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The 1990s witnessed the formation of religious middle classes transforming the terms of public debates in Turkey. Islamic films and novels became popular in cultural criticism, and new spaces, markets, and media with religious accents proliferated. This public Islam testifies to a shift in the orientation of the Islamic movement from macropolitics toward micropractices, while it challenges the borders and the meanings of the secular public sphere. This chapter discusses visual aspects of the religious-secular divide, blowing up a snapshot of contemporary Muslim actors entering public spaces. Public Islam’s disruptive effects are analyzed focusing on the case of Merve Kavakci, a female deputy who was elected in 1999 but prevented from serving her term by the secularists because she was wearing a Muslim headscarf in the Parliament.

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