leo
. “
Sociability and Cruising
.”
Umbr(a): Sameness
, no.
1
(
2002
).
Bersani
,
Leo
, and
Phillips
Adam
.
Intimacies
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2008
.
Brecht
,
Bertolt
. “
Alienation Effects in Chinese Acting
.” In
Brecht on Theatre
, ed. and trans.
Willett
John
.
New York
:
Hill and Wang
,
1977
.
Bryson
,
Norman
. “
Victor Burgin and the Optical Unconscious
.” In
Victor Burgin
.
Barcelona
:
Fundació Antoni Tàpies
,
2001
.
Burgin
,
Victor
. “
Brecciated Time
.” In
In/Different Spaces: Place and Memory in Visual Culture
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1996
.
Burgin
,
Victor
.
Components of a Practice
.
Milan
:
Skira Editore
,
2008
.
Burgin
,
Victor
. “
Diderot, Barthes, Vertigo
.” In
Situational Aesthetics: Selected Writings by Victor Burgin
, ed.
Streitberger
Alexander
.
Leuven
:
Leuven University Press
,
2009
.
Burgin
,
Victor
. “
Interactive Cinema and the Uncinematic
.” In
Screen Dynamics: Mapping the Borders of Cinema
, ed.
Koch
Gertrud
,
Pantenburg
Volker
, and
Rothöler
Simon
.
Vienna
:
SYNEMA—Gesellschaft für Film und Medien
,
2012
.
Burgin
,
Victor
. “
Monument and Melancholia
.” In
Situational Aesthetics: Selected Writings by Victor Burgin
, ed.
Streitberger
Alexander
.
Leuven
:
Leuven University Press
,
2009
.
Burgin
,
Victor
. “
The Noise of the Marketplace
.” In
Situational Aesthetics: Selected Writings by Victor Burgin
, ed.
Streitberger
Alexander
.
Leuven
:
Leuven University Press
,
2009
.
Caillois
,
Roger
.
Man, Play, and Games
. Trans.
Barash
Meyer
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
,
2001
.
Caillois
,
Roger
.
Man and the Sacred
. Trans.
Barash
Meyer
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
,
2001
.
Callenbach
,
Ernest
.
“The Gleaners and I.” Film Quarterly
56
.
2
(
2003
).
Chion
,
Michel
.
The Voice in Cinema
. Trans.
Gorbman
Claudia
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
,
1999
.
Christian
,
Brian
.
The Most Human Human: What Talking with Computers Teaches Us about What It Means to Be Alive
.
New York
:
Doubleday
,
2011
.
Chun
,
Wendy
.
Programmed Visions: Software and Memory
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2011
.
Copeland
,
B. Jack
.
Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park’s Codebreaking Computers
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
2006
.
Dayan
,
Daniel
. “
The Tutor-Code of Classical Narrative Cinema
.”
Film Quarterly
28
.
1
(
1974
):
22
31
.
Deleuze
,
Gilles
. “
The Actual and the Virtual
.” Trans.
Albert
Eliot Ross
. In
Dialogues II
, ed.
Deleuze
Gilles
and
Parnet
Claire
.
London
:
Continuum
,
2002
.
Deleuze
,
Gilles
. “
Bartleby; or, The Formula
.” In
Essays Critical and Clinical
. Trans.
Smith
Daniel W.
and
Greco
Michael A.
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
1997
.
Deleuze
,
Gilles
.
Bergsonism
. Trans.
Tomlinson
Hugh
and
Habberjam
Barbara
.
New York
:
Zone Books
,
1988
.
Deleuze
,
Gilles
.
Cinema 1: The Movement-Image
. Trans.
Tomlinson
Hugh
and
Habberjam
Barbara
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
1986
.
Deleuze
,
Gilles
.
Cinema 2: The Time-Image
. Trans.
Tomlinson
Hugh
and
Galeta
Robert
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
1989
.
Deleuze
,
Gilles
.
Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation
. Trans.
Smith
Daniel W.
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2002
.
Deleuze
,
Gilles
. “
The Method of Dramatisation
.”
Bulletin de la Société française de Philosophie
62
(
1967
).
Deleuze
,
Gilles
.
Spinoza: Practical Philosophy
. Trans.
Hurley
Robert
.
San Francisco
:
City Lights Books
,
1988
.
Deleuze
,
Gilles
, and
Guattari
Felix
.
A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia
. Trans.
Massumi
Brian
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
1987
.
Diedrichsen
,
Diedrich
, and
Franke
Anselm
.
The Whole Earth: California and the Disappearance of the Outside
.
Exhibition brochure
.
Haus der Kulturen der Welt
,
Berlin
,
April
26
July
1
,
2013
.
Doxiadis
,
Apostolos
, and
Papadimitriou
Christos H.
.
Logicomix: An Epic Search for Truth
.
New York
:
Bloomsbury
,
2009
.
Elsaesser
,
Thomas
, and
Hoffman
Kay
.
Preface to Cinema Futures: Cain, Abel, or Cable? The Screen Arts in the Digital Age
, ed.
Elsaesser
Thomas
and
Hoffman
Kay
.
Amsterdam
:
Amsterdam University Press
,
1998
.
Enwezor
,
Okwui
. “
Documenta 11, Documentary, and ‘The Reality Effect.’
” In
Experiments with Truth
. Curated by
Nash
Mark
.
Fabric Workshop and Museum
,
Philadelphia
,
2004–2005
.
Everett
,
Anna
.
Digital Diaspora: A Race for Cyberspace
.
Albany
:
State University of New York Press
,
2009
.
Flanagan
,
Mary
.
Reload: Rethinking Women and Cyberculture
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2002
.
Foster
,
Gwendolyn Audrey
. “
Feminist Theory and Lesbian Desire in Persona
.” In
Ingmar Bergman’s Persona
, ed.
Michaels
Lloyd
,
130
46
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2000
.
Foucault
,
Michel
.
Fearless Speech
.
Los Angeles
:
Semiotext(e)
,
2001
.
Freud
,
Sigmund
. “
Repeating, Remembering, Working-Through
.” Trans.
Riviere
Joan
. In
The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 12: 1911–1913
.
London
:
Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psychoanalysis
,
1958
.
Galloway
,
Alexander
.
Gaming: Essays on Algorithmic Culture
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2006
.
Garb
,
Yaakov
. “
Virtual Reality
.”
Whole Earth Review
57
(Winter
1987
):
118
20
.
Gartenfeld
,
Alex
. “
Erin Shirreff
.”
Art in America
,
February
5
,
2010
.
Gritz
,
Anna
. “
Erin Shirreff
.”
Frieze
,
January
1
,
2010
.
Grosz
,
Elizabeth
.
Becoming Undone: Darwinian Reflections on Life, Politics, and Art
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2011
.
Grosz
,
Elizabeth
.
Time Travels: Feminism, Nature, Power
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2005
.
Gunning
,
Tom
. “
An Aesthetic of Astonishment: Early Film and the (In)credulous Spectator
.”).
Art and Text
34
(Spring
1989
).
Halberstam
,
J.
Automating Gender: Postmodern Feminism in the Age of the Intelligent Machine
.”
Feminist Studies
17
.
3
(
1991
).
Hayles
,
N. Katherine
.
How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1999
.
Heath
,
Stephen
. “
Narrative Space
.” In
Questions of Cinema
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
1981
.
Heath
,
Stephen
. “
On Suture
.” In
Questions of Cinema
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
1981
.
Heidegger
,
Martin
.
Being and Time
. Trans.
Macquarrie
John
and
Robinson
Edward
.
San Francisco
:
Harper and Row
,
1962
.
Hodges
,
Andrew
.
Alan Turing: The Enigma
.
New York
:
Walker
,
2000
.
Isaacson
,
Walter
.
Steve Jobs
.
New York
:
Simon and Schuster
,
2011
.
James
,
Richard S.
Expansion of Sound Resources in France, 1913–1940, and Its Relationship to Electronic Music
.”
PhD dissertation
,
University of Michigan
,
1981
.
Juhasz
,
Alexandra
.
Learning from YouTube
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2010
.
Kinder
,
Marsha
. “
Designing a Database Cinema
.” In
Future Cinema: The Cinematic Imaginary after Film
, ed.
Shaw
Jeffrey
and
Weibel
Peter
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2003
.
King
,
Homay
. “
Free Indirect Affect in Cassavetes’ Opening Night and Faces
.”
Camera Obscura
19
.
2
/
56
(
2004
):
104
35
.
King
,
Homay
.
Lost in Translation: Orientalism, Cinema, and the Enigmatic Signifier
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2010
.
Kracauer
,
Siegfried
.
Theory of Film: The Redemption of Physical Reality
.
Princeton
:
Princeton University Press
,
1960
.
Lacan
,
Jacques
. “
The Mirror Stage as Formative of the I Function as Revealed in Psychoanalytic Experience
.” In
Écrits
. Trans.
Fink
Bruce
.
New York
:
Norton
,
2006
.
Lambert-Beatty
Carrie
. “
Make-Believe: Parafiction and Plausibility
.”
October
129
(Summer
2009
):
51
84
.
Laplanche
,
Jean
. “
The Kent Seminar
.” In
Seduction, Translation, and the Drives
.
London
:
ICA
,
1993
.
Laplanche
,
Jean
.
New Foundations for Psychoanalysis
. Trans.
Macey
David
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Basil Blackwell
,
1990
.
Laplanche
,
Jean
. “
Seduction, Persecution, Revelation
.” In
Essays on Otherness
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1999
.
Leonard
,
Jennifer
. “
Stewart Brand on the Long View
.” In
Massive Change
.
London
:
Phaidon Press
,
2004
.
Lévy
,
Pierre
.
Becoming Virtual: Reality in the Digital Age
. Trans.
Bononno
Robert
.
New York
:
Plenum Trade
,
1998
.
Lim
,
Bliss
.
Translating Time: Cinema, the Fantastic, and Temporal Critique
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2009
.
Livingston
,
Ira
. “
Darth Vader and Occupy Wall Street: A Twitteressay
.”
Bully Bloggers
,
November
13
,
2011
.
Accessed March 22, 2012. http://bullybloggers.wordpress.com
.
Manovich
,
Lev
.
The Language of New Media
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2001
.
Massumi
,
Brian
.
Parables for the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2002
.
Meade
,
Fionn
. “
Erin Shirreff
.”
Kaleidoscope
, no.
8
(Fall
2010
).
Meillassoux
,
Quentin
. “
Potentiality and Virtuality
.” In
Collapse II
, ed.
Mackay
R.
.
Oxford
:
Urbanomic
,
2007
.
Moody
,
Rick
, and
Snediker
Michael D.
. “
On the Doctoral Dissertation of One Electroacoustic Musician (Fragments)
.”
Journal of Popular Music Studies
24
.
1
(
2012
).
Mori
,
Masahiro
. “
The Uncanny Valley
.” Trans.
MacDorman
Karl F.
and
Minato
Takashi
.
Energy
7
.
4
(
1970
).
Muñoz
,
José Esteban
. “
Feeling Brown, Feeling Down: Latina Affect, the Performativity of Race, and the Depressive Position
.”
Signs
31
.
3
(
2006
):
675
88
.
Murray
,
Timothy
.
Digital Baroque: New Media Art and Cinematic Folds
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2008
.
Nakamura
,
Lisa
.
Cybertypes: Race, Ethnicity, and Identity on the Internet
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
2002
.
Nietzsche
,
Friedrich
. “
On Truth and Lie in a Nonmoral Sense
.” In
The Portable Nietzsche
. Trans.
Kaufmann
Walter
.
New York
:
Penguin
,
1954
.
Oudart
,
Jean-Pierre
. “
Cinema and Suture
.” Trans.
Hanet
Kari
.
Screen
18
.
4
(
1977–78
):
35
47
.
Pamuk
,
Orhan
.
Istanbul: Memories and the City
. Trans.
Freely
Maureen
.
New York
:
Random House
,
2004
.
Petzold
,
Charles
.
The Annotated Turing: A Guided Tour through Alan Turing’s Historic Paper on Computability and the Turing Machine
.
Indianapolis
:
Wiley
,
2008
.
Phillips
,
Adam
.
On Flirtation
.
Cambridge
:
Harvard University Press
,
1994
.
Raszl
,
Ivan
. “
Interview with Rob Janoff, Designer of the Apple Logo
.”
Creative Bits
,
August
3
,
2009
. .
Rheingold
,
Howard
.
The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2000
.
Robbe-Grillet
Alain
. “
From Realism to Reality
.” In
For a New Novel: Essays on Fiction
. Trans.
Howard
Richard
.
New York
:
Grove Press
,
1965
.
Rodowick
,
D. N.
Reading the Figural, or, Philosophy after the New Media
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2001
.
Sammons
,
Ted
. “
I Didn’t Say Look; I Said Listen: The People’s Microphone, #OWS, and Beyond
.”
Sounding Out!
,
November
21
,
2011
.
Accessed March 22, 2012. http://soundstudiesblog.com/
.
Shields
,
Rob
.
The Virtual
.
London
:
Routledge
,
2003
.
Silverman
,
Kaja
. “
The Author as Receiver
.”
October
96
(
2001
).
Silverman
,
Kaja
.
Flesh of My Flesh
.
Stanford
:
Stanford University Press
,
2009
.
Silverman
,
Kaja
. “
Suture
.” In
The Subject of Semiotics
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1983
.
Silverman
,
Kaja
.
World Spectators
.
Stanford
:
Stanford University Press
,
2000
.
Simmel
,
Georg
. “
Coquetry
.” In
Das Abenteuer und andere Essays
.
Frankfurt am Main
:
S. Fischer Verlag
,
2010
.
Silverman
,
Kaja
. “
Sociability
.” In
On Individual and Social Forms
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1971
.
Silverman
,
Kaja
. “
Sociability as the Autonomous Form of Sociation
.” In
The Sociology of Georg Simmel
. Trans.
Wolff
Kurt H.
.
New York
:
Free Press
,
1950
.
Smithson
,
Robert
. “
A Sedimentation of the Mind (1968)
.” In
The Collected Writings
, ed.
Flam
Jack
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1996
.
Sobchack
,
Vivian
.
Carnal Thoughts: Embodiment and Moving Image Culture
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2004
.
Sontag
,
Susan
. “
Bergman’s Persona
.” In
Ingmar Bergman’s Persona
, ed.
Michaels
Lloyd
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2000
.
Sophocles
.
Sophocles II: Four Tragedies
. Trans.
Grene
David
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1957
.
Stoppard
,
Tom
.
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead
.
New York
:
Grove Press
,
1967
.
Strachey
,
Christopher
. “
The Thinking Machine
.”
Encounter
(
October
1954
):
25
31
.
Torlasco
,
Domietta
.
The Heretical Archive: Digital Memory at the End of Film
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2013
.
Trinh
T. Minh-ha
.
The Digital Film Event
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
2005
.
Turing
,
Alan
. “
Computing Machinery and Intelligence
.”
Mind
59
(
1950
):
433
60
.
Turing
,
Alan
. “
On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem (1936)
.” In
The Essential Turing: Seminal Writings in Computing, Logic, Philosophy, Artificial Intelligence, and Artificial Life
, ed.
Copeland
B. Jack
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
2004
.
Turing
,
Sara
.
Alan M. Turing
.
Centenary edition
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2012
.
Tyler
,
Parker
. “
Dragtime and Drugtime; Or, Film à la Warhol
.”
Evergreen Review
11
.
46
(
1967
).
Ultra-red
. “
Mission Statement
.”
2000
.
Accessed April 2, 2012. http://www.ultrared.org/mission.html
.
Vogt
,
Adolf Max
.
Le Corbusier, the Noble Savage: Toward an Archaeology of Modernism
. Trans.
Donnell
Radka
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
1998
.
Wardrip-Fruin
Noah
. “
Digital Media Archaeology: Interpreting Computational Processes
.” In
Media Archaeology: Approaches, Applications, and Implications
, ed.
Huhtamo
Erkki
and
Parikka
Jussi
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2011
.
Welter
,
Volker M.
From Disc to Sphere
.”
Cabinet
, no.
40
(Winter
2010–11
).
Winterbotham
,
F. W.
The Ultra Secret
.
London
:
Weidenfeld and Nicolson
,
1974
.
Wollen
,
Peter
. “
Godard and Counter-Cinema: Vent d’Est
.” In
Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology
, ed.
Rosen
Philip
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
,
1986
.
Zach
,
Richard
. “
Alan Turing and the Decision Problem
.”
Lecture at the University of Calgary
,
January
24
,
2012
.
Žižek
,
Slavoj
.
The Ticklish Subject: The Absent Centre of Political Ontology
.
London
:
Verso
,
1999
.

Figures & Tables

Contents

Advertisement

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Agamben
,
Giorgio
.
Means without End: Notes on Politics
. Trans.
Binetti
Vincenzo
and
Casarino
Cesare
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2000
.
Agamben
,
Giorgio
.
Potentialities
. Trans.
Heller-Roazen
Daniel
.
Stanford
:
Stanford University Press
,
1999
.
Arendt
,
Hannah
.
The Human Condition
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1998
.
Arnold
,
Gina
. “
The Sound of Hippiesomething, or Drum Circles at ‘Occupy-WallStreet.’
Sounding Out!
,
November
7
,
2011
.
Accessed March 22, 2012. http://soundstudiesblog.com
.
Austin
,
J. L.
How to Do Things with Words
.
Cambridge
:
Harvard University Press
,
1975
.
Balász
,
Béla
.
Theory of Film: Character and Growth of a New Art
. Trans.
Bone
Edith
.
New York
:
Dover
,
1970
.
Barthes
,
Roland
.
Camera Lucida
. Trans.
Howard
Richard
.
New York
:
Hill and Wang
,
1981
.
Barthes
,
Roland
. “
The Third Meaning
.” In
Image—Music—Text
. Trans.
Heath
Stephen
.
New York
:
Hill and Wang
,
1977
.
Batchelder
,
Ann G.
The Seal of Orestes: Self-Reference and Authority in Sophocles’ Electra
.
Lanham, MD
:
Rowman and Littlefield
,
1995
.
Baudrillard
,
Jean
.
Passwords
.
London
:
Verso
,
2003
.
Baudrillard
,
Jean
.
The System of Objects
. Trans.
Benedict
James
.
London
:
Verso
,
1996
.
Bazin
,
André
. “
The Ontology of the Photographic Image
.” In
What Is Cinema?
Vol.
1
. Trans.
Gray
Hugh
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1967
.
Béar
,
Liza
. “
French Resistance: Agnès Varda
.”
Interview
39
.
5
(
2009
).
Bellour
,
Raymond
. “
D’un autre cinéma
.”
Trafic
34
(
June
2000
).
Benjamin
,
Walter
. “
On Some Motifs in Baudelaire
.” In
Illuminations: Essays and Reflections
. Trans.
Zohn
Harry
.
New York
:
Schocken
,
1968
.
Benjamin
,
Walter
. “
Theses on the Philosophy of History
.” In
Illuminations: Essays and Reflections
. Trans.
Zohn
Harry
.
New York
:
Schocken
,
1968
.
Benjamin
,
Walter
. “
The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction
.” In
Illuminations: Essays and Reflections
. Trans.
Zohn
Harry
.
New York
:
Schocken
,
1968
.
Bergson
,
Henri
.
Creative Evolution
. Trans.
Mitchell
Arthur
.
New York
:
Dover
,
1998
.
Bergson
,
Henri
.
The Creative Mind: An Introduction to Metaphysics
. Trans.
Andison
Mabelle L.
.
Mineola, NY
:
Dover
,
2007
.
Bergson
,
Henri
. “
Dreams
.” In
Mind-Energy
. Trans.
Carr
H. Wildon
.
New York
:
Henry Holt
,
1920
.
Bergson
,
Henri
. “
Intellectual Effort
.” In
Mind-Energy
. Trans.
Carr
H. Wildon
.
New York
:
Henry Holt
,
1920
.
Bergson
,
Henri
.
Matter and Memory
. Trans.
Paul
Nancy Margaret
and
Palmer
W. Scott
.
New York
:
Zone Books
,
1991
.
Bergson
,
Henri
. “
Memory of the Present and False Recognition
.” In
Mind-Energy
. Trans.
Carr
H. Wildon
.
New York
:
Henry Holt
,
1920
.
Bergson
,
Henri
. “
‘Phantasms of the Living’ and Psychical Research
.” In
Mind-Energy
. Trans.
Carr
H. Wildon
.
New York
:
Henry Holt
,
1920
.
Bergson
,
Henri
. “
The Soul and the Body
.” In
Mind-Energy
. Trans.
Carr
H. Wildon
.
New York
:
Henry Holt
,
1920
.
Bergson
,
Henri
.
Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness
. Trans.
Pogson
F. L.
.
London
:
George Allen and Unwin
,
1921
.
Bergson
,
Henri
.
The Two Sources of Morality and Religion
. Trans.
Audra
R. Ashleu
and
Brereton
Cloudesley
.
Garden City, NY
:
Doubleday
,
1954
.
Bersani
,
Leo
. “
Sociability and Cruising
.”
Umbr(a): Sameness
, no.
1
(
2002
).
Bersani
,
Leo
, and
Phillips
Adam
.
Intimacies
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
2008
.
Brecht
,
Bertolt
. “
Alienation Effects in Chinese Acting
.” In
Brecht on Theatre
, ed. and trans.
Willett
John
.
New York
:
Hill and Wang
,
1977
.
Bryson
,
Norman
. “
Victor Burgin and the Optical Unconscious
.” In
Victor Burgin
.
Barcelona
:
Fundació Antoni Tàpies
,
2001
.
Burgin
,
Victor
. “
Brecciated Time
.” In
In/Different Spaces: Place and Memory in Visual Culture
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1996
.
Burgin
,
Victor
.
Components of a Practice
.
Milan
:
Skira Editore
,
2008
.
Burgin
,
Victor
. “
Diderot, Barthes, Vertigo
.” In
Situational Aesthetics: Selected Writings by Victor Burgin
, ed.
Streitberger
Alexander
.
Leuven
:
Leuven University Press
,
2009
.
Burgin
,
Victor
. “
Interactive Cinema and the Uncinematic
.” In
Screen Dynamics: Mapping the Borders of Cinema
, ed.
Koch
Gertrud
,
Pantenburg
Volker
, and
Rothöler
Simon
.
Vienna
:
SYNEMA—Gesellschaft für Film und Medien
,
2012
.
Burgin
,
Victor
. “
Monument and Melancholia
.” In
Situational Aesthetics: Selected Writings by Victor Burgin
, ed.
Streitberger
Alexander
.
Leuven
:
Leuven University Press
,
2009
.
Burgin
,
Victor
. “
The Noise of the Marketplace
.” In
Situational Aesthetics: Selected Writings by Victor Burgin
, ed.
Streitberger
Alexander
.
Leuven
:
Leuven University Press
,
2009
.
Caillois
,
Roger
.
Man, Play, and Games
. Trans.
Barash
Meyer
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
,
2001
.
Caillois
,
Roger
.
Man and the Sacred
. Trans.
Barash
Meyer
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
,
2001
.
Callenbach
,
Ernest
.
“The Gleaners and I.” Film Quarterly
56
.
2
(
2003
).
Chion
,
Michel
.
The Voice in Cinema
. Trans.
Gorbman
Claudia
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
,
1999
.
Christian
,
Brian
.
The Most Human Human: What Talking with Computers Teaches Us about What It Means to Be Alive
.
New York
:
Doubleday
,
2011
.
Chun
,
Wendy
.
Programmed Visions: Software and Memory
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2011
.
Copeland
,
B. Jack
.
Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park’s Codebreaking Computers
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
2006
.
Dayan
,
Daniel
. “
The Tutor-Code of Classical Narrative Cinema
.”
Film Quarterly
28
.
1
(
1974
):
22
31
.
Deleuze
,
Gilles
. “
The Actual and the Virtual
.” Trans.
Albert
Eliot Ross
. In
Dialogues II
, ed.
Deleuze
Gilles
and
Parnet
Claire
.
London
:
Continuum
,
2002
.
Deleuze
,
Gilles
. “
Bartleby; or, The Formula
.” In
Essays Critical and Clinical
. Trans.
Smith
Daniel W.
and
Greco
Michael A.
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
1997
.
Deleuze
,
Gilles
.
Bergsonism
. Trans.
Tomlinson
Hugh
and
Habberjam
Barbara
.
New York
:
Zone Books
,
1988
.
Deleuze
,
Gilles
.
Cinema 1: The Movement-Image
. Trans.
Tomlinson
Hugh
and
Habberjam
Barbara
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
1986
.
Deleuze
,
Gilles
.
Cinema 2: The Time-Image
. Trans.
Tomlinson
Hugh
and
Galeta
Robert
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
1989
.
Deleuze
,
Gilles
.
Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation
. Trans.
Smith
Daniel W.
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2002
.
Deleuze
,
Gilles
. “
The Method of Dramatisation
.”
Bulletin de la Société française de Philosophie
62
(
1967
).
Deleuze
,
Gilles
.
Spinoza: Practical Philosophy
. Trans.
Hurley
Robert
.
San Francisco
:
City Lights Books
,
1988
.
Deleuze
,
Gilles
, and
Guattari
Felix
.
A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia
. Trans.
Massumi
Brian
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
1987
.
Diedrichsen
,
Diedrich
, and
Franke
Anselm
.
The Whole Earth: California and the Disappearance of the Outside
.
Exhibition brochure
.
Haus der Kulturen der Welt
,
Berlin
,
April
26
July
1
,
2013
.
Doxiadis
,
Apostolos
, and
Papadimitriou
Christos H.
.
Logicomix: An Epic Search for Truth
.
New York
:
Bloomsbury
,
2009
.
Elsaesser
,
Thomas
, and
Hoffman
Kay
.
Preface to Cinema Futures: Cain, Abel, or Cable? The Screen Arts in the Digital Age
, ed.
Elsaesser
Thomas
and
Hoffman
Kay
.
Amsterdam
:
Amsterdam University Press
,
1998
.
Enwezor
,
Okwui
. “
Documenta 11, Documentary, and ‘The Reality Effect.’
” In
Experiments with Truth
. Curated by
Nash
Mark
.
Fabric Workshop and Museum
,
Philadelphia
,
2004–2005
.
Everett
,
Anna
.
Digital Diaspora: A Race for Cyberspace
.
Albany
:
State University of New York Press
,
2009
.
Flanagan
,
Mary
.
Reload: Rethinking Women and Cyberculture
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2002
.
Foster
,
Gwendolyn Audrey
. “
Feminist Theory and Lesbian Desire in Persona
.” In
Ingmar Bergman’s Persona
, ed.
Michaels
Lloyd
,
130
46
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2000
.
Foucault
,
Michel
.
Fearless Speech
.
Los Angeles
:
Semiotext(e)
,
2001
.
Freud
,
Sigmund
. “
Repeating, Remembering, Working-Through
.” Trans.
Riviere
Joan
. In
The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 12: 1911–1913
.
London
:
Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psychoanalysis
,
1958
.
Galloway
,
Alexander
.
Gaming: Essays on Algorithmic Culture
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2006
.
Garb
,
Yaakov
. “
Virtual Reality
.”
Whole Earth Review
57
(Winter
1987
):
118
20
.
Gartenfeld
,
Alex
. “
Erin Shirreff
.”
Art in America
,
February
5
,
2010
.
Gritz
,
Anna
. “
Erin Shirreff
.”
Frieze
,
January
1
,
2010
.
Grosz
,
Elizabeth
.
Becoming Undone: Darwinian Reflections on Life, Politics, and Art
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2011
.
Grosz
,
Elizabeth
.
Time Travels: Feminism, Nature, Power
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2005
.
Gunning
,
Tom
. “
An Aesthetic of Astonishment: Early Film and the (In)credulous Spectator
.”).
Art and Text
34
(Spring
1989
).
Halberstam
,
J.
Automating Gender: Postmodern Feminism in the Age of the Intelligent Machine
.”
Feminist Studies
17
.
3
(
1991
).
Hayles
,
N. Katherine
.
How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1999
.
Heath
,
Stephen
. “
Narrative Space
.” In
Questions of Cinema
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
1981
.
Heath
,
Stephen
. “
On Suture
.” In
Questions of Cinema
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
,
1981
.
Heidegger
,
Martin
.
Being and Time
. Trans.
Macquarrie
John
and
Robinson
Edward
.
San Francisco
:
Harper and Row
,
1962
.
Hodges
,
Andrew
.
Alan Turing: The Enigma
.
New York
:
Walker
,
2000
.
Isaacson
,
Walter
.
Steve Jobs
.
New York
:
Simon and Schuster
,
2011
.
James
,
Richard S.
Expansion of Sound Resources in France, 1913–1940, and Its Relationship to Electronic Music
.”
PhD dissertation
,
University of Michigan
,
1981
.
Juhasz
,
Alexandra
.
Learning from YouTube
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2010
.
Kinder
,
Marsha
. “
Designing a Database Cinema
.” In
Future Cinema: The Cinematic Imaginary after Film
, ed.
Shaw
Jeffrey
and
Weibel
Peter
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2003
.
King
,
Homay
. “
Free Indirect Affect in Cassavetes’ Opening Night and Faces
.”
Camera Obscura
19
.
2
/
56
(
2004
):
104
35
.
King
,
Homay
.
Lost in Translation: Orientalism, Cinema, and the Enigmatic Signifier
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2010
.
Kracauer
,
Siegfried
.
Theory of Film: The Redemption of Physical Reality
.
Princeton
:
Princeton University Press
,
1960
.
Lacan
,
Jacques
. “
The Mirror Stage as Formative of the I Function as Revealed in Psychoanalytic Experience
.” In
Écrits
. Trans.
Fink
Bruce
.
New York
:
Norton
,
2006
.
Lambert-Beatty
Carrie
. “
Make-Believe: Parafiction and Plausibility
.”
October
129
(Summer
2009
):
51
84
.
Laplanche
,
Jean
. “
The Kent Seminar
.” In
Seduction, Translation, and the Drives
.
London
:
ICA
,
1993
.
Laplanche
,
Jean
.
New Foundations for Psychoanalysis
. Trans.
Macey
David
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Basil Blackwell
,
1990
.
Laplanche
,
Jean
. “
Seduction, Persecution, Revelation
.” In
Essays on Otherness
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
1999
.
Leonard
,
Jennifer
. “
Stewart Brand on the Long View
.” In
Massive Change
.
London
:
Phaidon Press
,
2004
.
Lévy
,
Pierre
.
Becoming Virtual: Reality in the Digital Age
. Trans.
Bononno
Robert
.
New York
:
Plenum Trade
,
1998
.
Lim
,
Bliss
.
Translating Time: Cinema, the Fantastic, and Temporal Critique
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2009
.
Livingston
,
Ira
. “
Darth Vader and Occupy Wall Street: A Twitteressay
.”
Bully Bloggers
,
November
13
,
2011
.
Accessed March 22, 2012. http://bullybloggers.wordpress.com
.
Manovich
,
Lev
.
The Language of New Media
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2001
.
Massumi
,
Brian
.
Parables for the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2002
.
Meade
,
Fionn
. “
Erin Shirreff
.”
Kaleidoscope
, no.
8
(Fall
2010
).
Meillassoux
,
Quentin
. “
Potentiality and Virtuality
.” In
Collapse II
, ed.
Mackay
R.
.
Oxford
:
Urbanomic
,
2007
.
Moody
,
Rick
, and
Snediker
Michael D.
. “
On the Doctoral Dissertation of One Electroacoustic Musician (Fragments)
.”
Journal of Popular Music Studies
24
.
1
(
2012
).
Mori
,
Masahiro
. “
The Uncanny Valley
.” Trans.
MacDorman
Karl F.
and
Minato
Takashi
.
Energy
7
.
4
(
1970
).
Muñoz
,
José Esteban
. “
Feeling Brown, Feeling Down: Latina Affect, the Performativity of Race, and the Depressive Position
.”
Signs
31
.
3
(
2006
):
675
88
.
Murray
,
Timothy
.
Digital Baroque: New Media Art and Cinematic Folds
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2008
.
Nakamura
,
Lisa
.
Cybertypes: Race, Ethnicity, and Identity on the Internet
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
2002
.
Nietzsche
,
Friedrich
. “
On Truth and Lie in a Nonmoral Sense
.” In
The Portable Nietzsche
. Trans.
Kaufmann
Walter
.
New York
:
Penguin
,
1954
.
Oudart
,
Jean-Pierre
. “
Cinema and Suture
.” Trans.
Hanet
Kari
.
Screen
18
.
4
(
1977–78
):
35
47
.
Pamuk
,
Orhan
.
Istanbul: Memories and the City
. Trans.
Freely
Maureen
.
New York
:
Random House
,
2004
.
Petzold
,
Charles
.
The Annotated Turing: A Guided Tour through Alan Turing’s Historic Paper on Computability and the Turing Machine
.
Indianapolis
:
Wiley
,
2008
.
Phillips
,
Adam
.
On Flirtation
.
Cambridge
:
Harvard University Press
,
1994
.
Raszl
,
Ivan
. “
Interview with Rob Janoff, Designer of the Apple Logo
.”
Creative Bits
,
August
3
,
2009
. .
Rheingold
,
Howard
.
The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
2000
.
Robbe-Grillet
Alain
. “
From Realism to Reality
.” In
For a New Novel: Essays on Fiction
. Trans.
Howard
Richard
.
New York
:
Grove Press
,
1965
.
Rodowick
,
D. N.
Reading the Figural, or, Philosophy after the New Media
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
,
2001
.
Sammons
,
Ted
. “
I Didn’t Say Look; I Said Listen: The People’s Microphone, #OWS, and Beyond
.”
Sounding Out!
,
November
21
,
2011
.
Accessed March 22, 2012. http://soundstudiesblog.com/
.
Shields
,
Rob
.
The Virtual
.
London
:
Routledge
,
2003
.
Silverman
,
Kaja
. “
The Author as Receiver
.”
October
96
(
2001
).
Silverman
,
Kaja
.
Flesh of My Flesh
.
Stanford
:
Stanford University Press
,
2009
.
Silverman
,
Kaja
. “
Suture
.” In
The Subject of Semiotics
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1983
.
Silverman
,
Kaja
.
World Spectators
.
Stanford
:
Stanford University Press
,
2000
.
Simmel
,
Georg
. “
Coquetry
.” In
Das Abenteuer und andere Essays
.
Frankfurt am Main
:
S. Fischer Verlag
,
2010
.
Silverman
,
Kaja
. “
Sociability
.” In
On Individual and Social Forms
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1971
.
Silverman
,
Kaja
. “
Sociability as the Autonomous Form of Sociation
.” In
The Sociology of Georg Simmel
. Trans.
Wolff
Kurt H.
.
New York
:
Free Press
,
1950
.
Smithson
,
Robert
. “
A Sedimentation of the Mind (1968)
.” In
The Collected Writings
, ed.
Flam
Jack
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
1996
.
Sobchack
,
Vivian
.
Carnal Thoughts: Embodiment and Moving Image Culture
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2004
.
Sontag
,
Susan
. “
Bergman’s Persona
.” In
Ingmar Bergman’s Persona
, ed.
Michaels
Lloyd
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2000
.
Sophocles
.
Sophocles II: Four Tragedies
. Trans.
Grene
David
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
,
1957
.
Stoppard
,
Tom
.
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead
.
New York
:
Grove Press
,
1967
.
Strachey
,
Christopher
. “
The Thinking Machine
.”
Encounter
(
October
1954
):
25
31
.
Torlasco
,
Domietta
.
The Heretical Archive: Digital Memory at the End of Film
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
,
2013
.
Trinh
T. Minh-ha
.
The Digital Film Event
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
2005
.
Turing
,
Alan
. “
Computing Machinery and Intelligence
.”
Mind
59
(
1950
):
433
60
.
Turing
,
Alan
. “
On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem (1936)
.” In
The Essential Turing: Seminal Writings in Computing, Logic, Philosophy, Artificial Intelligence, and Artificial Life
, ed.
Copeland
B. Jack
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
2004
.
Turing
,
Sara
.
Alan M. Turing
.
Centenary edition
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2012
.
Tyler
,
Parker
. “
Dragtime and Drugtime; Or, Film à la Warhol
.”
Evergreen Review
11
.
46
(
1967
).
Ultra-red
. “
Mission Statement
.”
2000
.
Accessed April 2, 2012. http://www.ultrared.org/mission.html
.
Vogt
,
Adolf Max
.
Le Corbusier, the Noble Savage: Toward an Archaeology of Modernism
. Trans.
Donnell
Radka
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
,
1998
.
Wardrip-Fruin
Noah
. “
Digital Media Archaeology: Interpreting Computational Processes
.” In
Media Archaeology: Approaches, Applications, and Implications
, ed.
Huhtamo
Erkki
and
Parikka
Jussi
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2011
.
Welter
,
Volker M.
From Disc to Sphere
.”
Cabinet
, no.
40
(Winter
2010–11
).
Winterbotham
,
F. W.
The Ultra Secret
.
London
:
Weidenfeld and Nicolson
,
1974
.
Wollen
,
Peter
. “
Godard and Counter-Cinema: Vent d’Est
.” In
Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology
, ed.
Rosen
Philip
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
,
1986
.
Zach
,
Richard
. “
Alan Turing and the Decision Problem
.”
Lecture at the University of Calgary
,
January
24
,
2012
.
Žižek
,
Slavoj
.
The Ticklish Subject: The Absent Centre of Political Ontology
.
London
:
Verso
,
1999
.
Close Modal
This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only

Sign In or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal