Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination
This content is made freely available by the publisher. It may not be redistributed or altered. All rights reserved.
This content is only available as PDF.
Abdul Majeed
O
.
1971
.
The Learned Ceylon Muslims’ Opinion on Ahmadiyya Movement
.
Colombo
:
Ceylon Ahmadiyya Muslim Association
.
Abeyasinghe
T. B. H
.
1986
. “
Muslims in Sri Lanka in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
.” In
Muslims of Sri Lanka: Avenues to Antiquity
, ed.
Shukri
M.A.M.
,
129
45
.
Beruwala, Sri Lanka
:
Jamiah Naleemia Institute
.
Abeyasinghe
T. B. H.
, trans.
1995
. “
Antonio Boccaro’s Description of Ceylon Translated into English
.”
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka
(new series)
39
, Special Number:
1
81
.
Abeyawardana
H. A. P
.
1999
.
Boundary Divisions of Mediaeval Sri Lanka
.
Polgasovita, Sri Lanka
:
Academy of Sri Lankan Culture
.
Agarwal
Bina
.
1994
.
A Field of One’s Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Lebbai
Ahmad
,
Ibn
Seyyid Muhammad
.
1873
.
Fat-Hud-Dayyân: Fi Fiqhi Khairil Adyân
[A Compendium on Muslim Theology and Jurisprudence]. Trans.
Aniff-Doray
Saifuddin J
.. English edition,
Colombo
:
Fat-Hud-Dayyan Publication Committee
,
1963
.
Aiyappan
A
.
1944
.
Iravas and Culture Change. Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum
(new series)
5
, no.
1
.
Madras
:
Government Press
.
Ameer Ali
A. C. L
.
1980
. “
Some Aspects of Religio-economic Precepts and Practices in Islam: A Case Study of the Muslim Community in Ceylon during the Period c.1800–1915
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Western Australia
,
Perth
.
Ameer Ali
A. C. L
.
1981
. “
The Genesis of the Muslim Community in Ceylon (Sri Lanka): A Historical Summary
.”
Asian Studies
19
:
65
82
.
Ameer Ali
A. C. L
.
1986–1987
. “
Politics of Survival: Past Strategies and Present Predicament of the Muslim Community in Sri Lanka
.”
Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs
7–8
:
147
70
.
Ameer Ali
A. C. L
.
1992a
. “
The Quest for Cultural Identity and Material Advancement: Parallels and Contrasts in Muslim Minority Experience in Secular India and Buddhist Sri Lanka
.”
Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs
13
, no.
1
:
33
58
.
Ameer Ali
A. C. L
.
1992b
. “
Sri Lanka’s Ethnic War: The Muslim Dimension
.”
Pravâda
1
, no.
11
:
5
7
.
Anantha Krishna Iyer
L. K
.
1909
.
The Cochin Tribes and Castes
. Vol.
1
.
Madras
:
Higginbotham
.
Appadurai
Arjun
.
1981
.
Worship and Conflict under Colonial Rule: A South Indian Case
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Appadurai
Arjun
,
Breckenridge
Carol
.
1976
. “
The South Indian Temple: Authority, Honor, and Redistribution
.”
Contributions to Indian Sociology
(new series)
10
, no.
2
:
187
211
.
Arasaratnam
Sinnappah
.
1964
.
Ceylon
.
Englewood, N.J.
:
Prentice-Hall
.
Arasaratnam
Sinnappah
., ed. and trans.
1978
.
François Valentijn’s Description of Ceylon
.
London
:
Hakluyt Society
.
Arasaratnam
Sinnappah
.
1994
. “
Sri Lanka’s Tamils under Colonial Rule
.” In
The Sri Lankan Tamils: Ethnicity and Identity
, ed.
Manogaran
Chelvadurai
,
Pfaffenberger
Bryan
,
28
53
.
Boulder, Colo.
:
Westview Press
.
Assayag
Jackie
.
2004
.
At the Confluence of Two Rivers: Muslims and Hindus in South India
.
New Delhi
:
Manohar
.
Azeez
I. L. M. A
.
1907
.
A Criticism of Mr. Ramanathan’s “Ethnology of the ‘Moors’ of Ceylon.”
Colombo
:
Moors’ Union
.
Banks
Michael Y
.
1957
. “
The Social Organization of the Jaffna Tamils of North Ceylon, with Special Reference to Kinship, Marriage, and Inheritance
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Cambridge
.
Banks
Michael Y
.
1960
. “
Caste in Jaffna
.” In
Aspects of Caste in South India, Ceylon, and Northwest Pakistan
, ed.
Leach
Edmund R.
,
61
77
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Barnett
Steven A
.
1970
. “
The Structural Position of a South Indian Caste: Kontaikkatti Velalars in Tamilnadu
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Chicago
.
Barnett
Steven A
.
1976
. “
Cocoanuts and Gold: Relational Identity in a South Indian Caste
.”
Contributions to Indian Sociology
10
:
133
56
.
Bass
Daniel
.
2001
.
Landscapes of Malaiyaha Tamil Identity
.
Marga Monograph Series on Ethnic Reconciliation
, no.
8
.
Colombo, Sri Lanka
:
Marga Institute
.
Bastiampillai
Bertram E. S. J
.
1995
. “
The Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka
.” In
Security Dilemma of a Small State: Part Two, Internal Crisis and External Intervention in Sri Lanka
, ed.
Weraka
Mahinda
,
Jayasekere
P.V.J.
,
315
36
.
New Delhi
:
South Asia Publishers
.
Bastin
Rohan
.
1997
. “
The Authentic Inner Life: Complicity and Resistance in the Tamil Hindu Revival
.” In
Sri Lanka: Collective Identities Revisited
, ed.
Roberts
Michael
,
1
:
385
438
.
Colombo
:
Marga Institute
.
Bastin
Rohan
.
2002
.
The Domain of Constant Excess: Plural Worship at the Munnesvaram Temples in Sri Lanka
.
New York
:
Berghahn Books
.
Batticaloa Handbook and Directory
.
1907
.
Batticaloa
:
Wesleyan Mission Press
.
Baxter
Craig
,
Malik
Yogendra K
,
Kennedy
Charles H
,
Oberst
Robert C
.
1987
.
Government and Politics in South Asia
.
Boulder, Colo.
:
Westview Press
.
Bayly
Susan
.
1989
.
Saints, Goddesses, and Kings: Muslims and Christians in South Indian Society, 1700–1900
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Beck
Brenda E. F
.
1972
.
Peasant Society in Konku: A Study of Right and Left Subcastes in South India
.
Vancouver
:
University of British Columbia Press
.
Bharati
Swami A
.
1961
.
The Ochre Robe
.
London
:
Allen and Unwin
.
Blackwood
Evelyn
.
2000
.
Webs of Power: Women, Kin, and Community in a Sumatran Village
.
Lanham, Md.
:
Rowman and Littlefield
.
Brangança Pereira
A. B. de
, ed.
1937
.
Arquivo Portugués Oriental (Nova Ediçao), Tomo IV Historica Administrativa, Vol. III 1600–1699, Parte I Livro Das Plantas De Todas As Fortalezas, Cidades, e Provoaçoes Do Estado Da India Oriental Por Antonio Bocarro (1635)
.
Lisbon
:
n.p
.
Brito
Christopher
.
1876
.
The Mukkuva Law, or the Rules of Succession among the Mukkuvars of Ceylon
.
Colombo
:
H. D. Gabriel
.
Brouwer
Jan
.
1995
.
The Makers of the World: Caste, Craft and Mind of South Indian Artisans
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Brow
James
.
1978
.
Vedda Villages of Anuradhapura: The Historical Anthropology of a Community in Sri Lanka
.
Seattle
:
University of Washington Press
.
Burnand
Jacob
.
1794
.
Memorial Compiled by Mr. Jacob Burnand, Late Chief of Batticaloa, for His Successor, Mr. Johannes Philippus Wambeek
.
Manuscript of an early-nineteenth-century English translation in National Museum Library
,
Colombo, Sri Lanka
.
Dutch original in the Sri Lanka National Archives
.
Burrow
T.
,
Emeneau
M.B
..
1961
.
A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Busby
Cecilia
.
2000
.
The Performance of Gender: An Anthropology of Everyday Life in a South Indian Fishing Village
.
London
:
Athlone Press
.
Canagaratnam
S. O
.
1921
.
Monograph of the Batticaloa District
.
Colombo
:
H. R. Cottle, Government Printer
.
Caplan
Lionel
.
1984
. “
Bridegroom Price in Urban India: Caste, Class, and ‘Dowry Evil’ among Christians in Madras
.”
Man
19
, no.
2
:
216
33
.
Cartman
Rev. J
.
1957
.
Hinduism in Ceylon
.
Colombo
:
M. D. Gunasena
.
Casie Chitty
Simon
.
1834
.
The Ceylon Gazetteer
. Repr.,
New Delhi
:
Navrang
,
1989
.
Cordiner
Rev. James
.
1807
.
A Description of Ceylon
. Vol.
2
.
London
:
Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme
.
Courtright
Paul B
.
1985
.
Gaṇeśa: Lord of Obstacles, Lord of Beginnings
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
.
Dale
Stephen F
.
1980
.
The Mâppiḷas of Malabar, 1498–1922: Islamic Society on the South Asian Frontier
.
Oxford
:
Clarendon Press
.
Daniel
E. Valentine
.
1984
.
Fluid Signs: Being a Person the Tamil Way
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Daniel
E. Valentine
.
1996
.
Charred Lullabies: Chapters in an Anthropography of Violence
.
Princeton, N.J.
:
Princeton University Press
.
Dart
Jon A
.
1985
. “
Ethnic Identity and Marginality among the Coast Veddahs of Sri Lanka
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of California
,
San Diego
.
David
Kenneth
.
1973
. “
Until Marriage Do Us Part: A Cultural Account of Jaffna Tamil Categories for Kinsmen
.”
Man
8
, no.
4
:
521
35
.
David
Kenneth
.
1977
. “
Hierarchy and Equivalence in Jaffna, North Ceylon: Normative Codes as Mediator
.” In
The New Wind: Changing Identities in South Asia
, ed.
David
Kenneth
,
179
226
.
The Hague
:
Mouton
.
de Graeuwe
Pieter
.
1676
.
Memorie van de Heer Pieter Graeuwe aan des zelfs Vervanger de Heer Jan Blommert gedateered 8 April 1676
[Memorial of Pieter de Graeuwe to his successor Jan Blommert dated 8 April 1676]. V.O.C. 1.04.17, Hoge Regering Batavia.
Algemene Rijksarchief
,
Den Haag, Netherlands
.
Deliège
Robert
.
1999
.
The Untouchables of India
.
Oxford
:
Berg
.
de Munck
Victor C
.
1993
.
Seasonal Cycles: A Study of Social Change and Continuity in a Sri Lankan Village
.
New Delhi
:
Asian Educational Services
.
Denham
E. B
.
1912
.
Ceylon at the Census of 1911
.
Colombo
:
H. C. Cottle, Government Printer
.
Denham
E. B
.
1915
.
Report of Mr. E. B. Denham, Government Agent
.
Administration Reports, 1915, Part I
.
Civil-Provincial Administration, Eastern Province
,
Ceylon
.
Denny
Frederick M
.
1985
.
An Introduction to Islam
.
New York
:
Macmillan
.
Deraniyagala
S. U
.
1992
.
The Prehistory of Sri Lanka: An Ecological Perspective
.
Colombo
:
Department of Archaeological Survey, Government of Sri Lanka
.
Derrett
J. D. M
.
1957
.
Hindu Law Past and Present
.
Calcutta
:
A. Mukherjee
.
de Silva
Chandra R
.
1968
. “
Portuguese Policy towards the Muslims in Ceylon, 1505– 1626
.”
Proceedings of the First International Conference Seminar of Tamil Studies
,
Kuala Lumpur
1966
.
Kuala Lumpur
:
International Association for Tamil Research
.
de Silva
Chandra R
.
1972
.
The Portuguese in Ceylon, 1617–1638
.
Colombo
:
H. W. Cave
.
de Silva
Chandra R
.
1995
. “
Historical Introduction to Antonio Bocarro’s Ceylon
.”
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka
39
(
special issue
):
xii
xxvii
.
de Silva
Chandra R
.
1997
.
Sri Lanka: A History
. 2d ed.
New Delhi
:
Vikas
.
de Silva
Kingsley M
.
1986a
.
Managing Ethnic Tensions in Multi-ethnic Societies: Sri Lanka 1880–1985
.
Lanham, Md.
:
University Press of America
.
de Silva
Kingsley M
.
1986b
. “
Muslim Leaders and the Nationalist Movement
.” In
Muslims of Sri Lanka: Avenues to Antiquity
, ed.
Shukri
M.A.M.
,
453
72
.
Beruwala, Sri Lanka
:
Jamiah Naleemia Institute
.
de Silva
Kingsley M
.
1986c
. “
The Muslim Minority in a Democratic Polity: The Case of Sri Lanka: Reflections on a Theme
.” In
Muslims of Sri Lanka: Avenues to Antiquity
, ed.
Shukri
M.A.M.
,
443
52
.
Beruwala, Sri Lanka
:
Jamiah Naleemia Institute
.
de Silva
Kingsley M
.
1988
. “
Sri Lanka’s Muslim Minority
.” In
Ethnic Conflict in Buddhist Societies: Sri Lanka, Thailand and Burma
, ed.
de Silva
K.M.
,
Duke
Pensri
,
Goldberg
Ellen S.
,
Katz
Nathan
,
202
14
.
Boulder, Colo.
:
Westview
.
de Silva
Kingsley M
.
1998
.
Reaping the Whirlwind: Ethnic Conflict, Ethnic Politics in Sri Lanka
.
New Delhi
:
Penguin Books
.
de Silva
Rajpal K.
,
Beumer
W.G.M
..
1988
.
Illustrations and Views of Dutch Ceylon, 1602–1796
.
London
:
Serendib Publications
.
DeVotta
Neil
.
2004
.
Blowback: Linguistic Nationalism, Institutional Decay, and Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka
.
Palo Alto, Calif.
:
Stanford University Press
.
Dewaraja
Lorna
.
1986
. “
The Muslims in the Kandyan Kingdom (c.1600–1815): A Study of Ethnic Integration
.” In
Muslims of Sri Lanka: Avenues to Antiquity
, ed.
Shukri
M.A.M.
,
211
34
.
Beruwala, Sri Lanka
:
Jamiah Naleemia Institute
.
Dewaraja
Lorna
.
1994
.
The Muslims of Sri Lanka: One Thousand Years of Ethnic Harmony, 900– 1915
.
Colombo
:
Lanka Islamic Foundation
.
Dewaraja
Lorna
.
1995
. “
The Indigenisation of the Muslims of Sri Lanka
.” In
Sesquicentennial Commemorative Volume of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka, 1845–1995
, ed.
de Silva
G.P.S.H.
,
Uragoda
C.G.
,
427
39
.
Colombo
:
Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka
.
Dharmadasa
K. N. O
.
1992
.
Language, Religion, and Ethnic Assertiveness: The Growth of Sinhalese Nationalism in Sri Lanka
.
Ann Arbor
:
University of Michigan Press
.
Dharmadasa
K. N. O
.
1996
. “
The Roots of Sinhala Ethnic Identity in Sri Lanka: The Debate on ‘The People of the Lion’ Continued
.”
Ethnic Studies Report
14
:
137
70
.
Didier
Brian J
.
2004
. “
Conflict Self-inflicted: Dispute, Incivility, and the Threat of Violence in an Indian Muslim Community
.”
Journal of Asian Studies
63
, no.
1
:
61
80
.
Dirks
Nicholas B
.
1987
.
The Hollow Crown: The Ethnohistory of an Indian Kingdom
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Dirks
Nicholas B
.
2001
.
Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India
.
Princeton, N.J.
:
Princeton University Press
.
Diwan
Paras
.
1987
.
Muslim Law in Modern India
.
Allahabad
:
Allahabad Law Agency
.
Douglas
Mary
.
1966
.
Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo
.
London
:
Routledge and Kegan Paul
.
D’Oyly
Sir J
.
1929
.
A Sketch of the Constitution of the Kandyan Kingdom
. Repr.,
Dehiwala
:
Tisara Prakasakayo
,
1975
.
D’Souza
Victor S
.
1955
.
The Navayats of Kanara: A Study in Culture Contact
.
Dharwar
:
Kannada Research Institute
.
D’Souza
Victor S
.
1959
. “
Social Organization and Marriage Customs of the Moplahs on the South-west Coast of India
.”
Anthropos
54
:
487
516
.
D’Souza
Victor S
.
1973
. “
Status Groups among the Moplahs on the South-west Coast of India
.” In
Caste and Stratification among the Muslims
, ed.
Ahmad
Imtiaz
,
45
60
.
Delhi
:
Manohar
.
Dube
Leela
.
1973
. “
Caste Analogues among the Laccadive Muslims
.” In
Caste and Stratification among the Muslims
, ed.
Ahmad
Imtiaz
,
195
234
.
Delhi
:
Manohar
.
Dube
Leela
.
2001a
. “
Seed and the Earth: The Symbolism of Biological Reproduction and Sexual Relations of Production
.” In
Anthropological Explorations in Gender: Intersecting Fields
,
119
53
.
New Delhi
:
Sage
.
Dube
Leela
.
2001b
. “
Who Gains from Matriliny? Men, Women, and Change on a Lakshadweep Island
.” In
Anthropological Explorations in Gender: Intersecting Fields
,
181
220
.
New Delhi
:
Sage
.
Dumont
Louis
.
1957
. “
Hierarchy and Marriage Alliance in South Indian Kinship
.”
Occasional Papers of the Royal Anthropological Institute
12
:
1
46
.
Dumont
Louis
.
1970
.
Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and Its Implications
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Dumont
Louis
.
1986
.
A South Indian Subcaste: Social Organization and Religion of the Pramalai Kallar
. Ed.
Moffatt
Michael
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
. Original French edition,
Paris
:
Mouton
,
1957
.
Effendi
Mohamed S. B. H. I
.
1965
. “
Archaeological Evidence of Early Arabs in Ceylon
.” In
Moors’ Islamic Cultural Home, The First Twenty-one Years
(Anniversary Souvenir 1),
31
38
.
Colombo
:
Moors’ Islamic Cultural Home
.
Eickelman
Dale F.
,
Piscatori
James
, eds.
1990
.
Muslim Travellers: Pilgrimage, Migration, and the Religious Imagination
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Enthoven
R. E
.
1922
. “
Lingayats
.” In
The Tribes and Castes of Bombay
,
2
:
343
77
. Repr.,
New Delhi
:
Asian Educational Services
,
1990
.
Ernst
Carl W
.
1997
.
The Shambhala Guide to Sufism
.
Boston
:
Shambhala
.
Ernst
Carl W.
,
Lawrence
Bruce B
..
2002
.
Sufi Martyrs of Love: The Chishti Order in South Asia and Beyond
.
New York
:
Palgrave
.
Fairservis
Walter A.
,
Southworth
Franklin C
..
1989
. “
Linguistic Archeology and the Indus Valley Culture
.” In
Old Problems and New Perspectives in the Archaeology of South Asia
,
Wisconsin Archaeological Reports 2
, ed.
Kenoyer
Jonathan M.
,
133
41
.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin
.
Fallasch
Ute
.
2004
. “
The Islamic Mystic Tradition in India: The Madari Sufi Brotherhood
.” In
Lived Islam in South Asia: Adaptation, Accommodation, and Conflict
, ed.
Reifeld
Helmut
,
Ahmad
Imtiaz
,
254
72
.
Delhi
:
Social Science Press
.
Fanselow
Frank S
.
1989
. “
Muslim Society in Tamil Nadu (India): An Historical Perspective
.”
Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs
10
, no.
1
:
264
89
.
Farmer
B. H
.
1957
.
Pioneer Peasant Colonization in Ceylon: A Study in Asian Agrarian Problems
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
.
Farouque
H. M. Z
.
1965
. “
The Introduction of Muslim Law in Ceylon: An Historical Outline
.” In
Moors’ Islamic Cultural Home 21st Anniversary Souvenir
,
14
24
.
Colombo
:
Moors’ Islamic Cultural Home
.
Farouque
H. M. Z
.
1986
. “
Islamic Law in Sri Lanka: An Historical Survey with Particular Reference to Matrimonial Laws
.” In
Muslims of Sri Lanka: Avenues to Antiquity
, ed.
Shukri
M.A.M.
,
385
414
.
Beruwala, Sri Lanka
:
Jamiah Naleemia Institute
.
Flueckiger
Joyce Burkhalter
.
2006
.
In Amma’s Healing Room: Gender and Vernacular Islam in South India
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Freed
Stanley A
.
1963
. “
An Objective Method for Determining the Collective Caste Hierarchy of an Indian Village
.”
American Anthropologist
65
:
879
91
.
Fruzzetti
Lina M
.
1982
.
The Gift of a Virgin: Women, Marriage, and Ritual in a Bengali Society
.
New Brunswick, N.J.
:
Rutgers University Press
.
Fruzzetti
Lina M.
,
Ostor
Akos
.
1976
. “
Seed and Earth: A Cultural Analysis of Kinship in a Bengali Town
.”
Contributions to Indian Sociology
10
:
97
132
.
Fuglerud
Oivind
.
1999
.
Life on the Outside: The Tamil Diaspora and Long Distance Nationalism
.
London
:
Pluto Press
.
Fuglerud
Oivind
.
2003
. “
Local Communities and State Ambitions in Eastern Sri Lanka
.” In
Building Local Capacities for Peace: Rethinking Conflict and Development in Sri Lanka
, ed.
Mayer
Markus
,
Rajasingham-Senanayake
Darini
,
Thangarajah
Yuvi
,
65
79
.
Delhi
:
Macmillan India
.
Fuller
C. J
.
1976
.
The Nayars Today
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Gabriel
Theodore P. C
.
1989
.
Lakshadweep: History, Religion and Society
.
New Delhi
:
Books and Books
.
Gamburd
Michele Ruth
.
2000
.
The Kitchen Spoon’s Handle: Transnationalism and Sri Lanka’s Migrant Housemaids
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Geiger
Wilhelm
.
1929–1930
.
Culavamsa: Being the Most Recent Part of the Mahavamsa
. Trans. from German by
Rickmers
C.M.
. Repr.,
London
:
Pali Text Society
,
1973
.
Good
Anthony
.
1980
. “
Elder Sister’s Daughter Marriage in South Asia
.”
Journal of Anthropological Research
36
:
474
500
.
Goody
Jack
,
Tambiah
Stanley J
..
1973
.
Bridewealth and Dowry
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Gough
Kathleen
.
1956
. “
Brahmin Kinship in a Tamil Village
.”
American Anthropologist
58
:
826
53
.
Gough
Kathleen
.
1959
. “
Cults of the Dead among the Nayars
.” In
Traditional India: Structure and Change
, ed.
Singer
Milton
,
240
72
.
Philadelphia
:
American Folklore Society
.
Gough
Kathleen
.
1960
. “
Caste in a Tanjore Village
.” In
Aspects of Caste in South India, Ceylon, and North-west Pakistan
, ed.
Leach
Edmund R.
,
11
60
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Gough
Kathleen
.
1961
. “
Nayar: Central Kerala; Nayar: North Kerala; Tiyyar: North Kerala; Mappilla: North Kerala
.” In
Matrilineal Kinship
, ed.
Schneider
David M.
,
Gough
Kathleen
,
298
482
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Gunasingham
S
.
1973
. “
Some Aspects of the Impact of Cola Rule in the Trincomalee District
.”
Paper presented at the Ceylon Studies Seminar
,
University of Peradeniya
,
Sri Lanka
.
Gunasingham
S
.
1974
.
Two Inscriptions of Côḷa Ilaṅkçsvara Deva
.
Trincomalee Inscriptions Series No. 1
.
Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
:
Akurana Printers, for the author
.
Gunasinghe
P. A. T
.
1980
. “
The Political History of the Kingdoms of Yapahuwa, Kurunagala, and Gampola
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Peradeniya
.
Gunawardana
R. A. L. H
.
1990
. “
The People of the Lion: The Sinhala Identity and Ideology in History and Historiography
.” In
Sri Lanka: History and the Roots of Conflict
, ed.
Spencer
Jonathan
,
45
86
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Gunawardana
R. A. L. H
.
1995
.
Historiography in a Time of Ethnic Conflict: Construction of the Past in Contemporary Sri Lanka
.
Colombo
:
Social Scientists’ Association
.
Hardgrave
Robert L.
Jr
.
1969
.
The Nadars of Tamilnad: The Political Culture of a Community in Change
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Harper
Edward B
.
1964
. “
Ritual Pollution as an Integrator of Caste and Religion
.” In
Religion in South Asia
, ed.
Harper
Edward B.
,
151
96
.
Seattle
:
University of Washington Press
.
Harrigan
Patrick
.
1998
.
Kataragama: The Mystery Shrine
.
Chennai
:
Institute of Asian Studies
.
Hasbullah
S. H
.
2004
. “
Justice for the Dispossessed: The Case of a Forgotten Minority in Sri Lanka’s Ethnic Conflict
.” In
Sri Lankan Society in an Era of Globalization: Struggling to Create a New Social Order
, ed.
Hasbullah
S.H.
,
Morrison
Barrie M.
,
221
40
.
New Delhi
:
Sage
.
Hassan
M. C. A
.
1968
.
Sir Razik Fareed
.
Colombo
:
Sir Razik Fareed Foundation
.
Hellman-Rajanayagam
Dagmar
.
1994
. “
Tamils and the Meaning of History
.” In
The Sri Lankan Tamils: Ethnicity and Identity
, ed.
Manogaran
Chelvadurai
,
Pfaffenberger
Bryan
,
54
83
.
Boulder, Colo.
:
Westview Press
.
Hellman-Rajanayagam
Dagmar
.
1995
. “
Is There a Tamil Race?
” In
The Concept of Race in South Asia
, ed.
Robb
Peter
,
109
45
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Hennayake
Shantha K
.
1993
. “
Sri Lanka in 1992: Opportunity Missed in the Ethno-nationalist Crisis
.”
Asian Survey
33
, no.
2
:
157
64
.
Hennayake
Shantha K
.
1995
. “
The Muslims in the Ethno-nationalist Crisis in Sri Lanka
.” In
Security Dilemma of a Small State: Part Two, Internal Crisis and External Intervention in Sri Lanka
, ed.
Werake
M.
,
Jayasekara
P.V.J.
,
176
203
.
New Delhi
:
South Asia Publishers
.
Herring
Ronald J
.
1972
. “
The Forgotten 1953 Paddy Lands Act in Ceylon: Ideology, Capacity and Response
.”
Modern Ceylon Studies
3
, no.
2
:
99
124
.
Herring
Ronald J
.
2001
. “
Making Ethnic Conflict: The Civil War in Sri Lanka
.” In
Carrots, Sticks, and Ethnic Conflict: Rethinking Development Assistance
, ed.
Esman
Milton J.
,
Herring
Ronald J.
,
140
74
.
Ann Arbor
:
University of Michigan Press
.
Hiatt
Lester R
.
1973
. “
The Pattini Cult of Ceylon: A Tamil Perspective
.”
Social Compass
10
:
231
49
.
Hiebert
Paul G
.
1969
. “
Caste and Personal Rank in an Indian Village
.”
American Anthropologist
71
:
434
53
.
Hiebert
Paul G
.
1971
.
Konduru: Structure and Integration in a South Indian Village
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Hiltebeitel
Alf
.
1988
.
The Cult of Draupadi
. Vol.
1
,
Mythologies: From Gingee to Kuruksetra
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Ho
Engseng
.
2006
.
The Graves of Tarim: Genealogy and Mobility across the Indian Ocean
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Hocart
Arthur Maurice
.
1950
.
Caste: A Comparative Study
. Repr.,
New York
:
Russell and Russell
,
1968
.
Hollup
Oddvar
.
1994
.
Bonded Labour: Caste and Cultural Identity among Tamil Plantation Workers in Sri Lanka
.
New Delhi
:
Sterling Publishers
.
Hornell
James
.
1942
. “
The Indian Chank in Folklore and Religion
.”
Folk-Lore
53
:
113
25
.
Hussainmiya
B. A
.
1986
. “
Princes and Soldiers: The Antecedents of the Sri Lankan Malays
.” In
Muslims of Sri Lanka: Avenues to Antiquity
, ed.
Shukri
M.A.M.
,
279
309
.
Beruwala, Sri Lanka
:
Jamiah Naleemia Institute
.
Hussein
Asiff
.
2007
.
Sarandib: An Ethnological Study of the Muslims of Sri Lanka
.
Dehiwala, Sri Lanka
:
A. J. Prints, for the author
.
Ibrahim Kunju
A. P
.
1989
.
Mappila Muslims of Kerala: Their History and Culture
.
Trivandrum, Kerala, India
:
Sandhya Publications
.
Inden
Ronald B.
,
Nicholas
Ralph
.
1977
.
Kinship in Bengali Culture
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Indrapala
Karthigesu
.
1965
. “
Dravidian Settlements in Ceylon and the Beginnings of the Kingdom of Jaffna
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of London
.
Indrapala
Karthigesu
.
1981
. “
Buddhism among the Tamils, A.D. 1000–1500
.” In
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference-Seminar of Tamil Studies
,
Madurai, Tamilnadu, India
,
January 1981
, ed.
Arunachalam
M.
, sec.
12
:
27
39
. Vol.
2
.
Madras
:
International Association of Tamil Research
.
Indrapala
Karthigesu
.
1986
. “
The Role of Peninsular Indian Muslim Trading Communities in the Indian Ocean Trade
.” In
Muslims of Sri Lanka: Avenues to Antiquity
, ed.
Shukri
M.A.M.
,
113
27
.
Beruwala, Sri Lanka
:
Jamiah Naleemia Institute
.
Indrapala
Karthigesu
.
2005
.
The Evolution of an Ethnic Identity: The Tamils in Sri Lanka c. 300 B.C.E. to c. 1200 C.E.
.
Sydney
:
MV Publications for the South Asia Studies Centre
.
Ismail
Qadri
.
2005
.
Abiding by Sri Lanka: On Peace, Place, and Postcoloniality
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Jackson
K. David
.
1990
.
Sing without Shame: Oral Traditions in Indo-Portuguese Creole Verse
.
Amsterdam
:
John Benjamins Publishing and Instituto Cultural de Macau
.
Jeffrey
Robin
.
2001
.
Politics, Women and Well-being: How Kerala Became “A Model
.”
New Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Kadramer
D. W. N
.
1934
.
Landmarks of Ancient Batticaloa and Other Contributions to the Ceylon Press
.
Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
:
Catholic Orphanage Press
.
Kamalanathan
S. E.
,
Kamalanathan
K.
, eds.
2005
.
Maṭṭakkaḷappu PÛrva Carittiram
.
Colombo
:
Kumaran Book House
.
Kanapatippillai
C
.
1977
. “
Kîḻ Mâkâṇattil Vîracaivam
.” In
Makâkuru Civasri Aiyampiḷḷaik Kurukkaḷ 75-âm Âṇṭu PÛrtti Vaira Viḻâ Malar
, ed.
Kumaracami
V.
, (no pagination).
Kankesanthurai, Jaffna, Sri Lanka
:
n.p
.
Kandiah
V. C
.
1964
.
Maṭṭakkaḷapput Tamiḻakam
[Batticaloa Tamil Homeland].
Jaffna, Sri Lanka
:
Îḻakçcari Ponnaiyâ Ninaivu Veḷiyiṭṭu Manṟam
.
Kapferer
Bruce
.
1983
.
A Celebration of Demons: Exorcism and the Aesthetics of Healing in Sri Lanka
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Karve
Irawati
.
1968
.
Kinship Organization in India
. 3d ed.
New York
:
Asia Publishing House
.
Kemper
Steven
.
1991
.
The Presence of the Past: Chronicles, Politics, and Culture in Sinhala Life
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Kennedy
Kenneth A. R
.
1990
. “
Paleodemography of Sri Lanka and Peninsular India: A Cross-regional Survey
.” In
Perspectives in Archaeology: Leelananda Prematilleke Festschrift 1990
, ed.
Seneviratne
Sudarshan
et al
.,
29
37
.
Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
:
University of Peradeniya, Department of Archaeology
.
Khaja Khan
K. S
.
1923
.
Studies in Tasawwuf
.
London
:
Hogarth Press
.
Kiribamune
Sirima
.
1986
. “
Muslims and the Trade of the Arabian Sea with Special Reference to Sri Lanka from the Birth of Islam to the Fifteenth Century
.” In
Muslims of Sri Lanka: Avenues to Antiquity
, ed.
Shukri
M.A.M.
,
89
112
.
Beruwala, Sri Lanka
:
Jamiah Naleemia Institute
.
Kjaerholm
Lars
.
1990
. “
Kula Teyvam Worship in Tamilnadu: A Link Between Past and Present
.” In
Rites and Beliefs in Modern India
, ed.
Ferro-Luzzi
Gabriella E.
,
67
87
.
New Delhi
:
Manohar
.
Kodanda Rao
M
.
1973
. “
Rank Difference and Marriage Reciprocity in South India: An Aspect of the Implications of Elder Sister’s Daughter Marriage in a Fishing Village in Andhra
.”
Contributions to Indian Sociology
7
:
16
35
.
Krishna
Sankaran
.
1994
. “
Notes on a Trip to the Eastern Province, June 25 to June 29, 1994
.”
Serendipity
7
:
301
3
.
Kriyâviṉ Taṟkâlat Tamiḻ Akarâti
[Kriya Dictionary of Contemporary Tamil].
1992
.
Madras
:
Cre-A
.
Krysl
Marilyn
.
1993
. “
Suite for Kokodicholai, Sri Lanka
.”
Kenyon Review
15
, no.
2
:
141
43
.
Kumaracami
V.
, ed.
1977
.
Makâkuru Civasri Aiyampiḷḷaik Kurukkaḷ 75-âm Âṇṭu PÛrtti Vaira Viḻâ Malar
.
Kankesanthurai, Jaffna, Sri Lanka
:
n.p
.
Kurukulasuriya
G. I. O. M.
,
Gafoor
Abdul
,
Hussein
M.A.M
..
1988
.
The Muslim Community of Sri Lanka
.
Colombo
:
Marga Institute
.
Lawrence
Patricia
.
1997
. “
The Changing Amman: Notes on the Injury of War in Eastern Sri Lanka
.”
South Asia
20
:
215
36
.
Lawrence
Patricia
.
1998
. “
Grief on the Body: The Work of Oracles in Eastern Sri Lanka
.” In
Sri Lanka: Collective Identities Revisited
, ed.
Roberts
Michael
,
2
:
271
94
.
Colombo
:
Marga Institute
.
Lawrence
Patricia
.
2000
. “
Violence, Suffering, Amman: The Work of Oracles in Sri Lanka’s Eastern War Zone
.” In
Violence and Subjectivity
, ed.
Das
Veena
,
Kleinman
Arthur
,
Ramphele
Mamphela
,
Reynolds
Pamela
,
171
204
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Lawrence
Patricia
.
2003
. “
Kali in a Context of Terror: Tasks of a Goddess in Sri Lanka’s Civil War
.” In
Encountering Kali: In the Center, at the Margins, in the West
, ed.
Kripal
Jeffrey
,
McDermott
Rachel
,
100
123
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Lawrence
Patricia
.
2007
. “
Tamil Women’s Agency in Sri Lanka’s Transitional Warscape
.” In
Women and the Contested State: Religion, Violence, and Agency in South and Southeast Asia
, ed.
Skidmore
Monique
,
Lawrence
Patricia
,
89
116
.
Notre Dame, Ind.
:
University of Notre Dame Press
.
Leach
Edmund R
.
1961
.
Pul Eliya, A Village in Ceylon: A Study of Land Tenure and Kinship
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Lewis
J. P
.
1923a
. “
The Singing Fish at Batticaloa
.”
Ceylon Antiquary and Literary Register
8
, no.
4
:
343
45
.
Lewis
J. P
.
1923b
. “
Tradition as to the Origin of the People of Batticaloa: The Substance of a Lecture by the Late John Allagacone Delivered at Batticaloa on 20 December 1872
.”
Ceylon Antiquary and Literary Register
9
(
pt. 1
):
48
50
.
Liyanagamage
Amaradasa
.
1968
.
The Decline of Polonnaruwa and the Rise of Dambadeniya
.
Colombo
:
Department of Cultural Affairs
.
Liyanagamage
Amaradasa
.
1978
. “
A Forgotten Aspect of the Relations between the Sinhalese and the Tamils
.”
Ceylon Historical Journal
25
:
95
142
.
Liyanagamage
Amaradasa
.
1988
. “
Keralas in Medieval Sri Lankan History: A Study of Two Contrasting Roles
.”
Social Science Review
4
:
31
51
.
Lynch
Caitrin
.
2007
.
Juki Girls, Good Girls: Gender and Cultural Politics in Sri Lanka’s Global Garment Industry
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Mahar
J. M.
, ed.
1972
.
The Untouchables in Contemporary India
.
Tucson
:
University of Arizona Press
.
Mahroof
M. M. M
.
1986
. “
Muslim Social Organisation
.” In
An Ethnological Survey of the Muslims of Sri Lanka from Earliest Times to Independence
, by
Mahroof
M.M.M.
,
Azeez
Marina
,
Uwise
M.M.
,
Farouque
H.M.Z.
,
Rahim
M.J.A.
,
125
41
.
Colombo
:
Sir Razik Fareed Foundation
.
Mallick
Ross
.
1998
.
Development, Ethnicity and Human Rights in South Asia
.
New Delhi
:
Sage
.
Maloney
Clarence
.
1970
. “
The Beginnings of Civilization in South India
.”
Journal of Asian Studies
28
, no.
3
:
603
6
.
Mandelbaum
David G
.
1972
.
Society in India
.
2
vols.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Mani
A
.
1992
. “
Aspects of Identity and Change among Tamil Muslims in Singapore
.”
Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs
13
, no.
2
:
337
57
.
Manogaran
Chelvadurai
.
1987
.
Ethnic Conflict and Reconciliation in Sri Lanka
.
Honolulu
:
University of Hawaii Press
.
Manogaran
Chelvadurai
.
1994
. “
Colonization as Politics: Political Use of Space in Sri Lanka’s Ethnic Conflict
.” In
The Sri Lankan Tamils: Ethnicity and Identity
, ed.
Manogaran
Chelvadurai
,
Pfaffenberger
Bryan
,
84
125
.
Boulder, Colo.
:
Westview Press
.
Manu
.
1886
.
The Laws of Manu
. Ed. and trans.
Bühler
Georg
.
Oxford
:
Clarendon Press
. Repr.,
New York
:
Dover Publications
,
1960
.
Marriott
McKim
.
1968
. “
Caste Ranking and Food Transactions: A Matrix Analysis
.” In
Structure and Change in Indian Society
, ed.
Singer
Milton
,
Cohn
Bernard S.
,
133
71
.
Chicago
:
Aldine
.
Marriott
McKim
.
1976
. “
Hindu Transactions: Diversity without Dualism
.” In
Transactions and Meaning: Directions in the Anthropology of Exchange and Symbolic Behavior
, ed.
Kapferer
Bruce
,
109
42
.
Philadelphia
:
ISHI
.
Marriott
McKim
.
1990
. “
Constructing an Indian Ethnosociology
.” In
India through Hindu Categories
,
Contributions to Indian Sociology Occasional Studies 5
, ed.
Marriott
McKim
,
1
39
.
Delhi
:
Sage
.
Marriott
McKim
,
Inden
Ronald B
.
1974
. “
Caste Systems
.” In
Encyclopedia Britannica
, 15th ed,
3
:
982
91
.
Chicago
:
Encyclopedia Brittanica
.
Marriott
McKim
,
Inden
Ronald B
.
1977
. “
Toward an Ethnosociology of South Asian Caste Systems
.” In
The New Wind: Changing Identities in South Asia
, ed.
David
Kenneth
,
227
38
.
The Hague
:
Mouton
.
Masulovic-Marsol
Liliana
.
1988
. “
Structure et impact de la confrérie des Rifa’is de Skopje
.”
Lettre d’Information
8
:
13
31
.
Programme de Recherches Interdisciplinaires sur le Monde Musulman Périphérique
,
Paris
,
EHESS
.
Maunaguru
C
.
1998
.
Maṭṭakkaḷappu Marapuvaḻi Naṭakaṅkaḷ
[Traditional Folk-dramas of Batticaloa].
Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
:
Vipulam
Publication No. 7.
McCormack
William
.
1959
. “
The Forms of Communication in Virasaiva Religion
.” In
Traditional India: Structure and Change
, ed.
Singer
Milton
,
119
29
.
Philadelphia
:
American Folklore Society
.
McCormack
William
.
1963
. “
Lingayats as a Sect
.”
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
93
(
pt. 1
):
59
71
.
McCormack
William
.
1973
. “
Appendix 2: On Lingayat Culture
.” In
Speaking of Siva
, by
Ramanujan
A.K.
,
169
87
.
Harmondsworth, UK
:
Penguin Books
.
McDowell
Christopher
.
1996
.
A Tamil Asylum Diaspora: Sri Lankan Migration, Settlement, and Politics in Switzerland
.
New York
:
Berghahn
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1974
. “
Tamils and Moors: Caste and Matriclan Ideology in Eastern Sri Lanka
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Chicago
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1982a
. “
Dutch Burghers and Portuguese Mechanics: Eurasian Ethnicity in Sri Lanka
.”
Comparative Studies in Society and History
24
, no.
1
:
235
63
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1982b
. “
Mukkuvar Vannimai: Tamil Caste and Matriclan Ideology in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
.” In
Caste Ideology and Interaction
, ed.
McGilvray
Dennis B.
,
34
97
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1982c
. “
Sexual Power and Fertility in Sri Lanka: Batticaloa Tamils and Moors
.”
Ethnography of Fertility and Birth
, ed.
MacCormack
Carol P.
,
25
73
.
London
:
Academic Press
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1983
. “
Paraiyar Drummers of Sri Lanka: Consensus and Constraint in an Untouchable Caste
.”
American Ethnologist
10
, no.
1
:
97
115
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1988
. “
The 1987 Stirling Award Essay: Sex, Repression, and Sanskritization in Sri Lanka?
Ethos
16
, no.
2
:
99
127
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1989
. “
Households in Akkaraipattu: Dowry and Domestic Organization among the Matrilineal Tamils and Moors of Sri Lanka
.” In
Society from the Inside Out: Anthropological Perspectives on the South Asian Household
, ed.
Gray
John N.
,
Mearns
David J.
,
192
235
.
New Delhi
:
Sage
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1997
. “
Tamils and Muslims in the Shadow of War: Schism or Continuity?
South Asia
20
(
special issue
):
239
53
. Repr. in Conflict and Community in Sri Lanka: “Pearl of the East” or the “Island of Tears”? ed. Siri Gamage and I. B. Watson, 217–28. New Delhi: Sage, 1999.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1998a
. “
Arabs, Moors, and Muslims: Sri Lankan Muslim Ethnicity in Regional Perspective
.”
Contributions to Indian Sociology
32
, no.
2
:
433
83
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1998b
.
Symbolic Heat: Gender, Health, and Worship among the Tamils of South India and Sri Lanka
.
Ahmedabad, India
:
Mapin
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
2004
. “
Jailani: A Sufi Shrine in Sri Lanka
.” In
Lived Islam in South Asia: Adaptation, Accommodation and Conflict
, ed.
Reifeld
Helmut
,
Ahmad
Imtiaz
,
273
89
.
Delhi
:
Social Science Press
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
2006
. “
Tsunami and Civil War: An Anthropologist Confronts the Real World
.”
India Review
5
, nos.
3–4
:
372
93
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
2007
. “
The Portuguese Burghers of Eastern Sri Lanka in the Wake of Civil War and Tsunami
.” In
Re-exploring the Links: History and Constructed Histories between Portugal and Sri Lanka
, ed.
Flores
Jorge
,
325
47
.
Wiesbaden
:
Harrassowitz
.
McGilvray
Dennis B.
, ed. Forthcoming.
Observing Batticaloa: Dutch Accounts of Eastern Ceylon, 1676–1794
. Manuscript in preparation.
McGilvray
Dennis B.
,
Raheem
Mirak
.
2007
.
Muslim Perspectives on the Sri Lankan Conflict
.
Policy Studies 41
.
Washington
:
East-West Center
.
Mehta
Deepak
.
2000
. “
Circumcision, Body, Masculinity: The Ritual Wound and Collective Violence
.” In
Violence and Subjectivity
, ed.
Das
Veena
,
Kleinman
Arthur
,
Ramphele
Mamphela
,
Reynolds
Pamela
,
79
101
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Michael
R. Blake
.
1992
.
The Origins of Virasaiva Sects
.
Delhi
:
Motilal Banarsidass
.
Miller
Roland E
.
1976
.
Mappila Muslims of Kerala: A Study in Islamic Trends
.
New Delhi
:
Orient Longman
.
Mines
Diane P
.
2005
.
Fierce Gods: Inequality, Ritual, and the Politics of Dignity in a South Indian Village
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Moffatt
Michael
.
1979a
. “
Harijan Religion: Consensus at the Bottom of Caste
.”
American Ethnologist
6
, no.
2
:
244
60
.
Moffatt
Michael
.
1979b
.
An Untouchable Community in South India: Structure and Consensus
.
Princeton, N.J.
:
Princeton University Press
.
Mohan
R. Vasundhara
.
1987
.
Identity Crisis of Sri Lankan Muslims
.
Delhi
:
Mittal
.
Moore
Melinda A
.
1985
. “
A New Look at the Nayar Taravad
.”
Man
20
, no.
3
:
523
41
.
Moore
Melinda A
.
1988
. “
Symbol and Meaning in Nayar Marriage Ritual
.”
American Ethnologist
15
, no.
2
:
254
73
.
Moore
Melinda A
.
1990
. “
The Kerala House as a Hindu Cosmos
.” In
India through Hindu Categories
, ed.
Marriott
McKim
,
169
202
.
New Delhi
:
Sage
.
More
J. B. P
.
1993
. “
Muslim Evolution and Conversions in Karikal, South India
.”
Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations
4
, no.
1
:
65
82
.
More
J. B. P
.
1997
.
The Political Evolution of Muslims in Tamilnadu and Madras, 1930–1947
.
Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
:
Orient Longman
.
Morgan
Lewis H
.
1871
.
Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family
.
Washington
:
Smithsonian Institution
.
Murdock
George P
.
1949
.
Social Structure
.
New York
:
Free Press
.
Nadaraja
Tambya
.
1966
. “
New Light on Cleghorn’s Minute on Justice and Revenue
.”
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Ceylon Branch
(new series)
10
:
1
28
.
Nadaraja
Tambya
.
1972
.
The Legal System of Ceylon in Its Historical Setting
.
Leiden
:
E. J. Brill
.
Nadarajah
F. X. C.
, ed.
1962
.
Maṭṭakkaḷappu Mânmiyam
[The Glory of Batticaloa].
Colombo
:
Kalanilayam
.
Nambiar
P. K.
,
Narayana Kurup
K.C
..
1968
. “
Festival of Saint Quadar Wali at Nagore
.” In
Census of India 1961
. Vol.
9
,
Madras, Part 7-B: Fairs and Festivals
,
59
60
.
Delhi
:
Manager of Publications
.
Nanjundayya
H. V.
,
Anantha Krishna Iyer
L.K
..
1928–1935
.
The Mysore Tribes and Castes
.
4
vols.
Mysore
:
Mysore University
.
Rao
Narayana
,
Velcheru
David Shulman
,
Subrahmanyam
Sanjay
.
1992
.
Symbols of Substance: Court and State in Nayaka Period Tamilnadu
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Neville
Hugh
.
1887a
. “
Archaeological Reports No. 5: Hambantota or Samman-Turai, E.P. Ceylon
.”
Taprobanian
,
October
1887,
141
44
.
Neville
Hugh
.
1887b
. “
The Modarites in India
.”
Taprobanian
,
June
1887,
69
70
.
Neville
Hugh
.
1887c
. “
Nâdu Kâdu Record
.”
Taprobanian
,
August and October
1887,
127
28
,
137
41
.
Neville
Hugh
.
1887d
. “
Pigeon Worship in Ceylon
.”
Taprobanian
,
February
1887,
21
24
.
Nissan
Elizabeth
.
1996
.
Sri Lanka: A Bitter Harvest
.
London
:
Minority Rights Group
.
Nissan
Elizabeth
,
Stirrat
R. L
..
1990
. “
The Generation of Communal Identities
.” In
Sri Lanka: History and the Roots of Conflict
, ed.
Spencer
Jonathan
,
19
44
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Nuhman
M. A
.
2007
.
Sri Lankan Muslims: Ethnic Identity within Cultural Diversity
.
Colombo
:
International Centre for Ethnic Studies
.
Oberst
Robert C
.
1985
.
Legislators and Representation in Sri Lanka: The Decentralization of Development Planning
.
Boulder, Colo.
:
Westview Press
.
Oberst
Robert C
.
1988
. “
Sri Lanka’s Tamil Tigers
.”
Conflict
8
:
185
202
.
Obeyesekere
Gananath
.
1967
.
Land Tenure in Village Ceylon
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Obeyesekere
Gananath
.
1977
. “
Social Change and the Deities: The Rise of the Kataragama Cult in Modern Sri Lanka
.”
Man
12
, nos.
3–4
:
377
96
.
Obeyesekere
Gananath
.
1978
. “
The Fire-walkers of Kataragama: The Rise of Bhakti Religiosity in Buddhist Sri Lanka
.”
Journal of Asian Studies
37
, no.
3
:
457
76
.
Obeyesekere
Gananath
.
1981
.
Medusa’s Hair: An Essay on Personal Symbols and Religious Experience
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Obeyesekere
Gananath
.
1984
.
The Cult of the Goddess Pattini
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Oldenburg
Veena Talwar
.
2002
.
Dowry Murder: The Imperial Origins of a Cultural Crime
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Orenstein
Henry
.
1965
.
Gaon: Conflict and Cohesion in an Indian Village
.
Princeton, N.J.
:
Princeton University Press
.
Padmanabha Menon
K. P
.
1924–1937
.
A History of Kerala
.
Ernakulam, Kerala, India
:
Cochin Government Press
.
Parry
Jonathan P
.
1979
.
Caste and Kinship in Kangra
.
London
:
Routledge and Kegan Paul
.
Parry
Jonathan P
.
1994
.
Death in Banaras
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Parthasarathy,
R.
, trans.
1993
.
The Cilappatikâram of Iḷaṅkô Aṭikaḷ: An Epic of South India
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
.
Parvathamma
C
.
1971
.
Politics and Religion: A Study of Historical Interaction between Socio-political Relationships in a Mysore Village
.
New Delhi
:
Sterling Publishers
.
Pathmanathan
S
.
1976a
. “
The Chieftaincies of the Vanni in Medieval Sri Lanka: The Chieftaincies of the Eastern and Western Littorals
.”
Paper presented at the Conference Seminar of Tamil Studies
.
Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
:
International Association of Tamil Research Sri Lanka National Unit
.
Pathmanathan
S
.
1976b
. “
Historical Traditions of the Batticaloa Tamils
.”
Paper presented at the Conference Seminar of Tamil Studies
.
Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
:
International Association of Tamil Research Sri Lanka National Unit
.
Pathmanathan
S
.
1976c
. “
Mukkuvariṉ Câtivaḻamai
.” In
Maṭṭakkaḷappu Mâkânâṭu Niṉaivu Malar
,
3
10
.
Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
:
International Association of Tamil Research Sri Lanka National Unit
.
Pathmanathan
S
.
1976d
. “
Nâṭu Kâṭu Paravaṇi Kalveṭṭu
.” In
Maṭṭakkaḷappu Mâkânâṭu Niṉaivu Malar
,
82
90
.
Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
:
International Association of Tamil Research Sri Lanka National Unit
.
Pathmanathan
S
.
1978
.
The Kingdom of Jaffna, Part I (circa A.D. 1250–1450)
.
Colombo
:
Arul M. Rajendran
.
Peebles
Patrick
.
1973
. “
The Transformation of a Colonial Elite: The Mudaliyars of Nineteenth Century Ceylon
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Chicago
.
Peebles
Patrick
.
1990
. “
Colonization and Ethnic Conflict in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka
.”
Journal of Asian Studies
49
, no.
1
:
30
55
.
Peebles
Patrick
.
1995
.
Social Change in Nineteenth Century Ceylon
.
New Delhi
:
Navrang
.
Peebles
Patrick
.
2001
.
The Plantation Tamils of Ceylon
.
London
:
Leicester University Press
.
Perniola
V
.
1989
.
The Catholic Church in Sri Lanka: The Portuguese Period, Volume I, 1505–1565
.
Dehiwala, Sri Lanka
:
Tisara Prakasakayo
.
Pfaffenberger
Bryan
.
1979
. “
The Kataragama Pilgrimage: Hindu-Buddhist Interaction and Its Significance in Sri Lanka’s Polyethnic Social System
.”
Journal of Asian Studies
38
:
253
70
.
Pfaffenberger
Bryan
.
1982
.
Caste in Tamil Culture: The Religious Foundations of Sudra Domination in Tamil Sri Lanka
.
Syracuse, N.Y.
:
Syracuse University Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs
.
Phadnis
Urmila
.
1979
. “
Political Profile of the Muslim Minority of Sri Lanka
.”
International Studies
18
, no.
1
:
27
48
.
Price
Pamela G
.
1996
.
Kingship and Political Practice in Colonial India
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Pridham
Charles
.
1849
.
An Historical, Political, and Statistical Account of Ceylon and Its Dependencies
. Vol.
2
.
London
:
T. and W. Boone
.
Puthenkalam
Fr. J
.
1977
.
Marriage and Family in Kerala, with Special Reference to Matrilineal Castes
.
Calgary
:
Journal of Comparative Family Studies Monograph Series
.
Queyroz
Fr. F. d
.
1930
.
The Temporal and Spiritual Conquest of Ceylon
. Vol.
1
. Trans.
Perera
Fr. S. G
..
Colombo
:
A. C. Richards, Acting Government Printer
.
Raby
Namika
.
1985
.
Kachcheri Bureaucracy in Sri Lanka: The Culture and Politics of Accessibility
.
Syracuse
:
Syracuse University Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs
.
Raghavan
M. D
.
1953
. “
A Kalvettu of the Seerpadam of the Eastern Province
.”
Spolia Zeylanica
27
(
pt.1
):
187
93
.
Raghavan
M. D
.
1954
. “
The Sociology of Jaffna: The Nalavar and the Koviar
.”
Tamil Culture
3
, no.
2
:
139
50
.
Raghavan
M. D
.
1961
.
The Karava of Ceylon: Society and Culture
.
Colombo
:
K. V. G. de Silva
.
Raghavan
M. D
.
1962
.
Ceylon: A Pictorial Survey of the Peoples and Arts
.
Colombo
:
M. D. Gunasena
.
Raghavan
M. D
.
1971
.
Tamil Culture in Ceylon: A General Introduction
.
Colombo
:
Kalai Nilayam
.
Ragupathy
Ponnampalam
.
1987
.
Early Settlements in Jaffna: An Archaeological Survey
.
Madras
:
Thillimalar Ragupathy
.
Raheem
Raihana
.
1975
. “
A Study of the Kinship Terms of the Moor Community in Ceylon
.”
PhD diss.
,
Department of Linguistics, University of Leeds
.
Ram
Kalpana
.
1991
.
Mukkuvar Women: Gender, Hegemony, and Capitalist Transformation in a South Indian Fishing Community
.
London
:
Zed Press
.
Ramanathan
Ponnambalam
.
1888
. “
The Ethnology of the ‘Moors’ of Ceylon
.”
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Ceylon Branch
10
, no.
36
:
234
62
.
Ramanujan
A. K
.
1973
.
Speaking of Siva
.
Harmondsworth, UK
:
Penguin Books
.
Ramanujan
A. K.
, trans.
1985
.
Poems of Love and War, from the Eight Anthologies and the Ten Long Poems of Classical Tamil
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
.
Ramaswamy
Sumathi
.
1997
.
Passions of the Tongue: Language Devotion in Tamil India, 1891–1970
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Ratnawira
Alfred E. R. R. R
.
1909
.
Visvakarma and His Descendants
.
Colombo
:
Ceylon Visvakarma Union
.
Richardson
John
.
2005
.
Paradise Poisoned: Learning about Conflict, Terrorism and Development from Sri Lanka’s Civil Wars
.
Kandy
:
International Centre for Ethnic Studies
.
Roberts
Michael
.
1982
.
Caste Conflict and Elite Formation: The Rise of a Karava Elite in Sri Lanka, 1500–1931
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Roberts
Michael
,
Raheem
Ismeth
,
Colin-Thomé
Percy
.
1989
.
People Inbetween
. Vol.
1
,
The Burghers and the Middle Class in the Transformations within Sri Lanka, 1790s–1960s
.
Ratmalana, Sri Lanka
:
Sarvodaya Book Publishing
.
Robinson
Marguerite S
.
1975
.
Political Structure in a Changing Sinhalese Village
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Rogers
John D
.
1993
. “
Colonial Perceptions of Ethnicity and Culture in Early Nineteenth-century Sri Lanka
.” In
Society and Ideology: Essays in South Asian History Presented to Professor K. A. Ballhatchet
, ed.
Robb
Peter
,
97
109
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Rogers
John D
.
1995
. “
Racial Identities and Politics in Early Modern Sri Lanka
.” In
The Concept of Race in South Asia
, ed.
Robb
Peter
,
146
64
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Rudolph
Lloyd I.
,
Rudolph
Suzanne Hoeber
.
1967
.
The Modernity of Tradition: Political Development in India
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Ruwanpura
Kanchana N
.
2006
.
Matrilineal Communities, Patriarchal Realities: A Feminist Nirvana Uncovered
.
Delhi: Zubaan, and Colombo
:
Social Scientists Association
.
Ryan
Bryce
.
1950
. “
Socio-cultural Regions of Ceylon
.”
Rural Sociology
15
:
3
19
.
Ryan
Kathleen S
.
1980
. “
Pollution in Practice: Ritual, Structure, and Change in Tamil Sri Lanka
.”
PhD diss.
,
Cornell University
.
Sabanathan
K.
, ed.
1953
.
Yâḻppâṇa Vaipavamâlai
.
Colombo
:
Sarasvati Puttakacâlai
.
Sabaratnam
Lakshmanan
.
2001
.
Ethnic Attachments in Sri Lanka: Social Change and Cultural Continuity
.
New York
:
Palgrave
.
Saheb
S. A. A
.
1998
. “
A Festival of Flags: Hindu-Muslim Devotion and the Sacralizing of Localism at the Shrine of Nagore-e-Sharif in Tamil Nadu
.” In
Embodying Charisma: Modernity, Locality and the Performance of Emotion in Sufi Cults
, ed.
Werbner
Pnina
,
Basu
Helene
,
55
76
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Saleem
A. R. M
.
1990
.
Akkaraippaṟṟu Varalâṟu
.
Akkaraipattu, Sri Lanka
:
Hiraa Publications
.
Sanday
Peggy R
.
2002
.
Women at the Center: Life in a Modern Matriarchy
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Sarachchandra
E. R
.
1966
.
The Folk Drama of Ceylon
. 2d ed.
Colombo
:
Department of Cultural Affairs, Ceylon Government Press
.
Schalk
Peter
.
2004
.
Vädi into Vanniyalǟttô: Transformation of Images of the Lankan Väddô
.
Historia Religionum 24
.
Uppsala
:
Uppsala University
.
Schalk
Peter
,
Veluppillai
Alvapillai
, eds.
2002a
.
Buddhism among Tamils in Precolonial Tamiḻakam and Îḻam: The Period of the Imperial Côḷar
.
Historia Religionum 20
.
Uppsala
:
Uppsala University
.
Schalk
Peter
,
Veluppillai
Alvapillai
, eds.
2002b
.
Buddhism among Tamils in Pre-colonial Tamiḻakam and Îḻam: The Pre-Pallava and the Pallava Period
.
Historia Religionum 19
.
Uppsala
:
Uppsala University
.
Schneider
David M
.
1961
. “
The Distinctive Features of Matrilineal Descent Groups
.” In
Matrilineal Kinship
, ed.
Schneider
David M.
,
Gough
Kathleen
,
1
35
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Schrijvers
Joke
.
1998
. “
‘We Were Like Coconut and Flour in the Pittu’: Tamil-Muslim Violence, Gender and Ethnic Relations in Eastern Sri Lanka
.”
Nethra
2
, no.
3
:
10
39
.
Seligmann
C. G.
,
Seligmann
Brenda Z
..
1911
.
The Veddas
. Repr.,
New Delhi
:
Navrang
,
1993
.
Seneviratne
H. L
.
1978
.
Rituals of the Kandyan State
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Sharif
Ja’far
.
1921
.
Islam in India or the QânÛn-i-Islâm: The Customs of the Musalmans of India, Comprising a Full and Exact Account of Their Various Rites and Ceremonies from the Moment of Birth to the Hour of Death
. Ed.
Crooke
William
. Trans.
Herklots
G.A.
. Repr.,
New Delhi
:
Oriental Books Reprint Corporation
,
1972
.
Shastri
Amita
.
1990
. “
The Material Basis for Separatism: The Tamil Eelam Movement in Sri Lanka
.”
Journal of Asian Studies
49
, no.
1
:
56
77
.
Shu’ayb Âlim
Tayka
.
1993
.
Arabic, Arwi and Persian in Sarandib and Tamil Nadu
.
Madras
:
Imamul Arus Trust
.
Sinha
Suraji
,
Saraswati
Baidyanath
.
1978
.
Ascetics of Kashi: An Anthropological Exploration
.
Varanasi
:
N. K. Bose Memorial Foundation
.
Sitrampalam
S. K
.
1987
. “
Survey of Pre and Protohistoric Studies in Sri Lanka
.”
Bulletin of the Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute
46
:
137
49
.
Sivaram
D. P
.
1991
.
The Eluding Peace: An Insider’s Political Analysis of the Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka
.
Sarcelles, France
:
Arts Social Sciences of Eelam Academy
.
Sivaram
D. P
.
1992
. “
LTTE’s Eelam Project and the Muslim People
.”
Tamil Times
,
15
November
1992,
20
,
24
.
Sivathamby
Karthigesu
.
1987
. “
The Sri Lankan Ethnic Crisis and Muslim-Tamil Relationships: A Socio-political Review
.” In
Facets of Ethnicity in Sri Lanka
, ed.
Abeysekera
Charles
,
Gunasinghe
Newton
,
192
225
.
Colombo
:
Social Scientists’ Association
.
Smith
Ian R
.
1978
.
Sri Lanka Creole Portuguese Phonology
.
Trivandrum, Kerala, India
:
Dravidian Linguistics Association
.
Spencer
Jonathan
.
1990a
.
A Sinhala Village in a Time of Trouble: Politics and Change in Rural Sri Lanka
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Spencer
Jonathan
, ed.
1990b
.
Sri Lanka: History and the Roots of Conflict
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Spilbergen
Joris van
.
1933
.
De Reis Van J. Van Spilbergen Naar Ceylon, Atjeh En Bantam, 1601–4
.
The Hague
:
Nijhoff
.
Srinivas
M. N
.
1952
.
Religion and Society among the Coorgs of South India
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Srinivas
M. N
.
1989
. “
Some Reflections on Dowry
.” In
Srinivas
M.N.
,
The Cohesive Role of Sanskritization and Other Essays
,
97
122
.
New Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Stein
Burton
.
1967–1968
. “
Brahman and Peasant in Early South Indian History
.”
Adyar Library Bulletin
31 and 32
:
229
69
.
Stein
Burton
.
1980
.
Peasant State and Society in Medieval South India
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Stirrat
R. L
.
1982
. “
Caste Conundrums: Views of Caste in a Sinhalese Catholic Fishing Village
.” In
Caste Ideology and Interaction
, ed.
McGilvray
Dennis B.
,
8
33
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Stirrat
R. L
.
1988
.
On the Beach: Fishermen, Fishwives and Fishtraders in the Postcolonial Lanka
.
Delhi
:
Hindustan Publications
.
Stirrat
R. L
.
1992
.
Power and Religiosity in a Post-colonial Setting: Sinhala Catholics in Contemporary Sri Lanka
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Tambiah
H. W
.
1950
.
The Laws and Customs of the Tamils of Jaffna
.
Colombo
:
The Times of Ceylon
.
Tambiah
H. W
.
1954
.
The Laws and Customs of the Tamils of Ceylon
.
Colombo
:
Tamil Cultural Society of Ceylon
.
Tambiah
H. W
.
1972
.
Principles of Ceylon Law
.
Colombo
:
H. W. Cave
.
Tambiah
Stanley J
.
1958
. “
The Structure of Kinship and Its Relationship to Land Possession and Residence in Pata Dumbara, Central Ceylon
.”
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
88
(
pt. 1
):
21
44
.
Tambiah
Stanley J
.
1986
.
Sri Lanka: Ethnic Fratricide and the Dismantling of Democracy
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Tambiah
Stanley J
.
1992
.
Buddhism Betrayed? Religion, Politics and Violence in Sri Lanka
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Tamil Lexicon
.
1936
.
Published under the authority of the University of Madras
.
6
vols. and supplement. Repr. 1982.
Tanaka
Mazakazu
.
1991
.
Patrons, Devotees and Goddesses: Ritual and Power among the Tamil Fishermen of Sri Lanka
.
Kyoto
:
Kyoto University Institute for Research in Humanities
.
Tennent
Sir James Emerson
.
1859
.
Ceylon: An Account of the Island
. Vol.
2
.
London
:
Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts
.
Thananjayarajasingham
S
.
1973
. “
Notes on the Telugu Gypsies of Ceylon
.”
Journal of the Indian Anthropological Society
(Calcutta)
8
, no.
2
:
123
30
.
Thangarajah
Yuvaraj
.
1995
. “
Narratives of Victimhood as Ethnic Identity among the Veddas of the East Coast
.” In
Unmaking the Nation: The Politics of Identity and History in Modern Sri Lanka
, ed.
Jeganathan
Pradeep
,
Ismail
Qadri
,
191
218
.
Colombo
:
Social Scientists’ Association
.
Thangarajah
Yuvaraj
.
1997
. “
State Violence, Ethnicity, and Identity: The Case of Eastern Sri Lanka
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Rochester
.
Thangarajah
Yuvaraj
.
2003a
. “
Ethnicization of the Devolution Debate and the Militarization of Civil Society in North-eastern Sri Lanka
.” In
Building Local Capacities for Peace: Rethinking Conflict and Development in Sri Lanka
, ed.
Mayer
Markus
,
Rajasingham-Senanayake
Darini
,
Thangarajah
Yuvi
,
15
36
.
Delhi
:
Macmillan India
.
Thangarajah
Yuvaraj
.
2003b
. “
Veiled Constructions: Conflict, Migration and Modernity in Eastern Sri Lanka
.”
Contributions to Indian Sociology
(new series)
37
, nos.
1–2
:
141
62
.
Theyvanayagam
S
.
2006
. “
Tântônṟîsvaram, Kokkaṭṭiccôlai
.” In
Hindu Temples of Sri Lanka
, ed.
Pathmanathan
S.
,
279
304
.
Colombo
:
Kumaran Book House
.
Thiruchandran
Selvy
.
1999
.
The Other Victims of War: Emergence of Female Headed Households in Eastern Sri Lanka
. Vol.
2
.
New Delhi
:
Vikas
.
Thurston
Edgar
,
Rangachari
K
..
1909
.
Castes and Tribes of Southern India
.
7
vols.
Madras
:
Government Press
.
Toussaint
J. R
.
1930
. “
Jacob Burnand
.”
Journal of the Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon
19
, no.
5
:
194
99
.
Toussaint
J. R
.
1931
. “
Batticaloa between 1766 and 1796
.”
Journal of the Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon
20
, no.
3
:
93
106
.
Toussaint
J. R
.
1933
. “
Batticaloa in Early British Times
.”
Journal of the Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon
22
, no.
4
:
166
73
and
23
, no.
1
:
7
17
.
Trautmann
Thomas R
.
1981
.
Dravidian Kinship
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Trautmann
Thomas R
.
1987
.
Lewis Henry Morgan and the Invention of Kinship
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Trawick
Margaret
.
1990
.
Notes on Love in a Tamil Family
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Trawick
Margaret
.
1996
. “
The Story of the Jackal Hunter Girl
.” In
Culture/Contexture: Explorations in Anthropology and Literary Studies
, ed.
Valentine Daniel
E.
,
Peck
Jeffrey M.
,
58
83
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Trawick
Margaret
.
1997
. “
Reasons for Violence: A Preliminary Ethnographic Account of the LTTE
.”
South Asia
20
:
153
80
.
Trawick
Margaret
.
2007
.
Enemy Lines: Warfare, Childhood, and Play in Batticaloa
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Trimmingham
J. S
.
1971
.
The Sufi Orders in Islam
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Udayalinga Rao
S
.
1973
.
Holy Srisailam
.
Madras
:
Balasaraswathi Book Depot
.
University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna)
.
1990
.
Report 3: The War and Its Consequences in the Amparai District
.
Thirunelvely, Jaffna, Sri Lanka
:
University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna)
.
Available at http://www.uthr.org
.
University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna)
.
1991
.
Report 7: The Clash of Ideologies and the Continuing Tragedy in the Batticaloa and Amparai Districts
.
Thirunelvely, Jaffna, Sri Lanka
:
University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna)
.
Available at http://www.uthr.org
.
University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna)
.
1993a
.
Report 10: Rays of Hope amidst Deepening Gloom
.
Thirunelvely, Jaffna, Sri Lanka
:
University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna)
.
Available at http://www.uthr.org
.
University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna)
.
1993b
.
Report 11: Land, Human Rights and the Eastern Predicament
.
Thirunelvely, Jaffna, Sri Lanka
:
University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna)
.
Available at http://www.uthr.org
.
Unny
Govindan
.
1994
.
Kinship Systems in South and Southeast Asia: A Study
.
New Delhi
:
Vikas
.
Uwise
M. M
.
1986
. “
The Language and Literature of the Muslims
.” In
An Ethnological Survey of the Muslims of Sri Lanka from Earliest Times to Independence
, by
Mahroof
M.M.M.
,
Azeez
Marina
,
Uwise
M.M.
,
Farouque
H.M.Z.
,
Rahim
M.J.A.
,
150
65
.
Colombo
:
Sir Razik Fareed Foundation
.
Uwise
M. M
.
1990
.
Muslim Contribution to Tamil Literature
.
Kilakkarai, Tamilnadu, India
:
Fifth International Islamic Tamil Literary Conference
.
Van der Veer
Peter
.
1992
. “
Playing or Praying: A Sufi Saint’s Day in Surat
.”
Journal of Asian Studies
51
, no.
3
:
545
64
.
Veluppillai
Alvapillai
.
1990
. “
Historical Evaluation of Kôṇçcar Kalveṭṭu
.” In
Perspectives in Archaeology: Leelananda Prematilleke Festschrift 1990
, ed.
Seneviratne
Sudarshan
,
Tampoe
Moira
,
Mahinda
Wetara
,
Gunasekara
Damayanthi
,
Senanayake
Piyatissa
,
95
100
.
Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
:
University of Peradeniya Department of Archaeology
.
Veluppillai
Alvapillai
.
2002
. “
The History of Buddhism among Tamils in Pre-colonial Ilaṅkai
.” In
Buddhism among Tamils in Pre-colonial Tamiḻakam and Îḻam: The Pre-Pallava and Pallava Period
, Historia Religionum 19, ed.
Schalk
Peter
,
Veluppillai
Alvapillai
,
145
66
.
Uppsala
:
Uppsala University
.
Pillai
Velu
,
Sadasyatilaka
T. K
.
1940
.
The Tranvancore State Manual
.
Trivandrum, Kerala, India
:
Government of Travancore
.
Vijaya Kumar
S.
,
Suryanarayana
M
..
1991
. “
Srisailam: A Shivaite Pilgrimage Centre, Andhra Pradesh, India
.” In
Social Anthropology of Pilgrimage
, ed.
Jha
Makhan
,
177
90
.
New Delhi
:
Inter-India Publications
.
Vijayakumar
V
.
2006
.
Traditional Futures: Law and Custom in India’s Lakshadweep Islands
.
New Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Vitharana
V
.
1990
.
The Night of Doom
.
Dehiwala, Sri Lanka
:
Sridevi Printers
.
Wagner
Christian
.
1990
.
Die Muslime Sri Lankas: Ein Volksgruppe im Spannungsfeld des Ethnischen Konflikts Zwischen Singhalesen und Tamilen
.
Freiburg im Breisgau
:
Arnold Bergstraesser Institut
.
Wagner
Christian
.
1991
. “
A Muslim Minority in a Multiethnic State: The Case of Sri Lanka
.” In
Nationalism, Ethnicity and Political Development: South Asian Perspectives
, ed.
Weidemann
Diethelm
,
93
112
.
New Delhi
:
Manohar
.
Westermark
Edward
.
1926
.
Ritual and Belief in Morocco
.
2
vols.
London
:
Macmillan
.
Whitaker
Mark P
.
1986
. “
Divinity and Legitimacy in a Temple of the Lord Kantan
.”
PhD diss.
,
Princeton University
.
Whitaker
Mark P
.
1990
. “
A Compound of Many Histories: The Many Pasts of an East Coast Tamil Community
.” In
Sri Lanka: History and the Roots of Conflict
, ed.
Spencer
Jonathan
,
145
63
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Whitaker
Mark P
.
1997
. “
Tigers and Temples: The Politics of Nationalist and Non-modern Violence in Sri Lanka
.”
South Asia
20
:
210
14
.
Whitaker
Mark P
.
1999
.
Amiable Incoherence: Manipulating Histories and Modernities in a Batticaloa Tamil Hindu Temple
.
Amsterdam
:
Vrije Universiteit Press
.
Whitaker
Mark P
.
2007
.
Learning Politics from Sivaram: The Life and Death of a Revolutionary Tamil Journalist in Sri Lanka
.
London
:
Pluto Press
.
Williams
John Alden
, ed.
1994
.
The World of Islam
.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
.
Wilson
A. J
.
2000
.
Sri Lankan Tamil Nationalism: Its Origin and Development in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
.
Vancouver
:
University of British Columbia Press
.
Wink
André
.
1990
.
Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World
. Vol.
1
,
Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, 7th—11th Centuries
.
Leiden
:
E. J. Brill
.
Winslow
Deborah
,
Woost
Michael D.
, eds.
2004
.
Economy, Culture, and Civil War in Sri Lanka
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Winslow
Rev. Miron
.
1862
.
A Comprehensive Tamil and English Dictionary of High and Low Tamil
. Repr.,
New Delhi
:
Asian Educational Services
,
1979
.
Wirtz
Paul
.
1966
.
Kataragama: The Holiest Place in Ceylon
. Trans.
Pralle
Doris Betta
.
Colombo
:
Lake House
.
Wriggins
W. H
.
1960
.
Ceylon: Dilemmas of a New Nation
.
Princeton, N.J.
:
Princeton University Press
.
Yalman
Nur
.
1963
. “
On the Purity of Women in the Castes of Ceylon and Malabar
.”
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
93
(
pt. 1
):
25
58
.
Yalman
Nur
.
1966
. “
Dual Organization in Central Ceylon? Or, The Goddess in the Treetop
.”
Journal of Asian Studies
24
, no.
3
:
441
57
.
Yalman
Nur
.
1967
.
Under the Bo Tree: Studies in Caste, Kinship, and Marriage in the Interior of Ceylon
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Zvelebil
Kamil V
.
1966
. “
Some Features of Ceylon Tamil
.”
Indo-Iranian Journal
9
:
113
38
.
Zvelebil
Kamil V
.
1984
.
The Lord of the Meeting Rivers: Devotional Poems of Basavaṇṇa
.
Delhi
:
Motilal Banarsidass/UNESCO
.

Figures & Tables

Contents

Advertisement

References

Abdul Majeed
O
.
1971
.
The Learned Ceylon Muslims’ Opinion on Ahmadiyya Movement
.
Colombo
:
Ceylon Ahmadiyya Muslim Association
.
Abeyasinghe
T. B. H
.
1986
. “
Muslims in Sri Lanka in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
.” In
Muslims of Sri Lanka: Avenues to Antiquity
, ed.
Shukri
M.A.M.
,
129
45
.
Beruwala, Sri Lanka
:
Jamiah Naleemia Institute
.
Abeyasinghe
T. B. H.
, trans.
1995
. “
Antonio Boccaro’s Description of Ceylon Translated into English
.”
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka
(new series)
39
, Special Number:
1
81
.
Abeyawardana
H. A. P
.
1999
.
Boundary Divisions of Mediaeval Sri Lanka
.
Polgasovita, Sri Lanka
:
Academy of Sri Lankan Culture
.
Agarwal
Bina
.
1994
.
A Field of One’s Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Lebbai
Ahmad
,
Ibn
Seyyid Muhammad
.
1873
.
Fat-Hud-Dayyân: Fi Fiqhi Khairil Adyân
[A Compendium on Muslim Theology and Jurisprudence]. Trans.
Aniff-Doray
Saifuddin J
.. English edition,
Colombo
:
Fat-Hud-Dayyan Publication Committee
,
1963
.
Aiyappan
A
.
1944
.
Iravas and Culture Change. Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum
(new series)
5
, no.
1
.
Madras
:
Government Press
.
Ameer Ali
A. C. L
.
1980
. “
Some Aspects of Religio-economic Precepts and Practices in Islam: A Case Study of the Muslim Community in Ceylon during the Period c.1800–1915
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Western Australia
,
Perth
.
Ameer Ali
A. C. L
.
1981
. “
The Genesis of the Muslim Community in Ceylon (Sri Lanka): A Historical Summary
.”
Asian Studies
19
:
65
82
.
Ameer Ali
A. C. L
.
1986–1987
. “
Politics of Survival: Past Strategies and Present Predicament of the Muslim Community in Sri Lanka
.”
Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs
7–8
:
147
70
.
Ameer Ali
A. C. L
.
1992a
. “
The Quest for Cultural Identity and Material Advancement: Parallels and Contrasts in Muslim Minority Experience in Secular India and Buddhist Sri Lanka
.”
Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs
13
, no.
1
:
33
58
.
Ameer Ali
A. C. L
.
1992b
. “
Sri Lanka’s Ethnic War: The Muslim Dimension
.”
Pravâda
1
, no.
11
:
5
7
.
Anantha Krishna Iyer
L. K
.
1909
.
The Cochin Tribes and Castes
. Vol.
1
.
Madras
:
Higginbotham
.
Appadurai
Arjun
.
1981
.
Worship and Conflict under Colonial Rule: A South Indian Case
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Appadurai
Arjun
,
Breckenridge
Carol
.
1976
. “
The South Indian Temple: Authority, Honor, and Redistribution
.”
Contributions to Indian Sociology
(new series)
10
, no.
2
:
187
211
.
Arasaratnam
Sinnappah
.
1964
.
Ceylon
.
Englewood, N.J.
:
Prentice-Hall
.
Arasaratnam
Sinnappah
., ed. and trans.
1978
.
François Valentijn’s Description of Ceylon
.
London
:
Hakluyt Society
.
Arasaratnam
Sinnappah
.
1994
. “
Sri Lanka’s Tamils under Colonial Rule
.” In
The Sri Lankan Tamils: Ethnicity and Identity
, ed.
Manogaran
Chelvadurai
,
Pfaffenberger
Bryan
,
28
53
.
Boulder, Colo.
:
Westview Press
.
Assayag
Jackie
.
2004
.
At the Confluence of Two Rivers: Muslims and Hindus in South India
.
New Delhi
:
Manohar
.
Azeez
I. L. M. A
.
1907
.
A Criticism of Mr. Ramanathan’s “Ethnology of the ‘Moors’ of Ceylon.”
Colombo
:
Moors’ Union
.
Banks
Michael Y
.
1957
. “
The Social Organization of the Jaffna Tamils of North Ceylon, with Special Reference to Kinship, Marriage, and Inheritance
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Cambridge
.
Banks
Michael Y
.
1960
. “
Caste in Jaffna
.” In
Aspects of Caste in South India, Ceylon, and Northwest Pakistan
, ed.
Leach
Edmund R.
,
61
77
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Barnett
Steven A
.
1970
. “
The Structural Position of a South Indian Caste: Kontaikkatti Velalars in Tamilnadu
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Chicago
.
Barnett
Steven A
.
1976
. “
Cocoanuts and Gold: Relational Identity in a South Indian Caste
.”
Contributions to Indian Sociology
10
:
133
56
.
Bass
Daniel
.
2001
.
Landscapes of Malaiyaha Tamil Identity
.
Marga Monograph Series on Ethnic Reconciliation
, no.
8
.
Colombo, Sri Lanka
:
Marga Institute
.
Bastiampillai
Bertram E. S. J
.
1995
. “
The Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka
.” In
Security Dilemma of a Small State: Part Two, Internal Crisis and External Intervention in Sri Lanka
, ed.
Weraka
Mahinda
,
Jayasekere
P.V.J.
,
315
36
.
New Delhi
:
South Asia Publishers
.
Bastin
Rohan
.
1997
. “
The Authentic Inner Life: Complicity and Resistance in the Tamil Hindu Revival
.” In
Sri Lanka: Collective Identities Revisited
, ed.
Roberts
Michael
,
1
:
385
438
.
Colombo
:
Marga Institute
.
Bastin
Rohan
.
2002
.
The Domain of Constant Excess: Plural Worship at the Munnesvaram Temples in Sri Lanka
.
New York
:
Berghahn Books
.
Batticaloa Handbook and Directory
.
1907
.
Batticaloa
:
Wesleyan Mission Press
.
Baxter
Craig
,
Malik
Yogendra K
,
Kennedy
Charles H
,
Oberst
Robert C
.
1987
.
Government and Politics in South Asia
.
Boulder, Colo.
:
Westview Press
.
Bayly
Susan
.
1989
.
Saints, Goddesses, and Kings: Muslims and Christians in South Indian Society, 1700–1900
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Beck
Brenda E. F
.
1972
.
Peasant Society in Konku: A Study of Right and Left Subcastes in South India
.
Vancouver
:
University of British Columbia Press
.
Bharati
Swami A
.
1961
.
The Ochre Robe
.
London
:
Allen and Unwin
.
Blackwood
Evelyn
.
2000
.
Webs of Power: Women, Kin, and Community in a Sumatran Village
.
Lanham, Md.
:
Rowman and Littlefield
.
Brangança Pereira
A. B. de
, ed.
1937
.
Arquivo Portugués Oriental (Nova Ediçao), Tomo IV Historica Administrativa, Vol. III 1600–1699, Parte I Livro Das Plantas De Todas As Fortalezas, Cidades, e Provoaçoes Do Estado Da India Oriental Por Antonio Bocarro (1635)
.
Lisbon
:
n.p
.
Brito
Christopher
.
1876
.
The Mukkuva Law, or the Rules of Succession among the Mukkuvars of Ceylon
.
Colombo
:
H. D. Gabriel
.
Brouwer
Jan
.
1995
.
The Makers of the World: Caste, Craft and Mind of South Indian Artisans
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Brow
James
.
1978
.
Vedda Villages of Anuradhapura: The Historical Anthropology of a Community in Sri Lanka
.
Seattle
:
University of Washington Press
.
Burnand
Jacob
.
1794
.
Memorial Compiled by Mr. Jacob Burnand, Late Chief of Batticaloa, for His Successor, Mr. Johannes Philippus Wambeek
.
Manuscript of an early-nineteenth-century English translation in National Museum Library
,
Colombo, Sri Lanka
.
Dutch original in the Sri Lanka National Archives
.
Burrow
T.
,
Emeneau
M.B
..
1961
.
A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Busby
Cecilia
.
2000
.
The Performance of Gender: An Anthropology of Everyday Life in a South Indian Fishing Village
.
London
:
Athlone Press
.
Canagaratnam
S. O
.
1921
.
Monograph of the Batticaloa District
.
Colombo
:
H. R. Cottle, Government Printer
.
Caplan
Lionel
.
1984
. “
Bridegroom Price in Urban India: Caste, Class, and ‘Dowry Evil’ among Christians in Madras
.”
Man
19
, no.
2
:
216
33
.
Cartman
Rev. J
.
1957
.
Hinduism in Ceylon
.
Colombo
:
M. D. Gunasena
.
Casie Chitty
Simon
.
1834
.
The Ceylon Gazetteer
. Repr.,
New Delhi
:
Navrang
,
1989
.
Cordiner
Rev. James
.
1807
.
A Description of Ceylon
. Vol.
2
.
London
:
Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme
.
Courtright
Paul B
.
1985
.
Gaṇeśa: Lord of Obstacles, Lord of Beginnings
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
.
Dale
Stephen F
.
1980
.
The Mâppiḷas of Malabar, 1498–1922: Islamic Society on the South Asian Frontier
.
Oxford
:
Clarendon Press
.
Daniel
E. Valentine
.
1984
.
Fluid Signs: Being a Person the Tamil Way
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Daniel
E. Valentine
.
1996
.
Charred Lullabies: Chapters in an Anthropography of Violence
.
Princeton, N.J.
:
Princeton University Press
.
Dart
Jon A
.
1985
. “
Ethnic Identity and Marginality among the Coast Veddahs of Sri Lanka
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of California
,
San Diego
.
David
Kenneth
.
1973
. “
Until Marriage Do Us Part: A Cultural Account of Jaffna Tamil Categories for Kinsmen
.”
Man
8
, no.
4
:
521
35
.
David
Kenneth
.
1977
. “
Hierarchy and Equivalence in Jaffna, North Ceylon: Normative Codes as Mediator
.” In
The New Wind: Changing Identities in South Asia
, ed.
David
Kenneth
,
179
226
.
The Hague
:
Mouton
.
de Graeuwe
Pieter
.
1676
.
Memorie van de Heer Pieter Graeuwe aan des zelfs Vervanger de Heer Jan Blommert gedateered 8 April 1676
[Memorial of Pieter de Graeuwe to his successor Jan Blommert dated 8 April 1676]. V.O.C. 1.04.17, Hoge Regering Batavia.
Algemene Rijksarchief
,
Den Haag, Netherlands
.
Deliège
Robert
.
1999
.
The Untouchables of India
.
Oxford
:
Berg
.
de Munck
Victor C
.
1993
.
Seasonal Cycles: A Study of Social Change and Continuity in a Sri Lankan Village
.
New Delhi
:
Asian Educational Services
.
Denham
E. B
.
1912
.
Ceylon at the Census of 1911
.
Colombo
:
H. C. Cottle, Government Printer
.
Denham
E. B
.
1915
.
Report of Mr. E. B. Denham, Government Agent
.
Administration Reports, 1915, Part I
.
Civil-Provincial Administration, Eastern Province
,
Ceylon
.
Denny
Frederick M
.
1985
.
An Introduction to Islam
.
New York
:
Macmillan
.
Deraniyagala
S. U
.
1992
.
The Prehistory of Sri Lanka: An Ecological Perspective
.
Colombo
:
Department of Archaeological Survey, Government of Sri Lanka
.
Derrett
J. D. M
.
1957
.
Hindu Law Past and Present
.
Calcutta
:
A. Mukherjee
.
de Silva
Chandra R
.
1968
. “
Portuguese Policy towards the Muslims in Ceylon, 1505– 1626
.”
Proceedings of the First International Conference Seminar of Tamil Studies
,
Kuala Lumpur
1966
.
Kuala Lumpur
:
International Association for Tamil Research
.
de Silva
Chandra R
.
1972
.
The Portuguese in Ceylon, 1617–1638
.
Colombo
:
H. W. Cave
.
de Silva
Chandra R
.
1995
. “
Historical Introduction to Antonio Bocarro’s Ceylon
.”
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka
39
(
special issue
):
xii
xxvii
.
de Silva
Chandra R
.
1997
.
Sri Lanka: A History
. 2d ed.
New Delhi
:
Vikas
.
de Silva
Kingsley M
.
1986a
.
Managing Ethnic Tensions in Multi-ethnic Societies: Sri Lanka 1880–1985
.
Lanham, Md.
:
University Press of America
.
de Silva
Kingsley M
.
1986b
. “
Muslim Leaders and the Nationalist Movement
.” In
Muslims of Sri Lanka: Avenues to Antiquity
, ed.
Shukri
M.A.M.
,
453
72
.
Beruwala, Sri Lanka
:
Jamiah Naleemia Institute
.
de Silva
Kingsley M
.
1986c
. “
The Muslim Minority in a Democratic Polity: The Case of Sri Lanka: Reflections on a Theme
.” In
Muslims of Sri Lanka: Avenues to Antiquity
, ed.
Shukri
M.A.M.
,
443
52
.
Beruwala, Sri Lanka
:
Jamiah Naleemia Institute
.
de Silva
Kingsley M
.
1988
. “
Sri Lanka’s Muslim Minority
.” In
Ethnic Conflict in Buddhist Societies: Sri Lanka, Thailand and Burma
, ed.
de Silva
K.M.
,
Duke
Pensri
,
Goldberg
Ellen S.
,
Katz
Nathan
,
202
14
.
Boulder, Colo.
:
Westview
.
de Silva
Kingsley M
.
1998
.
Reaping the Whirlwind: Ethnic Conflict, Ethnic Politics in Sri Lanka
.
New Delhi
:
Penguin Books
.
de Silva
Rajpal K.
,
Beumer
W.G.M
..
1988
.
Illustrations and Views of Dutch Ceylon, 1602–1796
.
London
:
Serendib Publications
.
DeVotta
Neil
.
2004
.
Blowback: Linguistic Nationalism, Institutional Decay, and Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka
.
Palo Alto, Calif.
:
Stanford University Press
.
Dewaraja
Lorna
.
1986
. “
The Muslims in the Kandyan Kingdom (c.1600–1815): A Study of Ethnic Integration
.” In
Muslims of Sri Lanka: Avenues to Antiquity
, ed.
Shukri
M.A.M.
,
211
34
.
Beruwala, Sri Lanka
:
Jamiah Naleemia Institute
.
Dewaraja
Lorna
.
1994
.
The Muslims of Sri Lanka: One Thousand Years of Ethnic Harmony, 900– 1915
.
Colombo
:
Lanka Islamic Foundation
.
Dewaraja
Lorna
.
1995
. “
The Indigenisation of the Muslims of Sri Lanka
.” In
Sesquicentennial Commemorative Volume of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka, 1845–1995
, ed.
de Silva
G.P.S.H.
,
Uragoda
C.G.
,
427
39
.
Colombo
:
Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka
.
Dharmadasa
K. N. O
.
1992
.
Language, Religion, and Ethnic Assertiveness: The Growth of Sinhalese Nationalism in Sri Lanka
.
Ann Arbor
:
University of Michigan Press
.
Dharmadasa
K. N. O
.
1996
. “
The Roots of Sinhala Ethnic Identity in Sri Lanka: The Debate on ‘The People of the Lion’ Continued
.”
Ethnic Studies Report
14
:
137
70
.
Didier
Brian J
.
2004
. “
Conflict Self-inflicted: Dispute, Incivility, and the Threat of Violence in an Indian Muslim Community
.”
Journal of Asian Studies
63
, no.
1
:
61
80
.
Dirks
Nicholas B
.
1987
.
The Hollow Crown: The Ethnohistory of an Indian Kingdom
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Dirks
Nicholas B
.
2001
.
Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India
.
Princeton, N.J.
:
Princeton University Press
.
Diwan
Paras
.
1987
.
Muslim Law in Modern India
.
Allahabad
:
Allahabad Law Agency
.
Douglas
Mary
.
1966
.
Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo
.
London
:
Routledge and Kegan Paul
.
D’Oyly
Sir J
.
1929
.
A Sketch of the Constitution of the Kandyan Kingdom
. Repr.,
Dehiwala
:
Tisara Prakasakayo
,
1975
.
D’Souza
Victor S
.
1955
.
The Navayats of Kanara: A Study in Culture Contact
.
Dharwar
:
Kannada Research Institute
.
D’Souza
Victor S
.
1959
. “
Social Organization and Marriage Customs of the Moplahs on the South-west Coast of India
.”
Anthropos
54
:
487
516
.
D’Souza
Victor S
.
1973
. “
Status Groups among the Moplahs on the South-west Coast of India
.” In
Caste and Stratification among the Muslims
, ed.
Ahmad
Imtiaz
,
45
60
.
Delhi
:
Manohar
.
Dube
Leela
.
1973
. “
Caste Analogues among the Laccadive Muslims
.” In
Caste and Stratification among the Muslims
, ed.
Ahmad
Imtiaz
,
195
234
.
Delhi
:
Manohar
.
Dube
Leela
.
2001a
. “
Seed and the Earth: The Symbolism of Biological Reproduction and Sexual Relations of Production
.” In
Anthropological Explorations in Gender: Intersecting Fields
,
119
53
.
New Delhi
:
Sage
.
Dube
Leela
.
2001b
. “
Who Gains from Matriliny? Men, Women, and Change on a Lakshadweep Island
.” In
Anthropological Explorations in Gender: Intersecting Fields
,
181
220
.
New Delhi
:
Sage
.
Dumont
Louis
.
1957
. “
Hierarchy and Marriage Alliance in South Indian Kinship
.”
Occasional Papers of the Royal Anthropological Institute
12
:
1
46
.
Dumont
Louis
.
1970
.
Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and Its Implications
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Dumont
Louis
.
1986
.
A South Indian Subcaste: Social Organization and Religion of the Pramalai Kallar
. Ed.
Moffatt
Michael
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
. Original French edition,
Paris
:
Mouton
,
1957
.
Effendi
Mohamed S. B. H. I
.
1965
. “
Archaeological Evidence of Early Arabs in Ceylon
.” In
Moors’ Islamic Cultural Home, The First Twenty-one Years
(Anniversary Souvenir 1),
31
38
.
Colombo
:
Moors’ Islamic Cultural Home
.
Eickelman
Dale F.
,
Piscatori
James
, eds.
1990
.
Muslim Travellers: Pilgrimage, Migration, and the Religious Imagination
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Enthoven
R. E
.
1922
. “
Lingayats
.” In
The Tribes and Castes of Bombay
,
2
:
343
77
. Repr.,
New Delhi
:
Asian Educational Services
,
1990
.
Ernst
Carl W
.
1997
.
The Shambhala Guide to Sufism
.
Boston
:
Shambhala
.
Ernst
Carl W.
,
Lawrence
Bruce B
..
2002
.
Sufi Martyrs of Love: The Chishti Order in South Asia and Beyond
.
New York
:
Palgrave
.
Fairservis
Walter A.
,
Southworth
Franklin C
..
1989
. “
Linguistic Archeology and the Indus Valley Culture
.” In
Old Problems and New Perspectives in the Archaeology of South Asia
,
Wisconsin Archaeological Reports 2
, ed.
Kenoyer
Jonathan M.
,
133
41
.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin
.
Fallasch
Ute
.
2004
. “
The Islamic Mystic Tradition in India: The Madari Sufi Brotherhood
.” In
Lived Islam in South Asia: Adaptation, Accommodation, and Conflict
, ed.
Reifeld
Helmut
,
Ahmad
Imtiaz
,
254
72
.
Delhi
:
Social Science Press
.
Fanselow
Frank S
.
1989
. “
Muslim Society in Tamil Nadu (India): An Historical Perspective
.”
Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs
10
, no.
1
:
264
89
.
Farmer
B. H
.
1957
.
Pioneer Peasant Colonization in Ceylon: A Study in Asian Agrarian Problems
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
.
Farouque
H. M. Z
.
1965
. “
The Introduction of Muslim Law in Ceylon: An Historical Outline
.” In
Moors’ Islamic Cultural Home 21st Anniversary Souvenir
,
14
24
.
Colombo
:
Moors’ Islamic Cultural Home
.
Farouque
H. M. Z
.
1986
. “
Islamic Law in Sri Lanka: An Historical Survey with Particular Reference to Matrimonial Laws
.” In
Muslims of Sri Lanka: Avenues to Antiquity
, ed.
Shukri
M.A.M.
,
385
414
.
Beruwala, Sri Lanka
:
Jamiah Naleemia Institute
.
Flueckiger
Joyce Burkhalter
.
2006
.
In Amma’s Healing Room: Gender and Vernacular Islam in South India
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Freed
Stanley A
.
1963
. “
An Objective Method for Determining the Collective Caste Hierarchy of an Indian Village
.”
American Anthropologist
65
:
879
91
.
Fruzzetti
Lina M
.
1982
.
The Gift of a Virgin: Women, Marriage, and Ritual in a Bengali Society
.
New Brunswick, N.J.
:
Rutgers University Press
.
Fruzzetti
Lina M.
,
Ostor
Akos
.
1976
. “
Seed and Earth: A Cultural Analysis of Kinship in a Bengali Town
.”
Contributions to Indian Sociology
10
:
97
132
.
Fuglerud
Oivind
.
1999
.
Life on the Outside: The Tamil Diaspora and Long Distance Nationalism
.
London
:
Pluto Press
.
Fuglerud
Oivind
.
2003
. “
Local Communities and State Ambitions in Eastern Sri Lanka
.” In
Building Local Capacities for Peace: Rethinking Conflict and Development in Sri Lanka
, ed.
Mayer
Markus
,
Rajasingham-Senanayake
Darini
,
Thangarajah
Yuvi
,
65
79
.
Delhi
:
Macmillan India
.
Fuller
C. J
.
1976
.
The Nayars Today
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Gabriel
Theodore P. C
.
1989
.
Lakshadweep: History, Religion and Society
.
New Delhi
:
Books and Books
.
Gamburd
Michele Ruth
.
2000
.
The Kitchen Spoon’s Handle: Transnationalism and Sri Lanka’s Migrant Housemaids
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Geiger
Wilhelm
.
1929–1930
.
Culavamsa: Being the Most Recent Part of the Mahavamsa
. Trans. from German by
Rickmers
C.M.
. Repr.,
London
:
Pali Text Society
,
1973
.
Good
Anthony
.
1980
. “
Elder Sister’s Daughter Marriage in South Asia
.”
Journal of Anthropological Research
36
:
474
500
.
Goody
Jack
,
Tambiah
Stanley J
..
1973
.
Bridewealth and Dowry
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Gough
Kathleen
.
1956
. “
Brahmin Kinship in a Tamil Village
.”
American Anthropologist
58
:
826
53
.
Gough
Kathleen
.
1959
. “
Cults of the Dead among the Nayars
.” In
Traditional India: Structure and Change
, ed.
Singer
Milton
,
240
72
.
Philadelphia
:
American Folklore Society
.
Gough
Kathleen
.
1960
. “
Caste in a Tanjore Village
.” In
Aspects of Caste in South India, Ceylon, and North-west Pakistan
, ed.
Leach
Edmund R.
,
11
60
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Gough
Kathleen
.
1961
. “
Nayar: Central Kerala; Nayar: North Kerala; Tiyyar: North Kerala; Mappilla: North Kerala
.” In
Matrilineal Kinship
, ed.
Schneider
David M.
,
Gough
Kathleen
,
298
482
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Gunasingham
S
.
1973
. “
Some Aspects of the Impact of Cola Rule in the Trincomalee District
.”
Paper presented at the Ceylon Studies Seminar
,
University of Peradeniya
,
Sri Lanka
.
Gunasingham
S
.
1974
.
Two Inscriptions of Côḷa Ilaṅkçsvara Deva
.
Trincomalee Inscriptions Series No. 1
.
Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
:
Akurana Printers, for the author
.
Gunasinghe
P. A. T
.
1980
. “
The Political History of the Kingdoms of Yapahuwa, Kurunagala, and Gampola
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Peradeniya
.
Gunawardana
R. A. L. H
.
1990
. “
The People of the Lion: The Sinhala Identity and Ideology in History and Historiography
.” In
Sri Lanka: History and the Roots of Conflict
, ed.
Spencer
Jonathan
,
45
86
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Gunawardana
R. A. L. H
.
1995
.
Historiography in a Time of Ethnic Conflict: Construction of the Past in Contemporary Sri Lanka
.
Colombo
:
Social Scientists’ Association
.
Hardgrave
Robert L.
Jr
.
1969
.
The Nadars of Tamilnad: The Political Culture of a Community in Change
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Harper
Edward B
.
1964
. “
Ritual Pollution as an Integrator of Caste and Religion
.” In
Religion in South Asia
, ed.
Harper
Edward B.
,
151
96
.
Seattle
:
University of Washington Press
.
Harrigan
Patrick
.
1998
.
Kataragama: The Mystery Shrine
.
Chennai
:
Institute of Asian Studies
.
Hasbullah
S. H
.
2004
. “
Justice for the Dispossessed: The Case of a Forgotten Minority in Sri Lanka’s Ethnic Conflict
.” In
Sri Lankan Society in an Era of Globalization: Struggling to Create a New Social Order
, ed.
Hasbullah
S.H.
,
Morrison
Barrie M.
,
221
40
.
New Delhi
:
Sage
.
Hassan
M. C. A
.
1968
.
Sir Razik Fareed
.
Colombo
:
Sir Razik Fareed Foundation
.
Hellman-Rajanayagam
Dagmar
.
1994
. “
Tamils and the Meaning of History
.” In
The Sri Lankan Tamils: Ethnicity and Identity
, ed.
Manogaran
Chelvadurai
,
Pfaffenberger
Bryan
,
54
83
.
Boulder, Colo.
:
Westview Press
.
Hellman-Rajanayagam
Dagmar
.
1995
. “
Is There a Tamil Race?
” In
The Concept of Race in South Asia
, ed.
Robb
Peter
,
109
45
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Hennayake
Shantha K
.
1993
. “
Sri Lanka in 1992: Opportunity Missed in the Ethno-nationalist Crisis
.”
Asian Survey
33
, no.
2
:
157
64
.
Hennayake
Shantha K
.
1995
. “
The Muslims in the Ethno-nationalist Crisis in Sri Lanka
.” In
Security Dilemma of a Small State: Part Two, Internal Crisis and External Intervention in Sri Lanka
, ed.
Werake
M.
,
Jayasekara
P.V.J.
,
176
203
.
New Delhi
:
South Asia Publishers
.
Herring
Ronald J
.
1972
. “
The Forgotten 1953 Paddy Lands Act in Ceylon: Ideology, Capacity and Response
.”
Modern Ceylon Studies
3
, no.
2
:
99
124
.
Herring
Ronald J
.
2001
. “
Making Ethnic Conflict: The Civil War in Sri Lanka
.” In
Carrots, Sticks, and Ethnic Conflict: Rethinking Development Assistance
, ed.
Esman
Milton J.
,
Herring
Ronald J.
,
140
74
.
Ann Arbor
:
University of Michigan Press
.
Hiatt
Lester R
.
1973
. “
The Pattini Cult of Ceylon: A Tamil Perspective
.”
Social Compass
10
:
231
49
.
Hiebert
Paul G
.
1969
. “
Caste and Personal Rank in an Indian Village
.”
American Anthropologist
71
:
434
53
.
Hiebert
Paul G
.
1971
.
Konduru: Structure and Integration in a South Indian Village
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Hiltebeitel
Alf
.
1988
.
The Cult of Draupadi
. Vol.
1
,
Mythologies: From Gingee to Kuruksetra
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Ho
Engseng
.
2006
.
The Graves of Tarim: Genealogy and Mobility across the Indian Ocean
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Hocart
Arthur Maurice
.
1950
.
Caste: A Comparative Study
. Repr.,
New York
:
Russell and Russell
,
1968
.
Hollup
Oddvar
.
1994
.
Bonded Labour: Caste and Cultural Identity among Tamil Plantation Workers in Sri Lanka
.
New Delhi
:
Sterling Publishers
.
Hornell
James
.
1942
. “
The Indian Chank in Folklore and Religion
.”
Folk-Lore
53
:
113
25
.
Hussainmiya
B. A
.
1986
. “
Princes and Soldiers: The Antecedents of the Sri Lankan Malays
.” In
Muslims of Sri Lanka: Avenues to Antiquity
, ed.
Shukri
M.A.M.
,
279
309
.
Beruwala, Sri Lanka
:
Jamiah Naleemia Institute
.
Hussein
Asiff
.
2007
.
Sarandib: An Ethnological Study of the Muslims of Sri Lanka
.
Dehiwala, Sri Lanka
:
A. J. Prints, for the author
.
Ibrahim Kunju
A. P
.
1989
.
Mappila Muslims of Kerala: Their History and Culture
.
Trivandrum, Kerala, India
:
Sandhya Publications
.
Inden
Ronald B.
,
Nicholas
Ralph
.
1977
.
Kinship in Bengali Culture
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Indrapala
Karthigesu
.
1965
. “
Dravidian Settlements in Ceylon and the Beginnings of the Kingdom of Jaffna
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of London
.
Indrapala
Karthigesu
.
1981
. “
Buddhism among the Tamils, A.D. 1000–1500
.” In
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference-Seminar of Tamil Studies
,
Madurai, Tamilnadu, India
,
January 1981
, ed.
Arunachalam
M.
, sec.
12
:
27
39
. Vol.
2
.
Madras
:
International Association of Tamil Research
.
Indrapala
Karthigesu
.
1986
. “
The Role of Peninsular Indian Muslim Trading Communities in the Indian Ocean Trade
.” In
Muslims of Sri Lanka: Avenues to Antiquity
, ed.
Shukri
M.A.M.
,
113
27
.
Beruwala, Sri Lanka
:
Jamiah Naleemia Institute
.
Indrapala
Karthigesu
.
2005
.
The Evolution of an Ethnic Identity: The Tamils in Sri Lanka c. 300 B.C.E. to c. 1200 C.E.
.
Sydney
:
MV Publications for the South Asia Studies Centre
.
Ismail
Qadri
.
2005
.
Abiding by Sri Lanka: On Peace, Place, and Postcoloniality
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Jackson
K. David
.
1990
.
Sing without Shame: Oral Traditions in Indo-Portuguese Creole Verse
.
Amsterdam
:
John Benjamins Publishing and Instituto Cultural de Macau
.
Jeffrey
Robin
.
2001
.
Politics, Women and Well-being: How Kerala Became “A Model
.”
New Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Kadramer
D. W. N
.
1934
.
Landmarks of Ancient Batticaloa and Other Contributions to the Ceylon Press
.
Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
:
Catholic Orphanage Press
.
Kamalanathan
S. E.
,
Kamalanathan
K.
, eds.
2005
.
Maṭṭakkaḷappu PÛrva Carittiram
.
Colombo
:
Kumaran Book House
.
Kanapatippillai
C
.
1977
. “
Kîḻ Mâkâṇattil Vîracaivam
.” In
Makâkuru Civasri Aiyampiḷḷaik Kurukkaḷ 75-âm Âṇṭu PÛrtti Vaira Viḻâ Malar
, ed.
Kumaracami
V.
, (no pagination).
Kankesanthurai, Jaffna, Sri Lanka
:
n.p
.
Kandiah
V. C
.
1964
.
Maṭṭakkaḷapput Tamiḻakam
[Batticaloa Tamil Homeland].
Jaffna, Sri Lanka
:
Îḻakçcari Ponnaiyâ Ninaivu Veḷiyiṭṭu Manṟam
.
Kapferer
Bruce
.
1983
.
A Celebration of Demons: Exorcism and the Aesthetics of Healing in Sri Lanka
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Karve
Irawati
.
1968
.
Kinship Organization in India
. 3d ed.
New York
:
Asia Publishing House
.
Kemper
Steven
.
1991
.
The Presence of the Past: Chronicles, Politics, and Culture in Sinhala Life
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Kennedy
Kenneth A. R
.
1990
. “
Paleodemography of Sri Lanka and Peninsular India: A Cross-regional Survey
.” In
Perspectives in Archaeology: Leelananda Prematilleke Festschrift 1990
, ed.
Seneviratne
Sudarshan
et al
.,
29
37
.
Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
:
University of Peradeniya, Department of Archaeology
.
Khaja Khan
K. S
.
1923
.
Studies in Tasawwuf
.
London
:
Hogarth Press
.
Kiribamune
Sirima
.
1986
. “
Muslims and the Trade of the Arabian Sea with Special Reference to Sri Lanka from the Birth of Islam to the Fifteenth Century
.” In
Muslims of Sri Lanka: Avenues to Antiquity
, ed.
Shukri
M.A.M.
,
89
112
.
Beruwala, Sri Lanka
:
Jamiah Naleemia Institute
.
Kjaerholm
Lars
.
1990
. “
Kula Teyvam Worship in Tamilnadu: A Link Between Past and Present
.” In
Rites and Beliefs in Modern India
, ed.
Ferro-Luzzi
Gabriella E.
,
67
87
.
New Delhi
:
Manohar
.
Kodanda Rao
M
.
1973
. “
Rank Difference and Marriage Reciprocity in South India: An Aspect of the Implications of Elder Sister’s Daughter Marriage in a Fishing Village in Andhra
.”
Contributions to Indian Sociology
7
:
16
35
.
Krishna
Sankaran
.
1994
. “
Notes on a Trip to the Eastern Province, June 25 to June 29, 1994
.”
Serendipity
7
:
301
3
.
Kriyâviṉ Taṟkâlat Tamiḻ Akarâti
[Kriya Dictionary of Contemporary Tamil].
1992
.
Madras
:
Cre-A
.
Krysl
Marilyn
.
1993
. “
Suite for Kokodicholai, Sri Lanka
.”
Kenyon Review
15
, no.
2
:
141
43
.
Kumaracami
V.
, ed.
1977
.
Makâkuru Civasri Aiyampiḷḷaik Kurukkaḷ 75-âm Âṇṭu PÛrtti Vaira Viḻâ Malar
.
Kankesanthurai, Jaffna, Sri Lanka
:
n.p
.
Kurukulasuriya
G. I. O. M.
,
Gafoor
Abdul
,
Hussein
M.A.M
..
1988
.
The Muslim Community of Sri Lanka
.
Colombo
:
Marga Institute
.
Lawrence
Patricia
.
1997
. “
The Changing Amman: Notes on the Injury of War in Eastern Sri Lanka
.”
South Asia
20
:
215
36
.
Lawrence
Patricia
.
1998
. “
Grief on the Body: The Work of Oracles in Eastern Sri Lanka
.” In
Sri Lanka: Collective Identities Revisited
, ed.
Roberts
Michael
,
2
:
271
94
.
Colombo
:
Marga Institute
.
Lawrence
Patricia
.
2000
. “
Violence, Suffering, Amman: The Work of Oracles in Sri Lanka’s Eastern War Zone
.” In
Violence and Subjectivity
, ed.
Das
Veena
,
Kleinman
Arthur
,
Ramphele
Mamphela
,
Reynolds
Pamela
,
171
204
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Lawrence
Patricia
.
2003
. “
Kali in a Context of Terror: Tasks of a Goddess in Sri Lanka’s Civil War
.” In
Encountering Kali: In the Center, at the Margins, in the West
, ed.
Kripal
Jeffrey
,
McDermott
Rachel
,
100
123
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Lawrence
Patricia
.
2007
. “
Tamil Women’s Agency in Sri Lanka’s Transitional Warscape
.” In
Women and the Contested State: Religion, Violence, and Agency in South and Southeast Asia
, ed.
Skidmore
Monique
,
Lawrence
Patricia
,
89
116
.
Notre Dame, Ind.
:
University of Notre Dame Press
.
Leach
Edmund R
.
1961
.
Pul Eliya, A Village in Ceylon: A Study of Land Tenure and Kinship
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Lewis
J. P
.
1923a
. “
The Singing Fish at Batticaloa
.”
Ceylon Antiquary and Literary Register
8
, no.
4
:
343
45
.
Lewis
J. P
.
1923b
. “
Tradition as to the Origin of the People of Batticaloa: The Substance of a Lecture by the Late John Allagacone Delivered at Batticaloa on 20 December 1872
.”
Ceylon Antiquary and Literary Register
9
(
pt. 1
):
48
50
.
Liyanagamage
Amaradasa
.
1968
.
The Decline of Polonnaruwa and the Rise of Dambadeniya
.
Colombo
:
Department of Cultural Affairs
.
Liyanagamage
Amaradasa
.
1978
. “
A Forgotten Aspect of the Relations between the Sinhalese and the Tamils
.”
Ceylon Historical Journal
25
:
95
142
.
Liyanagamage
Amaradasa
.
1988
. “
Keralas in Medieval Sri Lankan History: A Study of Two Contrasting Roles
.”
Social Science Review
4
:
31
51
.
Lynch
Caitrin
.
2007
.
Juki Girls, Good Girls: Gender and Cultural Politics in Sri Lanka’s Global Garment Industry
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Mahar
J. M.
, ed.
1972
.
The Untouchables in Contemporary India
.
Tucson
:
University of Arizona Press
.
Mahroof
M. M. M
.
1986
. “
Muslim Social Organisation
.” In
An Ethnological Survey of the Muslims of Sri Lanka from Earliest Times to Independence
, by
Mahroof
M.M.M.
,
Azeez
Marina
,
Uwise
M.M.
,
Farouque
H.M.Z.
,
Rahim
M.J.A.
,
125
41
.
Colombo
:
Sir Razik Fareed Foundation
.
Mallick
Ross
.
1998
.
Development, Ethnicity and Human Rights in South Asia
.
New Delhi
:
Sage
.
Maloney
Clarence
.
1970
. “
The Beginnings of Civilization in South India
.”
Journal of Asian Studies
28
, no.
3
:
603
6
.
Mandelbaum
David G
.
1972
.
Society in India
.
2
vols.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Mani
A
.
1992
. “
Aspects of Identity and Change among Tamil Muslims in Singapore
.”
Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs
13
, no.
2
:
337
57
.
Manogaran
Chelvadurai
.
1987
.
Ethnic Conflict and Reconciliation in Sri Lanka
.
Honolulu
:
University of Hawaii Press
.
Manogaran
Chelvadurai
.
1994
. “
Colonization as Politics: Political Use of Space in Sri Lanka’s Ethnic Conflict
.” In
The Sri Lankan Tamils: Ethnicity and Identity
, ed.
Manogaran
Chelvadurai
,
Pfaffenberger
Bryan
,
84
125
.
Boulder, Colo.
:
Westview Press
.
Manu
.
1886
.
The Laws of Manu
. Ed. and trans.
Bühler
Georg
.
Oxford
:
Clarendon Press
. Repr.,
New York
:
Dover Publications
,
1960
.
Marriott
McKim
.
1968
. “
Caste Ranking and Food Transactions: A Matrix Analysis
.” In
Structure and Change in Indian Society
, ed.
Singer
Milton
,
Cohn
Bernard S.
,
133
71
.
Chicago
:
Aldine
.
Marriott
McKim
.
1976
. “
Hindu Transactions: Diversity without Dualism
.” In
Transactions and Meaning: Directions in the Anthropology of Exchange and Symbolic Behavior
, ed.
Kapferer
Bruce
,
109
42
.
Philadelphia
:
ISHI
.
Marriott
McKim
.
1990
. “
Constructing an Indian Ethnosociology
.” In
India through Hindu Categories
,
Contributions to Indian Sociology Occasional Studies 5
, ed.
Marriott
McKim
,
1
39
.
Delhi
:
Sage
.
Marriott
McKim
,
Inden
Ronald B
.
1974
. “
Caste Systems
.” In
Encyclopedia Britannica
, 15th ed,
3
:
982
91
.
Chicago
:
Encyclopedia Brittanica
.
Marriott
McKim
,
Inden
Ronald B
.
1977
. “
Toward an Ethnosociology of South Asian Caste Systems
.” In
The New Wind: Changing Identities in South Asia
, ed.
David
Kenneth
,
227
38
.
The Hague
:
Mouton
.
Masulovic-Marsol
Liliana
.
1988
. “
Structure et impact de la confrérie des Rifa’is de Skopje
.”
Lettre d’Information
8
:
13
31
.
Programme de Recherches Interdisciplinaires sur le Monde Musulman Périphérique
,
Paris
,
EHESS
.
Maunaguru
C
.
1998
.
Maṭṭakkaḷappu Marapuvaḻi Naṭakaṅkaḷ
[Traditional Folk-dramas of Batticaloa].
Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
:
Vipulam
Publication No. 7.
McCormack
William
.
1959
. “
The Forms of Communication in Virasaiva Religion
.” In
Traditional India: Structure and Change
, ed.
Singer
Milton
,
119
29
.
Philadelphia
:
American Folklore Society
.
McCormack
William
.
1963
. “
Lingayats as a Sect
.”
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
93
(
pt. 1
):
59
71
.
McCormack
William
.
1973
. “
Appendix 2: On Lingayat Culture
.” In
Speaking of Siva
, by
Ramanujan
A.K.
,
169
87
.
Harmondsworth, UK
:
Penguin Books
.
McDowell
Christopher
.
1996
.
A Tamil Asylum Diaspora: Sri Lankan Migration, Settlement, and Politics in Switzerland
.
New York
:
Berghahn
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1974
. “
Tamils and Moors: Caste and Matriclan Ideology in Eastern Sri Lanka
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Chicago
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1982a
. “
Dutch Burghers and Portuguese Mechanics: Eurasian Ethnicity in Sri Lanka
.”
Comparative Studies in Society and History
24
, no.
1
:
235
63
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1982b
. “
Mukkuvar Vannimai: Tamil Caste and Matriclan Ideology in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
.” In
Caste Ideology and Interaction
, ed.
McGilvray
Dennis B.
,
34
97
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1982c
. “
Sexual Power and Fertility in Sri Lanka: Batticaloa Tamils and Moors
.”
Ethnography of Fertility and Birth
, ed.
MacCormack
Carol P.
,
25
73
.
London
:
Academic Press
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1983
. “
Paraiyar Drummers of Sri Lanka: Consensus and Constraint in an Untouchable Caste
.”
American Ethnologist
10
, no.
1
:
97
115
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1988
. “
The 1987 Stirling Award Essay: Sex, Repression, and Sanskritization in Sri Lanka?
Ethos
16
, no.
2
:
99
127
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1989
. “
Households in Akkaraipattu: Dowry and Domestic Organization among the Matrilineal Tamils and Moors of Sri Lanka
.” In
Society from the Inside Out: Anthropological Perspectives on the South Asian Household
, ed.
Gray
John N.
,
Mearns
David J.
,
192
235
.
New Delhi
:
Sage
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1997
. “
Tamils and Muslims in the Shadow of War: Schism or Continuity?
South Asia
20
(
special issue
):
239
53
. Repr. in Conflict and Community in Sri Lanka: “Pearl of the East” or the “Island of Tears”? ed. Siri Gamage and I. B. Watson, 217–28. New Delhi: Sage, 1999.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1998a
. “
Arabs, Moors, and Muslims: Sri Lankan Muslim Ethnicity in Regional Perspective
.”
Contributions to Indian Sociology
32
, no.
2
:
433
83
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
1998b
.
Symbolic Heat: Gender, Health, and Worship among the Tamils of South India and Sri Lanka
.
Ahmedabad, India
:
Mapin
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
2004
. “
Jailani: A Sufi Shrine in Sri Lanka
.” In
Lived Islam in South Asia: Adaptation, Accommodation and Conflict
, ed.
Reifeld
Helmut
,
Ahmad
Imtiaz
,
273
89
.
Delhi
:
Social Science Press
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
2006
. “
Tsunami and Civil War: An Anthropologist Confronts the Real World
.”
India Review
5
, nos.
3–4
:
372
93
.
McGilvray
Dennis B
.
2007
. “
The Portuguese Burghers of Eastern Sri Lanka in the Wake of Civil War and Tsunami
.” In
Re-exploring the Links: History and Constructed Histories between Portugal and Sri Lanka
, ed.
Flores
Jorge
,
325
47
.
Wiesbaden
:
Harrassowitz
.
McGilvray
Dennis B.
, ed. Forthcoming.
Observing Batticaloa: Dutch Accounts of Eastern Ceylon, 1676–1794
. Manuscript in preparation.
McGilvray
Dennis B.
,
Raheem
Mirak
.
2007
.
Muslim Perspectives on the Sri Lankan Conflict
.
Policy Studies 41
.
Washington
:
East-West Center
.
Mehta
Deepak
.
2000
. “
Circumcision, Body, Masculinity: The Ritual Wound and Collective Violence
.” In
Violence and Subjectivity
, ed.
Das
Veena
,
Kleinman
Arthur
,
Ramphele
Mamphela
,
Reynolds
Pamela
,
79
101
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Michael
R. Blake
.
1992
.
The Origins of Virasaiva Sects
.
Delhi
:
Motilal Banarsidass
.
Miller
Roland E
.
1976
.
Mappila Muslims of Kerala: A Study in Islamic Trends
.
New Delhi
:
Orient Longman
.
Mines
Diane P
.
2005
.
Fierce Gods: Inequality, Ritual, and the Politics of Dignity in a South Indian Village
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Moffatt
Michael
.
1979a
. “
Harijan Religion: Consensus at the Bottom of Caste
.”
American Ethnologist
6
, no.
2
:
244
60
.
Moffatt
Michael
.
1979b
.
An Untouchable Community in South India: Structure and Consensus
.
Princeton, N.J.
:
Princeton University Press
.
Mohan
R. Vasundhara
.
1987
.
Identity Crisis of Sri Lankan Muslims
.
Delhi
:
Mittal
.
Moore
Melinda A
.
1985
. “
A New Look at the Nayar Taravad
.”
Man
20
, no.
3
:
523
41
.
Moore
Melinda A
.
1988
. “
Symbol and Meaning in Nayar Marriage Ritual
.”
American Ethnologist
15
, no.
2
:
254
73
.
Moore
Melinda A
.
1990
. “
The Kerala House as a Hindu Cosmos
.” In
India through Hindu Categories
, ed.
Marriott
McKim
,
169
202
.
New Delhi
:
Sage
.
More
J. B. P
.
1993
. “
Muslim Evolution and Conversions in Karikal, South India
.”
Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations
4
, no.
1
:
65
82
.
More
J. B. P
.
1997
.
The Political Evolution of Muslims in Tamilnadu and Madras, 1930–1947
.
Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
:
Orient Longman
.
Morgan
Lewis H
.
1871
.
Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family
.
Washington
:
Smithsonian Institution
.
Murdock
George P
.
1949
.
Social Structure
.
New York
:
Free Press
.
Nadaraja
Tambya
.
1966
. “
New Light on Cleghorn’s Minute on Justice and Revenue
.”
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Ceylon Branch
(new series)
10
:
1
28
.
Nadaraja
Tambya
.
1972
.
The Legal System of Ceylon in Its Historical Setting
.
Leiden
:
E. J. Brill
.
Nadarajah
F. X. C.
, ed.
1962
.
Maṭṭakkaḷappu Mânmiyam
[The Glory of Batticaloa].
Colombo
:
Kalanilayam
.
Nambiar
P. K.
,
Narayana Kurup
K.C
..
1968
. “
Festival of Saint Quadar Wali at Nagore
.” In
Census of India 1961
. Vol.
9
,
Madras, Part 7-B: Fairs and Festivals
,
59
60
.
Delhi
:
Manager of Publications
.
Nanjundayya
H. V.
,
Anantha Krishna Iyer
L.K
..
1928–1935
.
The Mysore Tribes and Castes
.
4
vols.
Mysore
:
Mysore University
.
Rao
Narayana
,
Velcheru
David Shulman
,
Subrahmanyam
Sanjay
.
1992
.
Symbols of Substance: Court and State in Nayaka Period Tamilnadu
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Neville
Hugh
.
1887a
. “
Archaeological Reports No. 5: Hambantota or Samman-Turai, E.P. Ceylon
.”
Taprobanian
,
October
1887,
141
44
.
Neville
Hugh
.
1887b
. “
The Modarites in India
.”
Taprobanian
,
June
1887,
69
70
.
Neville
Hugh
.
1887c
. “
Nâdu Kâdu Record
.”
Taprobanian
,
August and October
1887,
127
28
,
137
41
.
Neville
Hugh
.
1887d
. “
Pigeon Worship in Ceylon
.”
Taprobanian
,
February
1887,
21
24
.
Nissan
Elizabeth
.
1996
.
Sri Lanka: A Bitter Harvest
.
London
:
Minority Rights Group
.
Nissan
Elizabeth
,
Stirrat
R. L
..
1990
. “
The Generation of Communal Identities
.” In
Sri Lanka: History and the Roots of Conflict
, ed.
Spencer
Jonathan
,
19
44
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Nuhman
M. A
.
2007
.
Sri Lankan Muslims: Ethnic Identity within Cultural Diversity
.
Colombo
:
International Centre for Ethnic Studies
.
Oberst
Robert C
.
1985
.
Legislators and Representation in Sri Lanka: The Decentralization of Development Planning
.
Boulder, Colo.
:
Westview Press
.
Oberst
Robert C
.
1988
. “
Sri Lanka’s Tamil Tigers
.”
Conflict
8
:
185
202
.
Obeyesekere
Gananath
.
1967
.
Land Tenure in Village Ceylon
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Obeyesekere
Gananath
.
1977
. “
Social Change and the Deities: The Rise of the Kataragama Cult in Modern Sri Lanka
.”
Man
12
, nos.
3–4
:
377
96
.
Obeyesekere
Gananath
.
1978
. “
The Fire-walkers of Kataragama: The Rise of Bhakti Religiosity in Buddhist Sri Lanka
.”
Journal of Asian Studies
37
, no.
3
:
457
76
.
Obeyesekere
Gananath
.
1981
.
Medusa’s Hair: An Essay on Personal Symbols and Religious Experience
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Obeyesekere
Gananath
.
1984
.
The Cult of the Goddess Pattini
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Oldenburg
Veena Talwar
.
2002
.
Dowry Murder: The Imperial Origins of a Cultural Crime
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Orenstein
Henry
.
1965
.
Gaon: Conflict and Cohesion in an Indian Village
.
Princeton, N.J.
:
Princeton University Press
.
Padmanabha Menon
K. P
.
1924–1937
.
A History of Kerala
.
Ernakulam, Kerala, India
:
Cochin Government Press
.
Parry
Jonathan P
.
1979
.
Caste and Kinship in Kangra
.
London
:
Routledge and Kegan Paul
.
Parry
Jonathan P
.
1994
.
Death in Banaras
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Parthasarathy,
R.
, trans.
1993
.
The Cilappatikâram of Iḷaṅkô Aṭikaḷ: An Epic of South India
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
.
Parvathamma
C
.
1971
.
Politics and Religion: A Study of Historical Interaction between Socio-political Relationships in a Mysore Village
.
New Delhi
:
Sterling Publishers
.
Pathmanathan
S
.
1976a
. “
The Chieftaincies of the Vanni in Medieval Sri Lanka: The Chieftaincies of the Eastern and Western Littorals
.”
Paper presented at the Conference Seminar of Tamil Studies
.
Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
:
International Association of Tamil Research Sri Lanka National Unit
.
Pathmanathan
S
.
1976b
. “
Historical Traditions of the Batticaloa Tamils
.”
Paper presented at the Conference Seminar of Tamil Studies
.
Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
:
International Association of Tamil Research Sri Lanka National Unit
.
Pathmanathan
S
.
1976c
. “
Mukkuvariṉ Câtivaḻamai
.” In
Maṭṭakkaḷappu Mâkânâṭu Niṉaivu Malar
,
3
10
.
Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
:
International Association of Tamil Research Sri Lanka National Unit
.
Pathmanathan
S
.
1976d
. “
Nâṭu Kâṭu Paravaṇi Kalveṭṭu
.” In
Maṭṭakkaḷappu Mâkânâṭu Niṉaivu Malar
,
82
90
.
Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
:
International Association of Tamil Research Sri Lanka National Unit
.
Pathmanathan
S
.
1978
.
The Kingdom of Jaffna, Part I (circa A.D. 1250–1450)
.
Colombo
:
Arul M. Rajendran
.
Peebles
Patrick
.
1973
. “
The Transformation of a Colonial Elite: The Mudaliyars of Nineteenth Century Ceylon
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Chicago
.
Peebles
Patrick
.
1990
. “
Colonization and Ethnic Conflict in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka
.”
Journal of Asian Studies
49
, no.
1
:
30
55
.
Peebles
Patrick
.
1995
.
Social Change in Nineteenth Century Ceylon
.
New Delhi
:
Navrang
.
Peebles
Patrick
.
2001
.
The Plantation Tamils of Ceylon
.
London
:
Leicester University Press
.
Perniola
V
.
1989
.
The Catholic Church in Sri Lanka: The Portuguese Period, Volume I, 1505–1565
.
Dehiwala, Sri Lanka
:
Tisara Prakasakayo
.
Pfaffenberger
Bryan
.
1979
. “
The Kataragama Pilgrimage: Hindu-Buddhist Interaction and Its Significance in Sri Lanka’s Polyethnic Social System
.”
Journal of Asian Studies
38
:
253
70
.
Pfaffenberger
Bryan
.
1982
.
Caste in Tamil Culture: The Religious Foundations of Sudra Domination in Tamil Sri Lanka
.
Syracuse, N.Y.
:
Syracuse University Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs
.
Phadnis
Urmila
.
1979
. “
Political Profile of the Muslim Minority of Sri Lanka
.”
International Studies
18
, no.
1
:
27
48
.
Price
Pamela G
.
1996
.
Kingship and Political Practice in Colonial India
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Pridham
Charles
.
1849
.
An Historical, Political, and Statistical Account of Ceylon and Its Dependencies
. Vol.
2
.
London
:
T. and W. Boone
.
Puthenkalam
Fr. J
.
1977
.
Marriage and Family in Kerala, with Special Reference to Matrilineal Castes
.
Calgary
:
Journal of Comparative Family Studies Monograph Series
.
Queyroz
Fr. F. d
.
1930
.
The Temporal and Spiritual Conquest of Ceylon
. Vol.
1
. Trans.
Perera
Fr. S. G
..
Colombo
:
A. C. Richards, Acting Government Printer
.
Raby
Namika
.
1985
.
Kachcheri Bureaucracy in Sri Lanka: The Culture and Politics of Accessibility
.
Syracuse
:
Syracuse University Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs
.
Raghavan
M. D
.
1953
. “
A Kalvettu of the Seerpadam of the Eastern Province
.”
Spolia Zeylanica
27
(
pt.1
):
187
93
.
Raghavan
M. D
.
1954
. “
The Sociology of Jaffna: The Nalavar and the Koviar
.”
Tamil Culture
3
, no.
2
:
139
50
.
Raghavan
M. D
.
1961
.
The Karava of Ceylon: Society and Culture
.
Colombo
:
K. V. G. de Silva
.
Raghavan
M. D
.
1962
.
Ceylon: A Pictorial Survey of the Peoples and Arts
.
Colombo
:
M. D. Gunasena
.
Raghavan
M. D
.
1971
.
Tamil Culture in Ceylon: A General Introduction
.
Colombo
:
Kalai Nilayam
.
Ragupathy
Ponnampalam
.
1987
.
Early Settlements in Jaffna: An Archaeological Survey
.
Madras
:
Thillimalar Ragupathy
.
Raheem
Raihana
.
1975
. “
A Study of the Kinship Terms of the Moor Community in Ceylon
.”
PhD diss.
,
Department of Linguistics, University of Leeds
.
Ram
Kalpana
.
1991
.
Mukkuvar Women: Gender, Hegemony, and Capitalist Transformation in a South Indian Fishing Community
.
London
:
Zed Press
.
Ramanathan
Ponnambalam
.
1888
. “
The Ethnology of the ‘Moors’ of Ceylon
.”
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Ceylon Branch
10
, no.
36
:
234
62
.
Ramanujan
A. K
.
1973
.
Speaking of Siva
.
Harmondsworth, UK
:
Penguin Books
.
Ramanujan
A. K.
, trans.
1985
.
Poems of Love and War, from the Eight Anthologies and the Ten Long Poems of Classical Tamil
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
.
Ramaswamy
Sumathi
.
1997
.
Passions of the Tongue: Language Devotion in Tamil India, 1891–1970
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Ratnawira
Alfred E. R. R. R
.
1909
.
Visvakarma and His Descendants
.
Colombo
:
Ceylon Visvakarma Union
.
Richardson
John
.
2005
.
Paradise Poisoned: Learning about Conflict, Terrorism and Development from Sri Lanka’s Civil Wars
.
Kandy
:
International Centre for Ethnic Studies
.
Roberts
Michael
.
1982
.
Caste Conflict and Elite Formation: The Rise of a Karava Elite in Sri Lanka, 1500–1931
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Roberts
Michael
,
Raheem
Ismeth
,
Colin-Thomé
Percy
.
1989
.
People Inbetween
. Vol.
1
,
The Burghers and the Middle Class in the Transformations within Sri Lanka, 1790s–1960s
.
Ratmalana, Sri Lanka
:
Sarvodaya Book Publishing
.
Robinson
Marguerite S
.
1975
.
Political Structure in a Changing Sinhalese Village
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Rogers
John D
.
1993
. “
Colonial Perceptions of Ethnicity and Culture in Early Nineteenth-century Sri Lanka
.” In
Society and Ideology: Essays in South Asian History Presented to Professor K. A. Ballhatchet
, ed.
Robb
Peter
,
97
109
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Rogers
John D
.
1995
. “
Racial Identities and Politics in Early Modern Sri Lanka
.” In
The Concept of Race in South Asia
, ed.
Robb
Peter
,
146
64
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Rudolph
Lloyd I.
,
Rudolph
Suzanne Hoeber
.
1967
.
The Modernity of Tradition: Political Development in India
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Ruwanpura
Kanchana N
.
2006
.
Matrilineal Communities, Patriarchal Realities: A Feminist Nirvana Uncovered
.
Delhi: Zubaan, and Colombo
:
Social Scientists Association
.
Ryan
Bryce
.
1950
. “
Socio-cultural Regions of Ceylon
.”
Rural Sociology
15
:
3
19
.
Ryan
Kathleen S
.
1980
. “
Pollution in Practice: Ritual, Structure, and Change in Tamil Sri Lanka
.”
PhD diss.
,
Cornell University
.
Sabanathan
K.
, ed.
1953
.
Yâḻppâṇa Vaipavamâlai
.
Colombo
:
Sarasvati Puttakacâlai
.
Sabaratnam
Lakshmanan
.
2001
.
Ethnic Attachments in Sri Lanka: Social Change and Cultural Continuity
.
New York
:
Palgrave
.
Saheb
S. A. A
.
1998
. “
A Festival of Flags: Hindu-Muslim Devotion and the Sacralizing of Localism at the Shrine of Nagore-e-Sharif in Tamil Nadu
.” In
Embodying Charisma: Modernity, Locality and the Performance of Emotion in Sufi Cults
, ed.
Werbner
Pnina
,
Basu
Helene
,
55
76
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Saleem
A. R. M
.
1990
.
Akkaraippaṟṟu Varalâṟu
.
Akkaraipattu, Sri Lanka
:
Hiraa Publications
.
Sanday
Peggy R
.
2002
.
Women at the Center: Life in a Modern Matriarchy
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Sarachchandra
E. R
.
1966
.
The Folk Drama of Ceylon
. 2d ed.
Colombo
:
Department of Cultural Affairs, Ceylon Government Press
.
Schalk
Peter
.
2004
.
Vädi into Vanniyalǟttô: Transformation of Images of the Lankan Väddô
.
Historia Religionum 24
.
Uppsala
:
Uppsala University
.
Schalk
Peter
,
Veluppillai
Alvapillai
, eds.
2002a
.
Buddhism among Tamils in Precolonial Tamiḻakam and Îḻam: The Period of the Imperial Côḷar
.
Historia Religionum 20
.
Uppsala
:
Uppsala University
.
Schalk
Peter
,
Veluppillai
Alvapillai
, eds.
2002b
.
Buddhism among Tamils in Pre-colonial Tamiḻakam and Îḻam: The Pre-Pallava and the Pallava Period
.
Historia Religionum 19
.
Uppsala
:
Uppsala University
.
Schneider
David M
.
1961
. “
The Distinctive Features of Matrilineal Descent Groups
.” In
Matrilineal Kinship
, ed.
Schneider
David M.
,
Gough
Kathleen
,
1
35
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Schrijvers
Joke
.
1998
. “
‘We Were Like Coconut and Flour in the Pittu’: Tamil-Muslim Violence, Gender and Ethnic Relations in Eastern Sri Lanka
.”
Nethra
2
, no.
3
:
10
39
.
Seligmann
C. G.
,
Seligmann
Brenda Z
..
1911
.
The Veddas
. Repr.,
New Delhi
:
Navrang
,
1993
.
Seneviratne
H. L
.
1978
.
Rituals of the Kandyan State
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Sharif
Ja’far
.
1921
.
Islam in India or the QânÛn-i-Islâm: The Customs of the Musalmans of India, Comprising a Full and Exact Account of Their Various Rites and Ceremonies from the Moment of Birth to the Hour of Death
. Ed.
Crooke
William
. Trans.
Herklots
G.A.
. Repr.,
New Delhi
:
Oriental Books Reprint Corporation
,
1972
.
Shastri
Amita
.
1990
. “
The Material Basis for Separatism: The Tamil Eelam Movement in Sri Lanka
.”
Journal of Asian Studies
49
, no.
1
:
56
77
.
Shu’ayb Âlim
Tayka
.
1993
.
Arabic, Arwi and Persian in Sarandib and Tamil Nadu
.
Madras
:
Imamul Arus Trust
.
Sinha
Suraji
,
Saraswati
Baidyanath
.
1978
.
Ascetics of Kashi: An Anthropological Exploration
.
Varanasi
:
N. K. Bose Memorial Foundation
.
Sitrampalam
S. K
.
1987
. “
Survey of Pre and Protohistoric Studies in Sri Lanka
.”
Bulletin of the Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute
46
:
137
49
.
Sivaram
D. P
.
1991
.
The Eluding Peace: An Insider’s Political Analysis of the Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka
.
Sarcelles, France
:
Arts Social Sciences of Eelam Academy
.
Sivaram
D. P
.
1992
. “
LTTE’s Eelam Project and the Muslim People
.”
Tamil Times
,
15
November
1992,
20
,
24
.
Sivathamby
Karthigesu
.
1987
. “
The Sri Lankan Ethnic Crisis and Muslim-Tamil Relationships: A Socio-political Review
.” In
Facets of Ethnicity in Sri Lanka
, ed.
Abeysekera
Charles
,
Gunasinghe
Newton
,
192
225
.
Colombo
:
Social Scientists’ Association
.
Smith
Ian R
.
1978
.
Sri Lanka Creole Portuguese Phonology
.
Trivandrum, Kerala, India
:
Dravidian Linguistics Association
.
Spencer
Jonathan
.
1990a
.
A Sinhala Village in a Time of Trouble: Politics and Change in Rural Sri Lanka
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Spencer
Jonathan
, ed.
1990b
.
Sri Lanka: History and the Roots of Conflict
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Spilbergen
Joris van
.
1933
.
De Reis Van J. Van Spilbergen Naar Ceylon, Atjeh En Bantam, 1601–4
.
The Hague
:
Nijhoff
.
Srinivas
M. N
.
1952
.
Religion and Society among the Coorgs of South India
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Srinivas
M. N
.
1989
. “
Some Reflections on Dowry
.” In
Srinivas
M.N.
,
The Cohesive Role of Sanskritization and Other Essays
,
97
122
.
New Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Stein
Burton
.
1967–1968
. “
Brahman and Peasant in Early South Indian History
.”
Adyar Library Bulletin
31 and 32
:
229
69
.
Stein
Burton
.
1980
.
Peasant State and Society in Medieval South India
.
Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Stirrat
R. L
.
1982
. “
Caste Conundrums: Views of Caste in a Sinhalese Catholic Fishing Village
.” In
Caste Ideology and Interaction
, ed.
McGilvray
Dennis B.
,
8
33
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Stirrat
R. L
.
1988
.
On the Beach: Fishermen, Fishwives and Fishtraders in the Postcolonial Lanka
.
Delhi
:
Hindustan Publications
.
Stirrat
R. L
.
1992
.
Power and Religiosity in a Post-colonial Setting: Sinhala Catholics in Contemporary Sri Lanka
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Tambiah
H. W
.
1950
.
The Laws and Customs of the Tamils of Jaffna
.
Colombo
:
The Times of Ceylon
.
Tambiah
H. W
.
1954
.
The Laws and Customs of the Tamils of Ceylon
.
Colombo
:
Tamil Cultural Society of Ceylon
.
Tambiah
H. W
.
1972
.
Principles of Ceylon Law
.
Colombo
:
H. W. Cave
.
Tambiah
Stanley J
.
1958
. “
The Structure of Kinship and Its Relationship to Land Possession and Residence in Pata Dumbara, Central Ceylon
.”
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
88
(
pt. 1
):
21
44
.
Tambiah
Stanley J
.
1986
.
Sri Lanka: Ethnic Fratricide and the Dismantling of Democracy
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Tambiah
Stanley J
.
1992
.
Buddhism Betrayed? Religion, Politics and Violence in Sri Lanka
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Tamil Lexicon
.
1936
.
Published under the authority of the University of Madras
.
6
vols. and supplement. Repr. 1982.
Tanaka
Mazakazu
.
1991
.
Patrons, Devotees and Goddesses: Ritual and Power among the Tamil Fishermen of Sri Lanka
.
Kyoto
:
Kyoto University Institute for Research in Humanities
.
Tennent
Sir James Emerson
.
1859
.
Ceylon: An Account of the Island
. Vol.
2
.
London
:
Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts
.
Thananjayarajasingham
S
.
1973
. “
Notes on the Telugu Gypsies of Ceylon
.”
Journal of the Indian Anthropological Society
(Calcutta)
8
, no.
2
:
123
30
.
Thangarajah
Yuvaraj
.
1995
. “
Narratives of Victimhood as Ethnic Identity among the Veddas of the East Coast
.” In
Unmaking the Nation: The Politics of Identity and History in Modern Sri Lanka
, ed.
Jeganathan
Pradeep
,
Ismail
Qadri
,
191
218
.
Colombo
:
Social Scientists’ Association
.
Thangarajah
Yuvaraj
.
1997
. “
State Violence, Ethnicity, and Identity: The Case of Eastern Sri Lanka
.”
PhD diss.
,
University of Rochester
.
Thangarajah
Yuvaraj
.
2003a
. “
Ethnicization of the Devolution Debate and the Militarization of Civil Society in North-eastern Sri Lanka
.” In
Building Local Capacities for Peace: Rethinking Conflict and Development in Sri Lanka
, ed.
Mayer
Markus
,
Rajasingham-Senanayake
Darini
,
Thangarajah
Yuvi
,
15
36
.
Delhi
:
Macmillan India
.
Thangarajah
Yuvaraj
.
2003b
. “
Veiled Constructions: Conflict, Migration and Modernity in Eastern Sri Lanka
.”
Contributions to Indian Sociology
(new series)
37
, nos.
1–2
:
141
62
.
Theyvanayagam
S
.
2006
. “
Tântônṟîsvaram, Kokkaṭṭiccôlai
.” In
Hindu Temples of Sri Lanka
, ed.
Pathmanathan
S.
,
279
304
.
Colombo
:
Kumaran Book House
.
Thiruchandran
Selvy
.
1999
.
The Other Victims of War: Emergence of Female Headed Households in Eastern Sri Lanka
. Vol.
2
.
New Delhi
:
Vikas
.
Thurston
Edgar
,
Rangachari
K
..
1909
.
Castes and Tribes of Southern India
.
7
vols.
Madras
:
Government Press
.
Toussaint
J. R
.
1930
. “
Jacob Burnand
.”
Journal of the Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon
19
, no.
5
:
194
99
.
Toussaint
J. R
.
1931
. “
Batticaloa between 1766 and 1796
.”
Journal of the Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon
20
, no.
3
:
93
106
.
Toussaint
J. R
.
1933
. “
Batticaloa in Early British Times
.”
Journal of the Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon
22
, no.
4
:
166
73
and
23
, no.
1
:
7
17
.
Trautmann
Thomas R
.
1981
.
Dravidian Kinship
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Trautmann
Thomas R
.
1987
.
Lewis Henry Morgan and the Invention of Kinship
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Trawick
Margaret
.
1990
.
Notes on Love in a Tamil Family
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Trawick
Margaret
.
1996
. “
The Story of the Jackal Hunter Girl
.” In
Culture/Contexture: Explorations in Anthropology and Literary Studies
, ed.
Valentine Daniel
E.
,
Peck
Jeffrey M.
,
58
83
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Trawick
Margaret
.
1997
. “
Reasons for Violence: A Preliminary Ethnographic Account of the LTTE
.”
South Asia
20
:
153
80
.
Trawick
Margaret
.
2007
.
Enemy Lines: Warfare, Childhood, and Play in Batticaloa
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Trimmingham
J. S
.
1971
.
The Sufi Orders in Islam
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Udayalinga Rao
S
.
1973
.
Holy Srisailam
.
Madras
:
Balasaraswathi Book Depot
.
University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna)
.
1990
.
Report 3: The War and Its Consequences in the Amparai District
.
Thirunelvely, Jaffna, Sri Lanka
:
University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna)
.
Available at http://www.uthr.org
.
University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna)
.
1991
.
Report 7: The Clash of Ideologies and the Continuing Tragedy in the Batticaloa and Amparai Districts
.
Thirunelvely, Jaffna, Sri Lanka
:
University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna)
.
Available at http://www.uthr.org
.
University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna)
.
1993a
.
Report 10: Rays of Hope amidst Deepening Gloom
.
Thirunelvely, Jaffna, Sri Lanka
:
University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna)
.
Available at http://www.uthr.org
.
University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna)
.
1993b
.
Report 11: Land, Human Rights and the Eastern Predicament
.
Thirunelvely, Jaffna, Sri Lanka
:
University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna)
.
Available at http://www.uthr.org
.
Unny
Govindan
.
1994
.
Kinship Systems in South and Southeast Asia: A Study
.
New Delhi
:
Vikas
.
Uwise
M. M
.
1986
. “
The Language and Literature of the Muslims
.” In
An Ethnological Survey of the Muslims of Sri Lanka from Earliest Times to Independence
, by
Mahroof
M.M.M.
,
Azeez
Marina
,
Uwise
M.M.
,
Farouque
H.M.Z.
,
Rahim
M.J.A.
,
150
65
.
Colombo
:
Sir Razik Fareed Foundation
.
Uwise
M. M
.
1990
.
Muslim Contribution to Tamil Literature
.
Kilakkarai, Tamilnadu, India
:
Fifth International Islamic Tamil Literary Conference
.
Van der Veer
Peter
.
1992
. “
Playing or Praying: A Sufi Saint’s Day in Surat
.”
Journal of Asian Studies
51
, no.
3
:
545
64
.
Veluppillai
Alvapillai
.
1990
. “
Historical Evaluation of Kôṇçcar Kalveṭṭu
.” In
Perspectives in Archaeology: Leelananda Prematilleke Festschrift 1990
, ed.
Seneviratne
Sudarshan
,
Tampoe
Moira
,
Mahinda
Wetara
,
Gunasekara
Damayanthi
,
Senanayake
Piyatissa
,
95
100
.
Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
:
University of Peradeniya Department of Archaeology
.
Veluppillai
Alvapillai
.
2002
. “
The History of Buddhism among Tamils in Pre-colonial Ilaṅkai
.” In
Buddhism among Tamils in Pre-colonial Tamiḻakam and Îḻam: The Pre-Pallava and Pallava Period
, Historia Religionum 19, ed.
Schalk
Peter
,
Veluppillai
Alvapillai
,
145
66
.
Uppsala
:
Uppsala University
.
Pillai
Velu
,
Sadasyatilaka
T. K
.
1940
.
The Tranvancore State Manual
.
Trivandrum, Kerala, India
:
Government of Travancore
.
Vijaya Kumar
S.
,
Suryanarayana
M
..
1991
. “
Srisailam: A Shivaite Pilgrimage Centre, Andhra Pradesh, India
.” In
Social Anthropology of Pilgrimage
, ed.
Jha
Makhan
,
177
90
.
New Delhi
:
Inter-India Publications
.
Vijayakumar
V
.
2006
.
Traditional Futures: Law and Custom in India’s Lakshadweep Islands
.
New Delhi
:
Oxford University Press
.
Vitharana
V
.
1990
.
The Night of Doom
.
Dehiwala, Sri Lanka
:
Sridevi Printers
.
Wagner
Christian
.
1990
.
Die Muslime Sri Lankas: Ein Volksgruppe im Spannungsfeld des Ethnischen Konflikts Zwischen Singhalesen und Tamilen
.
Freiburg im Breisgau
:
Arnold Bergstraesser Institut
.
Wagner
Christian
.
1991
. “
A Muslim Minority in a Multiethnic State: The Case of Sri Lanka
.” In
Nationalism, Ethnicity and Political Development: South Asian Perspectives
, ed.
Weidemann
Diethelm
,
93
112
.
New Delhi
:
Manohar
.
Westermark
Edward
.
1926
.
Ritual and Belief in Morocco
.
2
vols.
London
:
Macmillan
.
Whitaker
Mark P
.
1986
. “
Divinity and Legitimacy in a Temple of the Lord Kantan
.”
PhD diss.
,
Princeton University
.
Whitaker
Mark P
.
1990
. “
A Compound of Many Histories: The Many Pasts of an East Coast Tamil Community
.” In
Sri Lanka: History and the Roots of Conflict
, ed.
Spencer
Jonathan
,
145
63
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Whitaker
Mark P
.
1997
. “
Tigers and Temples: The Politics of Nationalist and Non-modern Violence in Sri Lanka
.”
South Asia
20
:
210
14
.
Whitaker
Mark P
.
1999
.
Amiable Incoherence: Manipulating Histories and Modernities in a Batticaloa Tamil Hindu Temple
.
Amsterdam
:
Vrije Universiteit Press
.
Whitaker
Mark P
.
2007
.
Learning Politics from Sivaram: The Life and Death of a Revolutionary Tamil Journalist in Sri Lanka
.
London
:
Pluto Press
.
Williams
John Alden
, ed.
1994
.
The World of Islam
.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
.
Wilson
A. J
.
2000
.
Sri Lankan Tamil Nationalism: Its Origin and Development in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
.
Vancouver
:
University of British Columbia Press
.
Wink
André
.
1990
.
Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World
. Vol.
1
,
Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, 7th—11th Centuries
.
Leiden
:
E. J. Brill
.
Winslow
Deborah
,
Woost
Michael D.
, eds.
2004
.
Economy, Culture, and Civil War in Sri Lanka
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Winslow
Rev. Miron
.
1862
.
A Comprehensive Tamil and English Dictionary of High and Low Tamil
. Repr.,
New Delhi
:
Asian Educational Services
,
1979
.
Wirtz
Paul
.
1966
.
Kataragama: The Holiest Place in Ceylon
. Trans.
Pralle
Doris Betta
.
Colombo
:
Lake House
.
Wriggins
W. H
.
1960
.
Ceylon: Dilemmas of a New Nation
.
Princeton, N.J.
:
Princeton University Press
.
Yalman
Nur
.
1963
. “
On the Purity of Women in the Castes of Ceylon and Malabar
.”
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
93
(
pt. 1
):
25
58
.
Yalman
Nur
.
1966
. “
Dual Organization in Central Ceylon? Or, The Goddess in the Treetop
.”
Journal of Asian Studies
24
, no.
3
:
441
57
.
Yalman
Nur
.
1967
.
Under the Bo Tree: Studies in Caste, Kinship, and Marriage in the Interior of Ceylon
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Zvelebil
Kamil V
.
1966
. “
Some Features of Ceylon Tamil
.”
Indo-Iranian Journal
9
:
113
38
.
Zvelebil
Kamil V
.
1984
.
The Lord of the Meeting Rivers: Devotional Poems of Basavaṇṇa
.
Delhi
:
Motilal Banarsidass/UNESCO
.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal