Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination
This content is made freely available by the publisher. It may not be redistributed or altered. All rights reserved.
This content is only available as PDF.

Periodicals

The Nation: Organ of the People’s National Movement
.
Port of Spain
:
PNM
.
TnT Mirror
.
Barataria, Trinidad
:
T& TNews Centre
.
This content is only available as PDF.

Official Periodicals

Legislative Council.
Debates (Hansard)
.
Trinidad
:
Government Printing Office
.
House of Representatives.
Parliamentary Debates (Hansard)
.
Trinidad
:
Government Printery
.
This content is only available as PDF.

Recordings

Bally
(
Errol
Ballantyne
). [
1991
]
1992
. “
Calypso Coup
.”
The Best of Rootsman and Bally,
track 9. JWRecords.
Black
Stalin
(
Leroy
Calliste
). [
1979
]
1992
. “
Caribbean Unity
.”
Roots Rock Soca,
track 1. Rounder Records.
Black
Stalin
(
Leroy
Calliste
).
1995
. “
Sundar
.”
Message to Sundar,
track 4. Ice Records.
Brother
Marvin
(
Selwyn
Demming
).
1996
. “
Brotherhood of the Boat
” [Jahaji Bhai].
Carnival Soca Hit Compilation,
track 4. JMCRecords.
Crazy (
Edwin
Ayong
). [
1989
]
2000
. “
Nani Wine
Soca Anthems,
track 8. Hot Vinyl.
Dempster
Sanell
(and
Blue
Ventures
).
1999
. “
River
.”
Soca Gold 1999,
track 3. VPRecords.
Garcia
Chris.
1996
. “
Chutney Bacchanal
.”
Soca Carnival ’96,
track 1. Tattoo Records.
Iwer
George
(
Neil
George
).
1998
. “
Bottom in de Road
.”
Soca Gold 1998,
track 9. VPRecords.
Iwer
George
(
Neil
George
).
2000
. “
Carnival Come Back Again
.”
Iwer and Family: Soca Compilation,
track 1. Crosby’s.
Lewis
Nigel.
[
1995
]
1996
. “
Movin’
.”
Caribbean Dream,
track 8. Crosby’s.
The Lord Invader
(
Rupert
Grant
). [
1950
]
1993
. “
Rum and Coca-Cola
.”
Live recording on Calypso Calaloo, CD accompanying Donald Hill, Calypso Calaloo: Early Carnival Music in Trinidad,
track 12.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
1993
.
Lucas
,
Colin.
[
1991
]
1995
. “
Dollar Wine
.”
De Trini Party,
track 7. Rituals Music.
Mann
Sonny.
1995
. “
Lota La
” [Loota La].
Chutney Party Mix,
track 1. M.C. Records.
Mann
Sonny
,with
Denise
Belfon
,and
General
Grant.
[
1995
]
1997
. “
Lootala
.”
Soca Gold 1997,
track 12. VPRecords.
The Mighty Sparrow.
[
1956
]
1992
. “
Jean and Dinah
.”
The Mighty Sparrow, Volume 1,
track 1. Ice Records.
Montano
Machel
(and
Xtatik
). [
1996
]
1997
. “
Big Truck
.”
Carnival Soca Hit Compilation,
track 2. JMCRecords.
Plummer
Denyse.
1990
. “
La Trinity
.”
Carnival Killer,
track 3. Dynamic.
Preacher
(
Barnett
Henry
).
1994
. “
Jump and Wave
.”
Soca Carnival ’94,
track 1. Ice Records.
Ras
Shorty I
(
Garfield
Blackman
). [
1979
]
1999
. “
Shanti Om
.”
Shorty: Greatest Hits,
track 7. Charlie’s Records.
Rodriguez
Wayne
(and
Xtatik
).
1998
. “
Footsteps
.”
Machel and Xtatik: Charge,
track 5. JWProductions.
Rudder
David.
[
1986
]
1993
. “
Bahia Girl
.”
The Gilded Collection: 1986–1989,
track 2.
Lypsoland
.
Rudder
David.
[
1987
]
1993
. “
Calypso Music
.”
The Gilded Collection: 1986–1989,
track 3.
Lypsoland
.
Scrunter
(
Irwin
Reyes Johnson
). N.d. (
1989
). “
Piece ah Pork
.”
A Decade of Scrunter: De Parang Now Start,
track 12.
Crosby’s
.
Scrunter
(
Irwin
Reyes Johnson
). N.d. (
1990
). “
Anita
.”
A Decade of Scrunter: De Parang Now Start,
track 9.
Crosby’s
.
Scrunter
(
Irwin
Reyes Johnson
). N.d. (
1995
). “
Chukaipan
.”
A Decade of Scrunter: De Parang Now Start,
track 8.
Crosby’s
.
Shadow
(
Winston
Bailey
).
2001
. “
Stranger
.”
Just for You,
track 1. Cross Roads Records.
Super Blue (Austin Lyons).
[
1991
]
1996
. “
Get Something and Wave
.”
King of the Road March: Greatest Hits,
track 1. Tattoo Records.
Super Blue (Austin Lyons).
[
1992
]
1996
. “
Jab Jab
.”
King of the Road March: Greatest Hits,
track 5. Tattoo Records.
Super Blue (Austin Lyons).
1993
. “
Bacchanal Time
.”
Bacchanal Time,
track 1. Ice Records.
Super Blue (Austin Lyons).
[
1995
]
1996
. “
Signal for Lara
.”
King of the Road March: Greatest Hits,
track 15. Tattoo Records.
x
Super Blue (Austin Lyons).
2000
. “
Pump Up
.”
Hot Caribbean Hits,
track 4. Rituals Music.
Tambu
(
Christopher
Herbert
). N.d. (
1989
). “
Free Up
.”
Once Upon a Time,
track 4. JWRecords.
Tambu
(
Christopher
Herbert
). N.d. (
1990
). “
No No We Ent Going Home
.”
Once Upon a Time,
track 8. JWRecords.
Voisin
Daisy.
N.d.
Daisy Viosin: Memories of a Lifetime of Parang
.
Crosby’s
.
Watchman
(
Wayne
Hayde
). N.d. (
1991
). “
Attack with Full Force
.”
Plenty to be Sorry For,
track 6. Straker’s Record World.
This content is only available as PDF.

Bibliography

Abrahams
Roger.
1983
.
The Man of Words in the West Indies: Performance and the Emergence of Creole Culture
.
Baltimore
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
Alonso
Ana Maria.
1990
.
Men in “Rags” and the Devil on the Throne: A Study of Protest and Inversion in the Carnival of Post-Emancipation Trinidad
.
Plantation Society in the Americas
3
:
73
120
.
American Psychiatric Association.
2000
.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision
.
Washington, D.C.
:
American Psychiatric Association
.
Anderson
Benedict.
1983
.
Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism
.
London
:
Verso
.
Aschoff
Jürgen
,ed.
1981
.
Biological Rhythms
.
New York
:
Plenum
.
Averill
Gage.
1997
.
Day for the Hunter a Day for the Prey: Popular Music and Power in Haiti
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Baehr
Erin K.
,
Charmane I.
Eastman
,
William
Revelle
,
Susan H.
Losee Olson
,
Lisa F.
Wolfe
,and
Phyllis C.
Zee
.
2003
.
Circadian Phase-shifting Effects of Nocturnal Exercise in Older Compared with Young Adults
.
American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
284
:
R1542
R1550
.
Bahadoorsingh
Krishna.
1968
.
Trinidad Electoral Politics: The Persistence of the Race Factor
.
London
:
Institute of Race Relations
.
Bakhtin
Mikhail.
1981
.
The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays
.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
.
Bakhtin
Mikhail.
[
1968
]
1984
.
Rabelais and His World
.Translated by
Helene
Iswolsky.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Balliger
Robin.
1998
.
Popular Music and the Cultural Politics of Globalisation among the Post-Oil Boom Generation in Trinidad
.
In Identity, Ethnicity and Culture in the Caribbean,
edited by
Ralph
R.
Premdas,
54
79
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
University of the West Indies School of Continuing Studies
.
Barthes
Roland.
1974
.
S/Z
.
New York
:
Hill and Wang
.
Basch
Linda
,
Nina
Glick Schiller
,and
Christina Szanton
Blanc
.
1994
.
Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects, Postcolonial Predicaments, and Deterritorialized Nation-States
.
New York
:
Gordon and Breach
.
Bateson
Gregory.
1972
.
Steps to an Ecology of Mind
.
New York
:
Ballantine
.
Beetham
Edward Betham.
1958
.
Address by His Excellency the Governor to the Legislative Council, Session 1957–1958
.Council paper no. 12.
Trinidad
:
Government Printing Office
.
Benítez-Rojo
Antonio.
1996
.
The Repeating Island: The Caribbean and the Postmodern Perspective
.2nd ed. Translated by
James
Maraniss.
Durham, N.C.
:
Duke University Press
.
Bhabha
Homi.
1994
.
The Location of Culture
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Birth
Kevin K.
1994
.
Bakrnal: Coup, Carnival, and Calypso in Trinidad
.
Ethnology
33
:
165
77
.
Birth
Kevin K.
1995
.
The Ethnic Ambiguities of Getting Married: The Official Pronouncements, Local Interpretations, and Personal Experiences of Trinidadian Hindu Indians
.
International Journal of Comparative Race and Ethnic Studies
2
, no.
2
:
80
91
.
Birth
Kevin K.
1996
.
Trinidadian Times: Temporal Dependency and Temporal Flexibility on the Margins of Industrial Capitalism
.
Anthropological Quarterly
69
, no.
2
:
79
89
.
Birth
Kevin K.
1997
.
Most of Us Are Family Some of the Time: Interracial Marriage and Transracial Kinship in Eastern Trinidad
.
American Ethnologist
24
, no.
3
:
585
601
.
Birth
Kevin K.
1999
.
Any Time Is Trinidad Time
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
.
Black
Peter W.
1985
.
Ghosts, Gossip, and Suicide: Meaning and Action in Tobian Folk Psychology
.
In Person, Self, and Experience: Exploring Pacific Ethnopsychologies,
edited by
Geoffrey M.
White
and
John
Kirkpatrick
,
245
300
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Bonnefond
Anne
,
Patricia
Tassi
,
Joceline
Roge
,and
Alain
Muzet.
2004
.
A Critical Review of Techniques Aiming at Enhancing and Sustaining Workers’ Alertness during the Night
.
Industrial Health
42
, no.
1
:
1
14
.
Boomert
Arie.
1984
.
The Arawak Indians of Trinidad and coastal Guiana ca. 1500–1650
.
Journal of Caribbean History
19
, no.
2
:
123
88
.
Bourguignon
Erika.
1973
.
Introduction: A Framework for the Comparative Study of Altered States of Consciousness
.
In Religion, Altered States of Consciousness and Social Change,
edited by
Erika
Bourguignon
,
3
35
.
Columbus
:
Ohio State University Press
.
Bourguignon
Erika.
[
1976
]
1991
.
Possession
.
Prospect Heights, Ill.
:
Waveland
.
Braithwaite
Lloyd.
1954
.
Cultural Integration in Trinidad
.
Social and Economic Studies
3
, no.
1
:
82
96
.
Braithwaite
Lloyd.
2001
.
Colonial West Indian Students in Britain
.
Mona, Jamaica
:
University of the West Indies Press
.
Brathwaite
Edward.
1971
.
The Development of Creole Society in Jamaica, 1770–1820
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
.
Brathwaite
Edward.
1977
.
The Love Axe/1
.
Bim
16
, no.
61
:
53
65
.
Brereton
Bridget.
1975
.
The Trinidad Carnival, 1870–1900
.
Savacou
11–12
:
46
57
.
Brereton
Bridget.
1979
.
Race Relations in Colonial Trinidad,
1870
1900
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Brereton
Bridget.
1993
.
Social Organisation and Class, Racial and Cultural Conflict in Nineteenth-Century Trinidad
.
In Trinidad Ethnicity,
edited by
Kevin
Yelvington
,
33
55
.
Knoxville
:
University of Tennessee Press
.
Brown
Wenzell.
1947
.
Angry Men, Laughing Men: The Caribbean Caldron
.
New York
:
Greenberg
.
Burton
Richard D. E.
1997
.
Afro-Creole: Power, Opposition and Play in the Caribbean
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Buxton
Orfeu M.
,
Calvin W.
Lee
,
Mereille
L’Hermite-Balériaux
,
Fred W.
Turek
,and
Eve Van
Cauter
.
2003
.
Exercise elicits phase shifts and acute alterations of melatonin that vary with circadian phase
.
American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology
284
:R
714
R
724
.
Carmichael
A. C.
1834
.
Domestic Manners and Social Conditions of the Whites, Coloured, and Negro Population of the West Indies
.
London
:
Whittaker
.
Carrington
Edwin.
1971
.
The Post War Political Economy of Trinidad and Tobago
.
In Readings in the Political Economy of the Caribbean,
edited by
Norman
Girvan
and
Owen
Jefferson
,
121
42
.
Kingston, Jamaica
:
New World Group
.
Césaire
Aimé.
1983
.
Notebook of a Return to the Native Land
.
In Aimé Césaire: The Collected Poetry,
translated by
Clayton
Eshleman
and
Annette
Smith
,
32
85
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Césaire
Aimé.
[
1944
]
1996
.
Calling the Magician: A Few Words for a Caribbean Civilization
.
In Refusal of the Shadow: Surrealism and the Caribbean,
edited by
Michael
Richardson
and
Krzysztof
Fijalkowski
,
119
22
.
London
:
Verso
.
Césaire
Aimé.
[
1972
]
2000
.
Discourse on Colonialism
.
New York
:
Monthly Review Press
.
Chatterjee
Partha.
1993
.
The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories
.
Princeton, N.J.
:
Princeton University Press
.
Clark
Andy.
1997
.
Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again
.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
MITPress
.
Collier
H. C.
1943
.
Carnival Capers in Calypso Land
.
Canada–West Indies Magazine
32
, no.
1
:
19
22
.
Collins
John.
N.d.
Sound in Play in Salvador, Behia’s
Gueto:
The Materiality of Inconclusion in a Brazilian Cultural Heritage Center. Unpublished manuscript
.
Cowley
John.
1996
.
Carnival, Canboulay and Calypso: Traditions in the Making
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Craig
Susan.
1985
.
Political Patronage and Community Resistance: Village Councils in Trinidad and Tobago
.
In Rural Development in the Caribbean,
edited by
P. I.
Gomes
,
173
93
.
Kingston, Jamaica
:
Heinemann Educational Books (Caribbean)
.
Crapanzano
Vincent.
1986
.
Hermes’ Dilemma: The Masking of Subversion in Ethnographic Description
.
In Writing Culture,
edited by
James
Clifford
and
George
Marcus
,
51
76
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Crowley
Daniel J.
1957
.
Plural and Differential Acculturation in Trinidad
.
American Anthropologist
59
, no.
5
:
817
24
.
Csordas
Thomas.
1990
.
Embodiment as a Paradigm for Anthropology
.
Ethos
18
, no.
1
:
5
47
.
Csordas
Thomas.
1994
.
The Sacred Self: A Cultural Phenomenology of Charismatic Healing
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Cudjoe
Selwyn.
1993
.
Introduction to
Eric E. Williams Speaks: Essays on Colonialism and Independence,
edited by
Selwyn
Cudjoe
,
1
33
.
Wellesley, Mass.
:
Calaloux
.
Cudjoe
Selwyn.
2003
.
Beyond Boundaries: The Intellectual Tradition of Trinidad and Tobago in the Nineteenth Century
.
Wellesley, Mass.
:
Calaloux
.
Czeisler
Charles A.
,
Jeanne F.
Duffy
,
Theresa L.
Shanahan
,
Emery N.
Brown
,
Jude F.
Mitchell
,
David W.
Rimmer
,
Joseph M.
Ronda
,
Edward J.
Silva
,
James S.
Allan
,
Jonathan S.
Emens
,
Derk-Jan
Dijk
,and
Richard E.
Kronauer
.
1999
.
Stability, Precision, and Near-24-h Period of the Human Circadian Pacemaker
.
Science
284
:
2177
81
.
Damasio
Antonio.
1994
.
Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain
.
New York
:
G. P. Putnam
.
Damasio
Antonio.
1999
.
The Feeling of What Happens: The Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness
.
New York
:
Harcourt Brace
.
D’Andrade
Roy.
1992
.
Schemas and Motivation
.
In Human Motives and Cultural Models,
edited by
Roy
D’Andrade
and
Claudia
Strauss
,
23
44
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
D’Andrade
Roy.
1995
.
The Development of Cognitive Anthropology
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
d’Anghiera
Pietro Martire.
[
1555
]
1966
.
The Decades of the Newe World or West India
.Translated by
Rycharde
Eden.
Ann Arbor
:
Readex Microprint Corporation
.
Dash
J. Michael.
1995
.
Edouard Glissant
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Dávila
Arlene.
1997
.
Sponsored Identities: Cultural Politics in Puerto Rico
.
Philadelphia
:
Temple University Press
.
Davis
Natalie Zemon.
1978
.
Women on Top: Inversion and Political Disorder in Early Modern Europe
.
In The Reversible World: Symbolic Inversion in Art and Society,
edited by
Barbara
Babcock
,
147
90
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Deosaran
Ramesh.
1987
.
The “Caribbean Man”: A Study of the Psychology of Perception and the Media
.
In India in the Caribbean,
edited by
David
Dabydeen
and
Brinsley
Samaroo
,
81
117
.
London
:
Hansib
.
Deosaran
Ramesh.
1995
.
Voices of the Past, Visions of the Future
.
In In Celebration of 150 Yrs of the Indian Contribution to Trinidad and Tobago,
edited by
Diane
Quentrall-Thomas
,
175
90
.
Port of Spain
:
Historical Publications
.
Desjarlais
Robert.
1992
.
Body and Emotion: The Aesthetics of Illness and Healing in the Nepal Himalayas
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Dewey
John.
[
1934
]
1980
.
Art as Experience
.
New York
:
Perigree
.
Dirks
Robert.
1987
.
The Black Saturnalia: Conflict and Its Ritual Expression on British West Indian Slave Plantations
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
.
Dookeran
Winston.
[
1974
]
1985
.
East Indians and the Economy of Trinidad and Tobago
.
In Calcutta to Caroni: The East Indians of Trinidad,
edited by
John La
Guerre
,
63
73
.
St. Augustine
:
University of the West Indies, Extra-Mural Studies Unit
.
Dudley
Shannon.
2004
.
Carnival Music in Trinidad: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Durkheim
Emile.
[
1915
]
1965
.
The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life
.Translated by
Joseph Ward
Swain
.
New York
:
Free Press
.
Durkheim
Emile.
1966
.
The Rules of the Sociological Method
.Edited by
George E. G.
Catlin
,translated by
Sarah A.
Solovay
and
John H.
Mueller
.
New York
:
Free Press
.
Edgewater
Iain.
1999
.
Music Hath Charms . . . : Fragments toward Constructionist Biocultural Theory, with Attention to the Relationship of Music and Emotion
.
In Biocultural Approaches to the Emotions,
edited by
Alexander
Hinton
,
153
81
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Elder
J. D.
1966
.
Kalinda—Song of the Battling Troubadours of Trinidad. Journal of the Folklore Institute
3
, no.
2
:
192
203
.
Elder
J. D.
1967
.
Evolution of the Traditional Calypso of Trinidad and Tobago: A Socio-Historical Analysis of Song-Change
. PhD diss.,
University of Pennsylvania
.
Elder
J. D.
1998
.
Cannes Brûlées
.
Drama Review
42
, no.
3
:
38
43
.
Eriksen
Thomas Hylland.
1992
.
Us and Them in Modern Societies: Ethnicity and Nationalism in Mauritius, Trinidad and Beyond
.
Oslo
:
Scandinavian University Press
.
Falassi
Alessandro.
1987
.
Festival: Definition and Morphology
.
In Time out of Time: Essays on the Festival,
edited by
Alessandro
Falassi
,
1
10
.
Albuquerque
:
University of New Mexico Press
.
Fanon
Frantz.
1963
.
The Wretched of the Earth
.Translated by
Constance
Farrington.
New York
:
Grove
.
Fanon
Frantz.
1967
.
Black Skin, White Masks
.Translated by
Charles Lam
Markmann
.
New York
:
Grove
.
Fanon
Frantz.
[
1956
]
1967
.
Letter to the Resident Minister
.
In Toward the African Revolution,
translated by
Haakon
Chavalier
,
52
54
.
New York
:
Grove
.
Feld
Steven.
1982
.
Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetics and Song in Kaluli Expression
.2nd ed.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Figueredo
Alfredo E.
,and
Stephen
Glazier.
1982
.
Spatial Behavior, Social Organization, and Ethnicity in the Prehistory of Trinidad
.
Journal de la Société des Américanistes
68
:
33
39
.
Findlay
Ronald.
1982
.
On W. Arthur Lewis’s Contributions to Economics
.
In The Theory and Experience of Economic Development,
edited by
Mark
Gersovitz
,
Carlos F.
Diaz-Alejandro
,
Gustav
Ranis
, and
Mark R.
Rosenzweig
,
1
14
.
London
:
George Allen and Unwin
.
Fish
Stanley.
1980
.
Is There a Text in this Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities
.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
Harvard University Press
.
Flinn
M. V.
1999
.
Family Environment, Stress, and Health during Childhood
.
In Hormones, Health, and Behavior: A Socio-ecological and Lifespan Perspective,
edited by
C.
Panter-Brick
and
C. M.
Worthman
,
105
38
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Folkard
Simon.
1997
.
Black Times: Temporal Determinants of Transport Safety
.
Accident Analysis and Prevention
4
:
417
30
.
Foner
Nancy.
2001
.
Introduction. West Indian Migration to New York: An Overview
.
In Islands in the City: West Indian Migration to New York,
edited by
Nancy
Foner
,
1
22
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Forte
Maximilian C.
2005
.
Ruins of Absence, Presence of Caribs: (Post)Colonial Representations of Aboriginality in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
.
Foucault
Michel.
1979
.
Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison
.Translated by
Alan
Sheridan.
New York
:
Vintage
.
Foucault
Michel.
[
1971
]
1994
.
The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences
.
New York
:
Vintage
.
Frake
Charles O.
1997
.
Plying Frames Can Be Dangerous: Some Reflections on Methodology in Cognitive Anthropology
.
In Mind, Culture, and Activity: Seminal Papers from the Laboratory of Human Cognition,
edited by
Michael
Cole
,
Yrjö
Engeström
,and
Olga
Vasquez
,
32
46
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Freilich
Morris.
1960
.
Cultural Diversity among Trinidadian Peasants
. PhD diss.,
Columbia University
.
Fux
Johann Joseph.
[
1725
]
1965
.
Study of Counterpoint
.Edited and translated by
Alfred
Mann.
New York
:
W. W. Norton
.
Geurts
Kathryn Linn.
2001
.
Culture and the Senses: Bodily Ways of Knowing in an African Community
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Gilroy
Paul.
1993
.
The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness
.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
Harvard University Press
.
Glazier
Stephen D.
1980
.
Aboriginal Trinidad and the Guianas: An Historical Overview
.
Archaeology and Anthropology
3
, no.
2
:
119
24
.
Glazier
Stephen D.
1983
.
Marchin’ the Pilgrims Home: Leadership and Decision-making in an Afro-Caribbean Faith
.
Westport, Conn.
:
Greenwood
.
Glissant
Édouard.
1989
Caribbean Discourse: Selected Essays
.Translated by
J.
Michael Dash
.
Charlottesville
:
University Press of Virginia
.
Glissant
Édouard.
1997
.
Poetics of Relation
.Translated by
Betsy
Wing.
Ann Arbor
:
University of Michigan Press
.
Gluckman
Max.
1969
.
Custom and Conflict in Africa
.
New York
:
Barnes and Noble
.
Godelier
Maurice.
1999
.
The Enigma of the Gift
.Translated by
Nora
Scott.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Gomes
Albert.
1974
.
Through a Maze of Colour
.
Port of Spain
:
Key Caribbean
.
Goodman
Felicitas.
1972
.
Speaking in Tongues: A Cross-cultural study of Glossolalia
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Government of Trinidad and Tobago.
1969
.
Draft of Third Five-Year Plan, 1969–1973
.
Trinidad
:
Government Printery
.
Green
Garth L.
2002
.
Marketing the Nation: Carnival and Tourism in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Critique of Anthropology
22
:
283
304
.
Guss
David M.
2000
.
The Festive State: Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism as Cultural Performance
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Hall
Stuart.
1997
.
The Work of Representation
.
In Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices,
edited by
Stuart
Hall.
London
:
Sage
.
Halliburton
Murphy.
2004
.
Gandhi or Gramsci? The Use of Authoritative Sources in Anthropology
.
Anthropological Quarterly
77
, no.
4
:
793
817
.
Handler
Richard.
1988
.
Nationalism and the Politics of Culture in Quebec
.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin Press
.
Handler
Richard.
1994
.
Is “Identity” a Useful Cross-Cultural Concept?
In Commemorations: The Politics of National Identity,
edited by
John R.
Gillis
,
27
40
.
Princeton, N.J.
:
Princeton University Press
.
Harney
Stefano.
1999
.
Soca and Social Formations: Avoiding the Romance of Culture in Trinidad
.
In Caribbean Romances: The Politics of Regional Representation,
edited by
Belinda J.
Edmondson
,
39
55
.
Charlottesville
:
University Press of Virginia
.
Harris
Wilson.
1967
.
The Question of Form and Realism in the West Indian Artist
.
In Tradition, the Writer and Society: Critical Essays
.
London
:
New Beacon
.
Harris
Wilson.
1999
.
Selected Essays of Wilson Harris: The Unfinished Genesis of the Imagination
.Edited by
Andrew
Bundy.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Hebdige
Dick.
1987
.
Cut-n-Mix: Culture, Identity and Caribbean Music
.
London
:
Methuen
.
Henke
Holger.
2004
.
Ariel’s Ethos: On the Moral Economy of Caribbean Experience
.
Cultural Critique
56
:
33
63
.
Henry
Paget.
2000
.
Caliban’s Reason: Introducing Afro-Caribbean Philosophy
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Herskovits
Melville J.
1966
.
Trinidad Shouters: Protestant African Synthesis
.
In The New World Negro: Selected Papers in Afro-American Studies,
edited by
Frances
Herskovits
,
229
53
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Herskovits
Melville J.
,and
Frances
Herskovits.
1947
.
Trinidad Village
.
New York
:
Knopf
.
Hill
Donald R.
1993
.
Calypso Calaloo: Early Carnival Music in Trinidad
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
.
Hill
Errol.
1972
.
The Trinidad Carnival: Mandate for a National Theatre
.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
.
Hintzen
Percy C.
1989
.
The Costs of Regime Survival: Racial Mobilization, Elite Domination, and Control of the State in Guyana and Trinidad
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Holland
Dorothy
,
William
Lachicotte
Jr.
,
Debra
Skinner
; and
Carole
Cain.
1998
.
Identity and Agency in Cultural Worlds
.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
Harvard University Press
.
Holquist
Michael.
1990
.
Dialogism: Bakhtin and His World
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Hutchins
Edwin.
1995
.
Cognition in the Wild
.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
MITPress
.
Iser
Wolfgang.
1978
.
The Act of Reading: A Theory of Aesthetic Response
.
Baltimore
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
James
C. L. R.
1959
.
Independence, Energy and Creative Talent of Carnival Can Do Other Wonders
.
Nation,
February
21
,
1959
.
James
C. L. R.
[
1938
]
1963
.
The Black Jacobins
.
New York
:
Vintage
.
James
C. L. R.
[
1962
]
1977
.
Nkrumah and the Ghana Revolution
.
London
:
Allison and Busby
.
James
C. L. R.
[
1948
]
1980
.
Notes on Dialectics: Hegel, Marx, Lenin
.
Westport, Conn.
:
L. Hill
.
James
C. L. R.
[
1962
]
1984
.
Party Politics in the West Indies
.
Port of Spain
:
Inprint
.
James
C. L. R.
1986
.
Cricket
.Edited by
Anna
Grimshaw.
London
:
Allison and Busby
.
James
C. L. R.
[
1950
]
1986
.
State Capitalism and World Revolution
.
Chicago
:
Kerr
.
James
C. L. R.
[
1963
]
1993
.
Beyond a Boundary
.
Durham, N.C.
:
Duke University Press
.
Jameson
Fredric.
1988
.
Cognitive Mapping
.
In Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture,
edited by
Cary
Nelson
and
Lawrence
Grossberg
,
347
57
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
.
Jankowiak
William
,and
C.
Todd White
.
1999
.
Carnival on the Clipboard: An Ethnological Study of New Orleans Mardi Gras
.
Ethnology
38
, no.
4
:
335
49
.
Janssen
Daniela
,and
Friedhelm
Nachreiner.
2004
.
Health and Psychosocial Effects of Flexible Working Hours
.
Revista de Saúde Pública
38
(supplement):
11
18
.
Jha
J. C.
[
1974
]
1985
.
The Indian Heritage in Trinidad
.
In Calcutta to Caroni: The East Indians of Trinidad,
edited by
John La
Guerre
,
21
30
.
St. Augustine
:
University of the West Indies, Extra-mural Unit
.
John
A. Meredith.
1988
.
The Plantation Slaves of Trinidad, 1783–1816: A Mathematical and Demographic Enquiry
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Johnson
Kim.
2002
.
Renegades: The History of the Renegades Steel Orchestra of Trinidad and Tobago
.
Oxford
:
MacMillan
.
Jones
James M.
; and
Liverpool
Hollis.
1976
.
Calypso Humour in Trinidad
.
In Humour and Laughter: Theory, Research and Applications,
edited by
Anthony J.
Chapman
and
Hugh C.
Foot
,
259
86
.
London
:
John Wiley and Sons
.
Joseph
E. L.
1838
.
History of Trinidad: A Descriptive Account of the History and Geography of Trinidad
.
London
:
A. K. Newman and Company
.
Juneja
Renu.
1989
.
We Kind of Music
.
Popular Music and Society
13
:
37
51
.
Keil
Charles
,and
Steven
Feld.
1994
.
Music Grooves: Essays and Dialogues
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Khan
Aisha.
1993
.
What Is “a Spanish”? Ambiguity and “Mixed” Ethnicity in Trinidad
.
In Trinidad Ethnicity,
edited by
Kevin
Yelvington
,
180
207
.
Knoxville
:
University of Tennessee Press
.
Khan
Aisha.
2001
.
Journey to the Center of the Earth: The Caribbean as Master Symbol
.
Cultural Anthropology
16
, no.
3
:
271
302
.
Khan
Aisha.
2004
.
Callaloo Nation: Metaphors of Race and Religious Identity among South Asians in Trinidad
.
Durham, N.C.
:
Duke University Press
.
Koningsbruggen
Petrus Hendrikus van.
1997
.
Trinidad Carnival: A Quest for National Identity
.
London
:
Macmillan Education
.
Korom
Frank J.
2003
.
Hosay Trinidad: Muharram Performances in an Indo-Caribbean Diaspora
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
La Guerre
John Gaffar.
1972
.
The General Elections of 1946 in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Social and Economic Studies
21
:
184
204
.
La Guerre
John Gaffar
,ed.
1997
.
The General Elections of 1995 in Trinidad and Tobago
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
University of the West Indies, School of Continuing Studies
.
Lakoff
George
,and
Mark
Johnson.
1980
.
Metaphors We Live By
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Lakoff
George
,
1999
.
Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought
.
New York
:
Basic
.
Langer
Susanne.
1953
.
Feeling and Form: A Theory of Art Developed from Philosophy in a New Key
.
New York
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
.
Langer
Susanne.
1979
.
Philosophy in a New Key: A Study in the Symbolism of Reason, Rite, and Art
.3rd ed.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
Harvard University Press
.
Lave
Jean
,and
Etienne
Wenger.
1991
.
Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Lavie
P.
2001
.
Sleep-wake as a Biological Rhythm
.
Annual Review of Psychology,
52
:
277
303
.
Le Roy Ladurie
Emmanuel.
1979
.
Carnival in Romans
.
New York
:
G. Braziller
.
Ledgister
Fragano.
1998
.
Class Alliances and the Liberal-Authoritarian State: The Roots of Postcolonial Democracy in Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, and Surinam
.
Trenton, N.J.
:
Africa World Press
.
Leon
Raphael de.
N.d.
Calypso: From France to Trinidad, 800 Years of History
.
San Juan, Trinidad
:
General Printers
.
Lewis
Gordon K.
1968
.
The Growth of the Modern West Indies
.
New York
:
Monthly Review Press
.
Lewis
W. Arthur.
1950
.
The Industrialization of the British West Indies
.
Caribbean Economic Review
1
:
1
61
.
Lewis
W. Arthur.
1954
.
Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour
.
Manchester School
22
, no.
2
:
139
91
.
Lewis
W. Arthur.
1955
.
The Theory of Economic Growth
.
Homewood, Ill.
:
Richard D. Irwin
.
Lewis
W. Arthur.
[
1965
]
1973
.
On Being Different
.
In The Aftermath of Sovereignty: West Indian Perspectives,
edited by
David
Lowenthal
and
Lambros
Comitas
,
293
302
.
Garden City
:
Anchor
.
Linger
Daniel.
1992
.
Dangerous Encounters: Meanings of Violence in a Brazilian City
.
Stanford, Calif.
:
Stanford University Press
.
Littlewood
Roland.
1988
.
From Vice to Madness: The Semantics of Naturalistic and Personalistic Understandings in Trinidadian Local Medicine
.
Social Science and Medicine
7
, no.
2
:
129
48
.
Littlewood
Roland.
1993
.
Pathology and Identity
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Liverpool
Hollis.
1990
.
Kaiso and Society
.
Diego Martin, Trinidad
:
Juba
.
Liverpool
Hollis.
1994
.
Researching Steelband and Calypso Music in the British Caribbean and the U.S. Virgin Islands
.
Black Music Research Journal
14
, no.
2
:
179
201
.
Liverpool
Hollis.
2001
.
Rituals of Power and Rebellion: The Carnival Tradition in Trinidad and Tobago, 1763–1962
.
Chicago
:
Research Associates School Times
.
Lobdell
Richard.
1972
.
Patterns of Investment and Credit in the British West Indian Sugar Industry, 1838–1918
.
Journal of Caribbean History
4
:
31
53
.
Lomax
Alan.
1962
.
Song Structure and Social Structure
.
Ethnology
1
, no.
4
:
425
51
.
London
Clement B. G.
1991
.
Forging a Cultural Identity: Leadership and Development in Mass Education in a Developing Caribbean Country
.
Journal of Black Studies
21
, no.
3
:
251
67
.
Lukes
Steven.
1985
.
Emile Durkheim, His Life and Work: A Historical and Critical Study
.
Stanford, Calif.
:
Stanford University Press
.
Lutz
Catherine.
1986
.
Emotion, Thought, and Estrangement: Emotion as a Cultural Category
.
Cultural Anthropology
1
, no.
3
:
287
309
.
MacAloon
John J.
1984
.
Olympic Games and the Theory of Spectacle in Modern Societies
.
In Rite, Drama, Festival, Spectacle: Rehearsals toward a Theory of Cultural Performance,
edited by
John J.
MacAloon
,
241
80
.
Philadelphia
:
Institute for the Study of Human Issues
.
Manuel
Peter.
1995
.
Caribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae
.
Philadelphia
:
Temple University Press
.
Manuel
Peter.
2000
.
East Indian Music in the West Indies: Tan-singing, Chutney and the Making of Indo-Caribbean Culture
.
Philadelphia
:
Temple University Press
.
Marriott
McKim.
1966
.
The Feast of Love
.
In Krishna: Myths, Rites, and Attitudes,
edited by
Milton
Singer
,
201
12
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Mason
Peter.
1998
.
Bacchanal: The Carnival Culture of Trinidad
.
Philadelphia
:
Temple University Press
.
Mauss
Marcel.
1967
.
The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies
.Translated by
Ian
Cunnison.
New York
:
Norton
.
McEachron
Donald L.
,and
Jonathan
Schull.
1993
.
Hormones, Rhythms, and the Blues
.
In Hormonally Induced Changes in Mind and Brain,
edited by
Jay
Schulkin
,
287
355
.
San Diego
:
Academic Press
.
Merleau-Ponty
Maurice.
1962
.
Phenomenology of Perception
.
New York
:
Humanities
.
Miller
Daniel.
1990
.
Fashion and Ontology in Trinidad
.
Culture and History
7
:
49
77
.
Miller
Daniel.
1991
.
Absolute Freedom in Trinidad
.
Man
26
, no.
2
:
323
41
.
Miller
Daniel.
1993
.
Christmas against Materialism in Trinidad
.
In Unwrapping Christmas,
edited by
Daniel
Miller
,
134
53
.
Oxford
:
Clarendon
.
Miller
Daniel.
1994
.
Modernity: An Ethnographic Approach—Dualism and Mass Consumption in Trinidad
.
Oxford
:
Berg
.
Miller
Daniel.
1997
.
Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach
.
Oxford
:
Berg
.
Mistlberger
Ralph E.
,and
Debra J.
Skene
.
2005
.
Nonphotic Entrainment in Humans?
Journal of Biological Rhythms
20
:
339
52
.
Mohammed
Patricia.
2002
.
Taking Possession: Symbols of Empire and Nationhood
.
Small Axe
11
:
31
58
.
Monk
Timothy H.
2000
.
What Can the Chronobiologist Do to Help the Shift Worker?
Journal of Biological Rhythms
15
:
86
94
.
Monteleone
Palmiero
,
Antonio
Fuschino
,
Giovanni
Nolfe
,and
Mario
Maj.
1992
.
Temporal Relationship between Melatonin and Cortisol Responses to Nighttime Physical Stress in Humans
.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
17
:
81
86
.
Moodie-Kublalsingh
Sylvia.
1994
.
The Cocoa Panyols of Trinidad: An Oral Record
.
London
:
British Academic Press
.
Moore-Ede
Martin C.
1993
.
The 24-Hour Society: Understanding Human Limits in a World That Never Stops
.
Reading, Mass.
:
Addison-Wesley
.
Moore-Ede
Martin C.
,
Frank M.
Sulzman
,and
Charles
Fuller.
1982
.
The Clocks That Time Us: Physiology of the Circadian Timing System
.
Harvard, Mass.
:
Harvard University Press
.
Mordecai
John.
1968
.
Federation of the West Indies
.
Evanston, Ill.
:
Northwestern University Press
.
Mrosovsky
N.
1996
.
Locomotor Activity and Non-photic Influences on Circadian Clocks
.
Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
71
:
343
72
.
Mrosovsky
N.
,
S. G.
Reebs
,
G. I.
Honrado
,and
P. A.
Salmon
.
1989
.
Behavioral Entrainment of Circadian Rhythms
.
Experientia
45
:
696
702
.
Munasinghe
Viranjini.
2001
.
Callaloo or Tossed Salad? East Indians and the Cultural Politics of Identity in Trinidad
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Myers
Helen.
1998
.
Music of Hindu Trinidad: Songs from the Indian Diaspora
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Naipaul
V. S.
[
1962
]
1981
.
The Middle Passage: Impressions of Five Societies—British, French, and Dutch—in the West Indies and South America
.
New York
:
Vintage
.
National Planning Commission.
1963
.
Draft: Second Five-Year Plan, 1964–1968
.
Trinidad
:
Government Printery
.
Ong
Walter J.
1982
.
Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word
.
New York
:
Methuen
.
Ortiz
Fernando.
[
1947
]
1995
.
Cuban Counterpoint: Tobacco and Sugar
.
Durham, N.C.
:
Duke University Press
.
Oxaal
Ivar.
1982
.
Black Intellectuals and the Dilemmas of Race and Class in Trinidad
.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
Schenkman
.
Pastor
Robert.
1992
.
Whirlpool: U.S. Policy toward Latin America and the Caribbean
.
Princeton, N.J.
:
Princeton University Press
.
Premdas
Ralph R.
1998
.
The Ascendance of an Indian Prime Minister in Trinidad and Tobago: The 1995 Elections
.
In Identity, Ethnicity and Culture in the Caribbean,
edited by
Ralph R.
Premdas
,
323
58
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
University of the West Indies School of Continuing Studies
.
Prendas
Ralph R.
,and
Bishnu
Ragoonath.
1998
.
Ethnicity, Elections and Democracy in Trinidad and Tobago: Analysing the 1995 and 1996 Elections
.
Commonwealth and Comparative Politics
36
, no.
3
:
30
53
.
Prime Minister’s Best Village Trophy.
1967
.
The Prime Minister’s Best Village Trophy
.
Port of Spain
.
Puri
Shalini.
2004
.
The Caribbean Postcolonial: Social Equality, Post-Nationalism, and Cultural Hybridity
.
New York
:
Palgrave MacMillan
.
Quera-Salva
Maria Antonia
;
Christian
Guilleminault
,
Bruno
Claustrat
,
Remy
Defrance
,
Philippe
Gajdos
,
Catherine
Crowe McCann
, and
Jacques De
Lattre
.
1997
.
Rapid Shift in Peak Melatonin Secretion Associated with Improved Performance in Short Shift Work Schedule
.
Sleep
20
, no.
12
:
1145
50
.
Quevedo
Raymond.
1983
.
Atilla’s Kaiso: A Short History of Trinidad Calypso
.
St. Augustine
:
University of the West Indies, Department of Extra-mural Studies
.
Quinn
Naomi.
1982
.
“Commitment” in American Marriage: A Cultural Analysis
.
American Ethnologist
9
, no.
4
:
775
98
.
Quinn
Naomi.
1996
.
Culture and Contradiction: The Case of Americans Reasoning about Marriage
.
Ethos
24
, no.
3
:
391
425
.
Rajaratnam
Shantha M. W.
, and
Josephine
Arendt.
2001
.
Health in a 24-h Society
.
Lancet
358
:
999
1005
.
Ramnarine
Tina K.
2001
.
Creating Their Own Space: The Development of an Indian- Caribbean Musical Tradition
.
Kingston, Jamaica
:
University of the West Indies Press
.
Ramsaran
Ramesh F.
1994
.
The Theory and Practice of Structural Adjustment with Special Reference to the Commonwealth Caribbean
.
In Structural Adjustment, Public Policy and Administration in the Caribbean,
edited by
John La
Guerre
,
9
37
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
University of the West Indies, School of Continuing Studies
.
Reddock
Rhoda.
1999
.
Jahaji Bhai: The Emergence of a Dougla Poetics in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Identities
5
, no.
4
:
569
601
.
Regis
Louis.
1999
.
Political Calypso: True Opposition in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
.
Richardson
Michael
,and
Krzysztof
Fijalkowski.
1996
.
Introduction
to
Refusal of the Shadow: Surrealism and the Caribbean,
edited by
Michael
Richardson
and
Krzysztof
Fijalkowski
,
1
33
.
London
:
Verso
.
Roberts
John Storm.
1972
.
Black Music of Two Worlds
.
Tivoli, N.Y.
:
Original Music
.
Rodney
Walter.
1981
.
A History of the Guyanese Working People, 1881–1905
.
Baltimore
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
Rodney
Walter.
[
1969
]
1990
.
The Groundings with My Brothers
.
London
:
Bogle-L’Ouverture Publications
.
Rodney
Walter.
1990
.
Walter Rodney Speaks
.
Trenton, N.J.
:
Africa World Press
.
Rohlehr
Gordon.
1990
.
Calypso and Society in Pre-Independence Trinidad
.
Port of Spain
.
Rodney
Walter.
1992
a.
Articulating a Caribbean Aesthetic: The Revolution of Self-Perception
.
In My Strangled City and Other Essays,
1
16
.
Port of Spain
:
Longman Trinidad
.
Rodney
Walter.
1992
b.
The Shape of That Hurt: An Introduction to
Voiceprint. In The Shape of That Hurt and Other Essays,
164
90
.
Port of Spain
:
Longman Trinidad
.
Rodney
Walter.
1992
c.
Apocalypso and the Soca Fires of 1990
.
In The Shape of That Hurt and Other Essays,
305
71
.
Port of Spain
:
Longman Trinidad
.
Rodney
Walter.
1997
.
The Culture of Williams: Context, Performance, Legacy
.
Callaloo
20
, no.
4
:
849
88
.
Rodney
Walter.
1998
.
“We Getting the Kaiso That We Deserve”: Calypso and the World Music Market
.
Drama Review
42
, no.
3
:
82
95
.
Rodney
Walter.
2004
a.
Change and Prophecy in the Trinidad and Tobago Calypso towards the Twenty-first Century
.
In A Scuffling of Islands: Essays on Calypso,
335
73
.
San Juan, Trinidad
:
Lexicon Trinidad
.
Rodney
Walter.
2004
b.
Calypso Reinvents Itself
.
In A Scuffling of Islands: Essays on Calypso,
374
449
.
San Juan, Trinidad
:
Lexicon Trinidad
.
Rodney
Walter.
2004
c.
A Scuffling of Islands: The Dream and Reality of Caribbean Unity in Poetry and Song
.
In A Scuffling of Islands: Essays on Calypso,
22
101
.
San Juan, Trinidad
:
Lexicon Trinidad
.
Rodney
Walter.
2004
d.
The Calypsonian as Artist: Freedom and Responsibility
.
In A Scuffling of Islands: Essays on Calypso,
164
97
.
San Juan, Trinidad
:
Lexicon Trinidad
.
Rouget
Gilbert.
1984
.
Music and Trance: A Theory of the Relationship of Music and Possession
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Rubin
David C.
1995
.
Memory in Oral Traditions: The Cognitive Psychology of Epic, Ballads, and Counting-out Rhymes
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Rubin
Vera.
1962
.
Culture, Politics and Race Relations
.
Social and Economic Studies
11
:
433
56
.
Ryan
Selwyn.
1972
.
Race and Nationalism in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Toronto
:
University of Toronto Press
.
Ryan
Selwyn.
1989
.
Revolution and Reaction: A Study of Parties and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago, 1970–1981
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies
.
Ryan
Selwyn.
1990
a.
The Pursuit of Honour: The Life and Times of H. O. B. Wooding
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
Institute of Social and Economic Research
.
Ryan
Selwyn.
1990
b.
The Disillusioned Electorate: The Politics of Succession in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Port of Spain
:
Inprint
.
Ryan
Selwyn.
1991
.
The Muslimeen Grab for Power: Race, Religion and Revolution in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Port of Spain
:
Inprint
.
Ryan
Selwyn
,ed.
1991
.
Social and Occupational Stratification in Contemporary Trinidad and Tobago
.
St. Augustine
:
Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies
.
Ryan
Selwyn.
1996
.
Pathways to Power: Indians and the Politics of National Unity in Trinidad and Tobago
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
Institute for Social and Economic Research
.
Ryan
Selwyn.
1999
.
The Jhandi and the Cross: The Clash of Cultures in Post-Creole Trinidad and Tobago
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies
.
Ryan
Selwyn.
2003
.
Deadlock: Ethnicity and Electoral Competition in Trinidad and Tobago, 1995–2002
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies
.
Scher
Philip W.
2002
.
Copyright Heritage: Preservation, Carnival and the State in Trinidad
.
Anthropological Quarterly
75
, no.
3
:
453
84
.
Scher
Philip W.
2003
.
Carnival and the Formation of a Caribbean Transnation
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
.
Segal
Daniel.
1989
.
Nationalism in a Colonial State: A Study of Trinidad and Tobago
. PhD diss.,
University of Chicago
.
Segal
Daniel.
1993
.
“Race” and “Colour” in Pre-independence Trinidad and Tobago
.
In Trinidad Ethnicity,
edited by
Kevin
Yelvington
,
82
115
.
Knoxville
:
University of Tennessee Press
.
Segal
Daniel.
1994
.
Living Ancestors: Nationalism and the Past in Postcolonial Trinidad and Tobago
.
In Remapping Memory: The Politics of TimeSpace,
edited by
Jonathan
Boyarin
,
221
39
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Selvon
Samuel.
1987
.
Three into One Can’t Go—East Indian, Trinidadian, Westindian
.
In India in the Caribbean,
edited by
David
Dabydeen
and
Brinsley
Samaroo
,
13
24
.
London
:
Hansib
.
Shephard
C. Y.
1935
.
Agricultural Labour in Trinidad
.
Tropical Agriculture
12
:
3
9
,
43
47
,
56
64
,
84
88
,
126
31
,
153
57
,
187
92
.
Simpson
George Eaton.
1966
.
Baptismal “Mourning” and “Building” Ceremonies of the Shouters in Trinidad
.
Journal of American Folklore
79
, no.
314
:
537
50
.
Singh
Kelvin.
1985
.
Indians and the Larger Society
.
In Calcutta to Caroni: The East Indians of Trinidad,
edited by
John La
Guerre
,
33
60
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
University of the West Indies, Extra-mural Studies Unit
.
Smith
M. G.
1965
.
The Plural Society in the British West Indies
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Smith
Raymond T.
1996
.
The Matrifocal Family: Power, Pluralism, and Politics
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Sobo
Elisa.
1993
.
One Blood: The Jamaican Body
.
Albany
:
SUNY Press
.
Spivak
Gayatri Chakravorty.
1988
.
Subaltern Studies: Deconstructing Historiography
.
In Selected Subaltern Studies,
edited by
Ranajit
Guha
and
Gayatri
Chakravorty Spivak
,
3
32
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
.
Stewart
John O.
1986
.
Patronage and Control in the Trinidad Carnival
.
In The Anthropology of Experience,
edited by
Victor
Turner
and
Edward
Bruner
,
289
315
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
.
Stoler
Ann Laura.
1997
.
On Political and Psychological Essentialisms
.
Ethos
25
:
101
06
.
Stoller
Paul.
1997
.
The Taste of Ethnographic Things: The Senses in Anthropology
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Strauss
Claudia.
1992
.
Models and Motives
.
In Human Motives and Cultural Models,
edited by
Roy
D’Andrade
and
Claudia
Strauss
,
1
20
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Strauss
Claudia
,and
Naomi
Quinn.
1997
.
A Cognitive Theory of Cultural Meaning
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Stuempfle
Stephen.
1995
.
The Steelband Movement: The Forging of a National Art in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Taylor
Daphne Pawan.
1977
.
Parang of Trinidad
.
Trinidad and Tobago
:
National Cultural Council
.
Thomas
Clive.
1988
.
The Poor and the Powerless: Economic Policy and Change in the Caribbean
.
New York
:
Monthly Review
.
Turner
Victor.
1967
.
The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu Ritual
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Turner
Victor.
1974
.
Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human Society
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Turner
Victor.
1977
.
The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Turner
Victor.
1987
.
The Anthropology of Performance
.
New York
:
PAJ
.
United States Congress, Office of Technology Assessment.
1991
.
Biological Rhythms: Implications for the Worker
.
Washington, D.C.
:
United States Government Printing Office
.
Van Dongen
Hans P. A.
,
Greg
Maislin
,
Janet M.
Mullington
,and
David F.
Dinges
.
2003
.
The Cumulative Cost of Additional Wakefulness: Dose-Response Effects on Neurobehavioral Functions and Sleep Physiology from Chronic Sleep Restriction and Total Sleep Deprivation
.
Sleep
26
:
117
26
.
Van Reeth
Olivier
,
Jeppe
Sturis
,
Maria M.
Byrne
,
John D.
Blackman
,
Mireille
L’Hermite-Balériaux
,
Rachel
Leproult
,
Craig
Oliner
,
Samuel
Refetoff
,
Fred W.
Turek
, and
Eve Van
Cauter
.
1994
.
Nocturnal Exercise Phase Delays Circadian Rhythms of Melatonin and Thyrotropin Secretion in Normal Men
.
American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism
266
:E
964
E
974
.
Vertovec
Steven.
1992
.
Hindu Trinidad: Religion, Ethnicity, and Socio-Economic Change
.
London
:
MacMillan
.
Vygotsky
L. S.
1978
.
Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes
.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
Harvard University Press
.
Wade
Peter.
2000
.
Music, Race, and Nation: Música Tropical in Colombia
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Walcott
Derek.
1986
.
The Spoiler’s Return
.
In Collected Poems, 1948–1984,
432
38
.
New York
:
Farrar, Straus and Giroux
.
Walcott
Derek.
[
1992
]
1993
.
The Antilles, Fragments of Epic Memory: The 1992 Nobel Lecture
.
World Literature Today
67
, no.
2
:
260
67
.
Wardle
Huon.
2002
.
Ambiguation, Disjuncture, Commitment: A Social Analysis of Caribbean Cultural Creativity
.
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
8
, no.
3
:
493
508
.
Warner
Keith.
1982
.
Kaiso! The Trinidad Calypso
.
Washington, D.C.
:
Three Continents Press
.
Warner
Keith.
1993
.
Ethnicity and the Contemporary Calypso
.
In Trinidad Ethnicity,
edited by
Kevin
Yelvington
,
275
91
.
Knoxville
:
University of Tennessee Press
.
Waters
Anita.
1985
.
Race, Class, and Political Symbols: Rastafari and Reggae in Jamaican Politics
.
New Brunswick, N.J.
:
Transaction Books
.
Wedenoja
William.
1990
.
Ritual Trance and Catharsis: A Psychobiological and Evolutionary Perspective
.
In Personality and the Cultural Construction of Society,
edited by
David K.
Jordan
and
Marc J.
Swartz
,
275
307
.
Tuscaloosa
:
University of Alabama Press
.
Weibel
L.
,and
G.
Brandenberger
.
1998
.
Disturbances in Hormonal Profiles of Night Workers during Their Usual Sleep and Work Times
.
Journal of Biological Rhythms
13
, no.
3
:
202
8
.
Weibel
L.
,
M.
Follénius
,and
G.
Brandenberger
.
1999
.
Les rythmes biologiques: leur altération chez les travailleurs de nuit
.
La Presse Médicale
28
:
252
58
.
Weiner
Annette.
1992
.
Inalienable Possessions: The Paradox of Keeping While Giving
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Wells
Diana E.
1999
.
Re-dyeing the Cloth: The Women’s Political Platform and Trinidad and Tobago’s General Election of 1995
.
Identities
5
, no.
4
:
543
68
.
Wenger
Etienne.
1998
.
Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Wertsch
James V.
1985
.
Vygotsky and the Social Formation of Mind
.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
Harvard University Press
.
West India Royal Commission.
1945
.
Report
.
London
:
His Majesty’s Stationery Office
.
Wever
Rütger A.
1979
.
The Circadian System of Man: Results of Experiments under Temporal Isolation
.
New York
:
Springer-Verlag
.
Whitehead
Neil.
1997
.
Introduction to Sir Walter Ralegh’s
The Discoverie of the Large, Rich and Bewtiful Empyre of Guiana,
3
116
.
Norman
:
University of Oklahoma Press
.
Williams
Eric.
[
1962
]
1964
.
History of the People of Trinidad and Tobago
.
New York
:
Praeger
.
Williams
Eric.
1969
.
Inward Hunger: The Education of a Prime Minister
.
London
:
Deutsch
.
Williams
Eric.
[
1964
]
1981
.
Report to the People on the “Meeting of the People” Tour
.
In Forged from the Love of Liberty,
edited by
Paul
Sutton
,
217
21
.
Trinidad
:
Longman Caribbean
.
Williams
Eric.
[
1962
]
1993
.
Massa Day Done
.
In Eric Williams Speaks,
edited by
Selwyn
Cudjoe
,
237
64
.
Wellesley, Mass.
:
Calaloux
.
Williams
Eric.
[
1970
]
1993
.
The Chaguaramas Declaration
.
In Eric Williams Speaks,
edited by
Selwyn
Cudjoe
,
272
316
.
Wellesley, Mass.
:
Calaloux
.
Williams
Leroy
“Flathead.”
1991
.
1991 Carnival and Calypsos
.
Santa Cruz
:
Leroy “Flathead” Williams
.
Williams
Raymond.
1977
.
Marxism and Literature
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Williams-Connell
Erica.
[
1991
]
1993
.
Bournes Road Address
.
In Eric Williams Speaks,
edited by
Selwyn
Cudjoe
,
369
96
.
Wellesley, Mass.
:
Calaloux
.
Willis
Paul.
2000
.
The Ethnographic Imagination
.
Cambridge
:
Polity
.
Wood
Donald.
1968
.
Trinidad in Transition: The Years after Slavery
.
London
:
Institute of Race Relations
.
Worthman
Carol.
1999
.
Emotions: You Can Feel the Difference
.
In Biocultural Approaches to Emotions,
edited by
Alexander
Laban Hinton
,
41
74
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Wynter
Sylvia.
1981
.
In Quest of Matthew Bondsman: Some Cultural Notes on the Jamesian Journey
.
Urgent Tasks
12
:
54
68
.
Yelvington
Kevin.
1993
.
Ethnicity at Work in Trinidad
.
In The Enigma of Ethnicity: An Analysis of Race in the Caribbean and the World,
edited by
Ralph R.
Premdas
,
99
122
.
St. Augustine
:
University of the West Indies, School of Continuing Studies
.
Yelvington
Kevin.
1995
a.
Producing Power: Ethnicity, Gender, and Class in a Caribbean Workplace
.
Philadelphia
:
Temple University Press
.
Yelvington
Kevin.
1995
b.
Ethnicity ‘Not Out’: The Indian Cricket Tour of the West Indies and the 1976 Elections in Trinidad and Tobago
.
In Liberation Cricket,
edited by
Hilary
Beckles
and
Brian
Stoddart
,
205
21
.
Manchester
:
Manchester University Press
.
Yelvington
Kevin.
2001
.
The Anthropology of Afro-Latin America and the Caribbean: Diasporic Dimensions
.
Annual Review of Anthropology
30
:
227
60
.

Figures & Tables

Contents

Advertisement

References

Periodicals

The Nation: Organ of the People’s National Movement
.
Port of Spain
:
PNM
.
TnT Mirror
.
Barataria, Trinidad
:
T& TNews Centre
.

Official Periodicals

Legislative Council.
Debates (Hansard)
.
Trinidad
:
Government Printing Office
.
House of Representatives.
Parliamentary Debates (Hansard)
.
Trinidad
:
Government Printery
.

Recordings

Bally
(
Errol
Ballantyne
). [
1991
]
1992
. “
Calypso Coup
.”
The Best of Rootsman and Bally,
track 9. JWRecords.
Black
Stalin
(
Leroy
Calliste
). [
1979
]
1992
. “
Caribbean Unity
.”
Roots Rock Soca,
track 1. Rounder Records.
Black
Stalin
(
Leroy
Calliste
).
1995
. “
Sundar
.”
Message to Sundar,
track 4. Ice Records.
Brother
Marvin
(
Selwyn
Demming
).
1996
. “
Brotherhood of the Boat
” [Jahaji Bhai].
Carnival Soca Hit Compilation,
track 4. JMCRecords.
Crazy (
Edwin
Ayong
). [
1989
]
2000
. “
Nani Wine
Soca Anthems,
track 8. Hot Vinyl.
Dempster
Sanell
(and
Blue
Ventures
).
1999
. “
River
.”
Soca Gold 1999,
track 3. VPRecords.
Garcia
Chris.
1996
. “
Chutney Bacchanal
.”
Soca Carnival ’96,
track 1. Tattoo Records.
Iwer
George
(
Neil
George
).
1998
. “
Bottom in de Road
.”
Soca Gold 1998,
track 9. VPRecords.
Iwer
George
(
Neil
George
).
2000
. “
Carnival Come Back Again
.”
Iwer and Family: Soca Compilation,
track 1. Crosby’s.
Lewis
Nigel.
[
1995
]
1996
. “
Movin’
.”
Caribbean Dream,
track 8. Crosby’s.
The Lord Invader
(
Rupert
Grant
). [
1950
]
1993
. “
Rum and Coca-Cola
.”
Live recording on Calypso Calaloo, CD accompanying Donald Hill, Calypso Calaloo: Early Carnival Music in Trinidad,
track 12.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
,
1993
.
Lucas
,
Colin.
[
1991
]
1995
. “
Dollar Wine
.”
De Trini Party,
track 7. Rituals Music.
Mann
Sonny.
1995
. “
Lota La
” [Loota La].
Chutney Party Mix,
track 1. M.C. Records.
Mann
Sonny
,with
Denise
Belfon
,and
General
Grant.
[
1995
]
1997
. “
Lootala
.”
Soca Gold 1997,
track 12. VPRecords.
The Mighty Sparrow.
[
1956
]
1992
. “
Jean and Dinah
.”
The Mighty Sparrow, Volume 1,
track 1. Ice Records.
Montano
Machel
(and
Xtatik
). [
1996
]
1997
. “
Big Truck
.”
Carnival Soca Hit Compilation,
track 2. JMCRecords.
Plummer
Denyse.
1990
. “
La Trinity
.”
Carnival Killer,
track 3. Dynamic.
Preacher
(
Barnett
Henry
).
1994
. “
Jump and Wave
.”
Soca Carnival ’94,
track 1. Ice Records.
Ras
Shorty I
(
Garfield
Blackman
). [
1979
]
1999
. “
Shanti Om
.”
Shorty: Greatest Hits,
track 7. Charlie’s Records.
Rodriguez
Wayne
(and
Xtatik
).
1998
. “
Footsteps
.”
Machel and Xtatik: Charge,
track 5. JWProductions.
Rudder
David.
[
1986
]
1993
. “
Bahia Girl
.”
The Gilded Collection: 1986–1989,
track 2.
Lypsoland
.
Rudder
David.
[
1987
]
1993
. “
Calypso Music
.”
The Gilded Collection: 1986–1989,
track 3.
Lypsoland
.
Scrunter
(
Irwin
Reyes Johnson
). N.d. (
1989
). “
Piece ah Pork
.”
A Decade of Scrunter: De Parang Now Start,
track 12.
Crosby’s
.
Scrunter
(
Irwin
Reyes Johnson
). N.d. (
1990
). “
Anita
.”
A Decade of Scrunter: De Parang Now Start,
track 9.
Crosby’s
.
Scrunter
(
Irwin
Reyes Johnson
). N.d. (
1995
). “
Chukaipan
.”
A Decade of Scrunter: De Parang Now Start,
track 8.
Crosby’s
.
Shadow
(
Winston
Bailey
).
2001
. “
Stranger
.”
Just for You,
track 1. Cross Roads Records.
Super Blue (Austin Lyons).
[
1991
]
1996
. “
Get Something and Wave
.”
King of the Road March: Greatest Hits,
track 1. Tattoo Records.
Super Blue (Austin Lyons).
[
1992
]
1996
. “
Jab Jab
.”
King of the Road March: Greatest Hits,
track 5. Tattoo Records.
Super Blue (Austin Lyons).
1993
. “
Bacchanal Time
.”
Bacchanal Time,
track 1. Ice Records.
Super Blue (Austin Lyons).
[
1995
]
1996
. “
Signal for Lara
.”
King of the Road March: Greatest Hits,
track 15. Tattoo Records.
x
Super Blue (Austin Lyons).
2000
. “
Pump Up
.”
Hot Caribbean Hits,
track 4. Rituals Music.
Tambu
(
Christopher
Herbert
). N.d. (
1989
). “
Free Up
.”
Once Upon a Time,
track 4. JWRecords.
Tambu
(
Christopher
Herbert
). N.d. (
1990
). “
No No We Ent Going Home
.”
Once Upon a Time,
track 8. JWRecords.
Voisin
Daisy.
N.d.
Daisy Viosin: Memories of a Lifetime of Parang
.
Crosby’s
.
Watchman
(
Wayne
Hayde
). N.d. (
1991
). “
Attack with Full Force
.”
Plenty to be Sorry For,
track 6. Straker’s Record World.

Bibliography

Abrahams
Roger.
1983
.
The Man of Words in the West Indies: Performance and the Emergence of Creole Culture
.
Baltimore
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
Alonso
Ana Maria.
1990
.
Men in “Rags” and the Devil on the Throne: A Study of Protest and Inversion in the Carnival of Post-Emancipation Trinidad
.
Plantation Society in the Americas
3
:
73
120
.
American Psychiatric Association.
2000
.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision
.
Washington, D.C.
:
American Psychiatric Association
.
Anderson
Benedict.
1983
.
Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism
.
London
:
Verso
.
Aschoff
Jürgen
,ed.
1981
.
Biological Rhythms
.
New York
:
Plenum
.
Averill
Gage.
1997
.
Day for the Hunter a Day for the Prey: Popular Music and Power in Haiti
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Baehr
Erin K.
,
Charmane I.
Eastman
,
William
Revelle
,
Susan H.
Losee Olson
,
Lisa F.
Wolfe
,and
Phyllis C.
Zee
.
2003
.
Circadian Phase-shifting Effects of Nocturnal Exercise in Older Compared with Young Adults
.
American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
284
:
R1542
R1550
.
Bahadoorsingh
Krishna.
1968
.
Trinidad Electoral Politics: The Persistence of the Race Factor
.
London
:
Institute of Race Relations
.
Bakhtin
Mikhail.
1981
.
The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays
.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
.
Bakhtin
Mikhail.
[
1968
]
1984
.
Rabelais and His World
.Translated by
Helene
Iswolsky.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Balliger
Robin.
1998
.
Popular Music and the Cultural Politics of Globalisation among the Post-Oil Boom Generation in Trinidad
.
In Identity, Ethnicity and Culture in the Caribbean,
edited by
Ralph
R.
Premdas,
54
79
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
University of the West Indies School of Continuing Studies
.
Barthes
Roland.
1974
.
S/Z
.
New York
:
Hill and Wang
.
Basch
Linda
,
Nina
Glick Schiller
,and
Christina Szanton
Blanc
.
1994
.
Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects, Postcolonial Predicaments, and Deterritorialized Nation-States
.
New York
:
Gordon and Breach
.
Bateson
Gregory.
1972
.
Steps to an Ecology of Mind
.
New York
:
Ballantine
.
Beetham
Edward Betham.
1958
.
Address by His Excellency the Governor to the Legislative Council, Session 1957–1958
.Council paper no. 12.
Trinidad
:
Government Printing Office
.
Benítez-Rojo
Antonio.
1996
.
The Repeating Island: The Caribbean and the Postmodern Perspective
.2nd ed. Translated by
James
Maraniss.
Durham, N.C.
:
Duke University Press
.
Bhabha
Homi.
1994
.
The Location of Culture
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Birth
Kevin K.
1994
.
Bakrnal: Coup, Carnival, and Calypso in Trinidad
.
Ethnology
33
:
165
77
.
Birth
Kevin K.
1995
.
The Ethnic Ambiguities of Getting Married: The Official Pronouncements, Local Interpretations, and Personal Experiences of Trinidadian Hindu Indians
.
International Journal of Comparative Race and Ethnic Studies
2
, no.
2
:
80
91
.
Birth
Kevin K.
1996
.
Trinidadian Times: Temporal Dependency and Temporal Flexibility on the Margins of Industrial Capitalism
.
Anthropological Quarterly
69
, no.
2
:
79
89
.
Birth
Kevin K.
1997
.
Most of Us Are Family Some of the Time: Interracial Marriage and Transracial Kinship in Eastern Trinidad
.
American Ethnologist
24
, no.
3
:
585
601
.
Birth
Kevin K.
1999
.
Any Time Is Trinidad Time
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
.
Black
Peter W.
1985
.
Ghosts, Gossip, and Suicide: Meaning and Action in Tobian Folk Psychology
.
In Person, Self, and Experience: Exploring Pacific Ethnopsychologies,
edited by
Geoffrey M.
White
and
John
Kirkpatrick
,
245
300
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Bonnefond
Anne
,
Patricia
Tassi
,
Joceline
Roge
,and
Alain
Muzet.
2004
.
A Critical Review of Techniques Aiming at Enhancing and Sustaining Workers’ Alertness during the Night
.
Industrial Health
42
, no.
1
:
1
14
.
Boomert
Arie.
1984
.
The Arawak Indians of Trinidad and coastal Guiana ca. 1500–1650
.
Journal of Caribbean History
19
, no.
2
:
123
88
.
Bourguignon
Erika.
1973
.
Introduction: A Framework for the Comparative Study of Altered States of Consciousness
.
In Religion, Altered States of Consciousness and Social Change,
edited by
Erika
Bourguignon
,
3
35
.
Columbus
:
Ohio State University Press
.
Bourguignon
Erika.
[
1976
]
1991
.
Possession
.
Prospect Heights, Ill.
:
Waveland
.
Braithwaite
Lloyd.
1954
.
Cultural Integration in Trinidad
.
Social and Economic Studies
3
, no.
1
:
82
96
.
Braithwaite
Lloyd.
2001
.
Colonial West Indian Students in Britain
.
Mona, Jamaica
:
University of the West Indies Press
.
Brathwaite
Edward.
1971
.
The Development of Creole Society in Jamaica, 1770–1820
.
London
:
Oxford University Press
.
Brathwaite
Edward.
1977
.
The Love Axe/1
.
Bim
16
, no.
61
:
53
65
.
Brereton
Bridget.
1975
.
The Trinidad Carnival, 1870–1900
.
Savacou
11–12
:
46
57
.
Brereton
Bridget.
1979
.
Race Relations in Colonial Trinidad,
1870
1900
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Brereton
Bridget.
1993
.
Social Organisation and Class, Racial and Cultural Conflict in Nineteenth-Century Trinidad
.
In Trinidad Ethnicity,
edited by
Kevin
Yelvington
,
33
55
.
Knoxville
:
University of Tennessee Press
.
Brown
Wenzell.
1947
.
Angry Men, Laughing Men: The Caribbean Caldron
.
New York
:
Greenberg
.
Burton
Richard D. E.
1997
.
Afro-Creole: Power, Opposition and Play in the Caribbean
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Buxton
Orfeu M.
,
Calvin W.
Lee
,
Mereille
L’Hermite-Balériaux
,
Fred W.
Turek
,and
Eve Van
Cauter
.
2003
.
Exercise elicits phase shifts and acute alterations of melatonin that vary with circadian phase
.
American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology
284
:R
714
R
724
.
Carmichael
A. C.
1834
.
Domestic Manners and Social Conditions of the Whites, Coloured, and Negro Population of the West Indies
.
London
:
Whittaker
.
Carrington
Edwin.
1971
.
The Post War Political Economy of Trinidad and Tobago
.
In Readings in the Political Economy of the Caribbean,
edited by
Norman
Girvan
and
Owen
Jefferson
,
121
42
.
Kingston, Jamaica
:
New World Group
.
Césaire
Aimé.
1983
.
Notebook of a Return to the Native Land
.
In Aimé Césaire: The Collected Poetry,
translated by
Clayton
Eshleman
and
Annette
Smith
,
32
85
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Césaire
Aimé.
[
1944
]
1996
.
Calling the Magician: A Few Words for a Caribbean Civilization
.
In Refusal of the Shadow: Surrealism and the Caribbean,
edited by
Michael
Richardson
and
Krzysztof
Fijalkowski
,
119
22
.
London
:
Verso
.
Césaire
Aimé.
[
1972
]
2000
.
Discourse on Colonialism
.
New York
:
Monthly Review Press
.
Chatterjee
Partha.
1993
.
The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories
.
Princeton, N.J.
:
Princeton University Press
.
Clark
Andy.
1997
.
Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again
.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
MITPress
.
Collier
H. C.
1943
.
Carnival Capers in Calypso Land
.
Canada–West Indies Magazine
32
, no.
1
:
19
22
.
Collins
John.
N.d.
Sound in Play in Salvador, Behia’s
Gueto:
The Materiality of Inconclusion in a Brazilian Cultural Heritage Center. Unpublished manuscript
.
Cowley
John.
1996
.
Carnival, Canboulay and Calypso: Traditions in the Making
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Craig
Susan.
1985
.
Political Patronage and Community Resistance: Village Councils in Trinidad and Tobago
.
In Rural Development in the Caribbean,
edited by
P. I.
Gomes
,
173
93
.
Kingston, Jamaica
:
Heinemann Educational Books (Caribbean)
.
Crapanzano
Vincent.
1986
.
Hermes’ Dilemma: The Masking of Subversion in Ethnographic Description
.
In Writing Culture,
edited by
James
Clifford
and
George
Marcus
,
51
76
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Crowley
Daniel J.
1957
.
Plural and Differential Acculturation in Trinidad
.
American Anthropologist
59
, no.
5
:
817
24
.
Csordas
Thomas.
1990
.
Embodiment as a Paradigm for Anthropology
.
Ethos
18
, no.
1
:
5
47
.
Csordas
Thomas.
1994
.
The Sacred Self: A Cultural Phenomenology of Charismatic Healing
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Cudjoe
Selwyn.
1993
.
Introduction to
Eric E. Williams Speaks: Essays on Colonialism and Independence,
edited by
Selwyn
Cudjoe
,
1
33
.
Wellesley, Mass.
:
Calaloux
.
Cudjoe
Selwyn.
2003
.
Beyond Boundaries: The Intellectual Tradition of Trinidad and Tobago in the Nineteenth Century
.
Wellesley, Mass.
:
Calaloux
.
Czeisler
Charles A.
,
Jeanne F.
Duffy
,
Theresa L.
Shanahan
,
Emery N.
Brown
,
Jude F.
Mitchell
,
David W.
Rimmer
,
Joseph M.
Ronda
,
Edward J.
Silva
,
James S.
Allan
,
Jonathan S.
Emens
,
Derk-Jan
Dijk
,and
Richard E.
Kronauer
.
1999
.
Stability, Precision, and Near-24-h Period of the Human Circadian Pacemaker
.
Science
284
:
2177
81
.
Damasio
Antonio.
1994
.
Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain
.
New York
:
G. P. Putnam
.
Damasio
Antonio.
1999
.
The Feeling of What Happens: The Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness
.
New York
:
Harcourt Brace
.
D’Andrade
Roy.
1992
.
Schemas and Motivation
.
In Human Motives and Cultural Models,
edited by
Roy
D’Andrade
and
Claudia
Strauss
,
23
44
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
D’Andrade
Roy.
1995
.
The Development of Cognitive Anthropology
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
d’Anghiera
Pietro Martire.
[
1555
]
1966
.
The Decades of the Newe World or West India
.Translated by
Rycharde
Eden.
Ann Arbor
:
Readex Microprint Corporation
.
Dash
J. Michael.
1995
.
Edouard Glissant
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Dávila
Arlene.
1997
.
Sponsored Identities: Cultural Politics in Puerto Rico
.
Philadelphia
:
Temple University Press
.
Davis
Natalie Zemon.
1978
.
Women on Top: Inversion and Political Disorder in Early Modern Europe
.
In The Reversible World: Symbolic Inversion in Art and Society,
edited by
Barbara
Babcock
,
147
90
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Deosaran
Ramesh.
1987
.
The “Caribbean Man”: A Study of the Psychology of Perception and the Media
.
In India in the Caribbean,
edited by
David
Dabydeen
and
Brinsley
Samaroo
,
81
117
.
London
:
Hansib
.
Deosaran
Ramesh.
1995
.
Voices of the Past, Visions of the Future
.
In In Celebration of 150 Yrs of the Indian Contribution to Trinidad and Tobago,
edited by
Diane
Quentrall-Thomas
,
175
90
.
Port of Spain
:
Historical Publications
.
Desjarlais
Robert.
1992
.
Body and Emotion: The Aesthetics of Illness and Healing in the Nepal Himalayas
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Dewey
John.
[
1934
]
1980
.
Art as Experience
.
New York
:
Perigree
.
Dirks
Robert.
1987
.
The Black Saturnalia: Conflict and Its Ritual Expression on British West Indian Slave Plantations
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
.
Dookeran
Winston.
[
1974
]
1985
.
East Indians and the Economy of Trinidad and Tobago
.
In Calcutta to Caroni: The East Indians of Trinidad,
edited by
John La
Guerre
,
63
73
.
St. Augustine
:
University of the West Indies, Extra-Mural Studies Unit
.
Dudley
Shannon.
2004
.
Carnival Music in Trinidad: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Durkheim
Emile.
[
1915
]
1965
.
The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life
.Translated by
Joseph Ward
Swain
.
New York
:
Free Press
.
Durkheim
Emile.
1966
.
The Rules of the Sociological Method
.Edited by
George E. G.
Catlin
,translated by
Sarah A.
Solovay
and
John H.
Mueller
.
New York
:
Free Press
.
Edgewater
Iain.
1999
.
Music Hath Charms . . . : Fragments toward Constructionist Biocultural Theory, with Attention to the Relationship of Music and Emotion
.
In Biocultural Approaches to the Emotions,
edited by
Alexander
Hinton
,
153
81
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Elder
J. D.
1966
.
Kalinda—Song of the Battling Troubadours of Trinidad. Journal of the Folklore Institute
3
, no.
2
:
192
203
.
Elder
J. D.
1967
.
Evolution of the Traditional Calypso of Trinidad and Tobago: A Socio-Historical Analysis of Song-Change
. PhD diss.,
University of Pennsylvania
.
Elder
J. D.
1998
.
Cannes Brûlées
.
Drama Review
42
, no.
3
:
38
43
.
Eriksen
Thomas Hylland.
1992
.
Us and Them in Modern Societies: Ethnicity and Nationalism in Mauritius, Trinidad and Beyond
.
Oslo
:
Scandinavian University Press
.
Falassi
Alessandro.
1987
.
Festival: Definition and Morphology
.
In Time out of Time: Essays on the Festival,
edited by
Alessandro
Falassi
,
1
10
.
Albuquerque
:
University of New Mexico Press
.
Fanon
Frantz.
1963
.
The Wretched of the Earth
.Translated by
Constance
Farrington.
New York
:
Grove
.
Fanon
Frantz.
1967
.
Black Skin, White Masks
.Translated by
Charles Lam
Markmann
.
New York
:
Grove
.
Fanon
Frantz.
[
1956
]
1967
.
Letter to the Resident Minister
.
In Toward the African Revolution,
translated by
Haakon
Chavalier
,
52
54
.
New York
:
Grove
.
Feld
Steven.
1982
.
Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetics and Song in Kaluli Expression
.2nd ed.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Figueredo
Alfredo E.
,and
Stephen
Glazier.
1982
.
Spatial Behavior, Social Organization, and Ethnicity in the Prehistory of Trinidad
.
Journal de la Société des Américanistes
68
:
33
39
.
Findlay
Ronald.
1982
.
On W. Arthur Lewis’s Contributions to Economics
.
In The Theory and Experience of Economic Development,
edited by
Mark
Gersovitz
,
Carlos F.
Diaz-Alejandro
,
Gustav
Ranis
, and
Mark R.
Rosenzweig
,
1
14
.
London
:
George Allen and Unwin
.
Fish
Stanley.
1980
.
Is There a Text in this Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities
.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
Harvard University Press
.
Flinn
M. V.
1999
.
Family Environment, Stress, and Health during Childhood
.
In Hormones, Health, and Behavior: A Socio-ecological and Lifespan Perspective,
edited by
C.
Panter-Brick
and
C. M.
Worthman
,
105
38
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Folkard
Simon.
1997
.
Black Times: Temporal Determinants of Transport Safety
.
Accident Analysis and Prevention
4
:
417
30
.
Foner
Nancy.
2001
.
Introduction. West Indian Migration to New York: An Overview
.
In Islands in the City: West Indian Migration to New York,
edited by
Nancy
Foner
,
1
22
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Forte
Maximilian C.
2005
.
Ruins of Absence, Presence of Caribs: (Post)Colonial Representations of Aboriginality in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
.
Foucault
Michel.
1979
.
Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison
.Translated by
Alan
Sheridan.
New York
:
Vintage
.
Foucault
Michel.
[
1971
]
1994
.
The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences
.
New York
:
Vintage
.
Frake
Charles O.
1997
.
Plying Frames Can Be Dangerous: Some Reflections on Methodology in Cognitive Anthropology
.
In Mind, Culture, and Activity: Seminal Papers from the Laboratory of Human Cognition,
edited by
Michael
Cole
,
Yrjö
Engeström
,and
Olga
Vasquez
,
32
46
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Freilich
Morris.
1960
.
Cultural Diversity among Trinidadian Peasants
. PhD diss.,
Columbia University
.
Fux
Johann Joseph.
[
1725
]
1965
.
Study of Counterpoint
.Edited and translated by
Alfred
Mann.
New York
:
W. W. Norton
.
Geurts
Kathryn Linn.
2001
.
Culture and the Senses: Bodily Ways of Knowing in an African Community
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Gilroy
Paul.
1993
.
The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness
.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
Harvard University Press
.
Glazier
Stephen D.
1980
.
Aboriginal Trinidad and the Guianas: An Historical Overview
.
Archaeology and Anthropology
3
, no.
2
:
119
24
.
Glazier
Stephen D.
1983
.
Marchin’ the Pilgrims Home: Leadership and Decision-making in an Afro-Caribbean Faith
.
Westport, Conn.
:
Greenwood
.
Glissant
Édouard.
1989
Caribbean Discourse: Selected Essays
.Translated by
J.
Michael Dash
.
Charlottesville
:
University Press of Virginia
.
Glissant
Édouard.
1997
.
Poetics of Relation
.Translated by
Betsy
Wing.
Ann Arbor
:
University of Michigan Press
.
Gluckman
Max.
1969
.
Custom and Conflict in Africa
.
New York
:
Barnes and Noble
.
Godelier
Maurice.
1999
.
The Enigma of the Gift
.Translated by
Nora
Scott.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Gomes
Albert.
1974
.
Through a Maze of Colour
.
Port of Spain
:
Key Caribbean
.
Goodman
Felicitas.
1972
.
Speaking in Tongues: A Cross-cultural study of Glossolalia
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Government of Trinidad and Tobago.
1969
.
Draft of Third Five-Year Plan, 1969–1973
.
Trinidad
:
Government Printery
.
Green
Garth L.
2002
.
Marketing the Nation: Carnival and Tourism in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Critique of Anthropology
22
:
283
304
.
Guss
David M.
2000
.
The Festive State: Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism as Cultural Performance
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Hall
Stuart.
1997
.
The Work of Representation
.
In Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices,
edited by
Stuart
Hall.
London
:
Sage
.
Halliburton
Murphy.
2004
.
Gandhi or Gramsci? The Use of Authoritative Sources in Anthropology
.
Anthropological Quarterly
77
, no.
4
:
793
817
.
Handler
Richard.
1988
.
Nationalism and the Politics of Culture in Quebec
.
Madison
:
University of Wisconsin Press
.
Handler
Richard.
1994
.
Is “Identity” a Useful Cross-Cultural Concept?
In Commemorations: The Politics of National Identity,
edited by
John R.
Gillis
,
27
40
.
Princeton, N.J.
:
Princeton University Press
.
Harney
Stefano.
1999
.
Soca and Social Formations: Avoiding the Romance of Culture in Trinidad
.
In Caribbean Romances: The Politics of Regional Representation,
edited by
Belinda J.
Edmondson
,
39
55
.
Charlottesville
:
University Press of Virginia
.
Harris
Wilson.
1967
.
The Question of Form and Realism in the West Indian Artist
.
In Tradition, the Writer and Society: Critical Essays
.
London
:
New Beacon
.
Harris
Wilson.
1999
.
Selected Essays of Wilson Harris: The Unfinished Genesis of the Imagination
.Edited by
Andrew
Bundy.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Hebdige
Dick.
1987
.
Cut-n-Mix: Culture, Identity and Caribbean Music
.
London
:
Methuen
.
Henke
Holger.
2004
.
Ariel’s Ethos: On the Moral Economy of Caribbean Experience
.
Cultural Critique
56
:
33
63
.
Henry
Paget.
2000
.
Caliban’s Reason: Introducing Afro-Caribbean Philosophy
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Herskovits
Melville J.
1966
.
Trinidad Shouters: Protestant African Synthesis
.
In The New World Negro: Selected Papers in Afro-American Studies,
edited by
Frances
Herskovits
,
229
53
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Herskovits
Melville J.
,and
Frances
Herskovits.
1947
.
Trinidad Village
.
New York
:
Knopf
.
Hill
Donald R.
1993
.
Calypso Calaloo: Early Carnival Music in Trinidad
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
.
Hill
Errol.
1972
.
The Trinidad Carnival: Mandate for a National Theatre
.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
.
Hintzen
Percy C.
1989
.
The Costs of Regime Survival: Racial Mobilization, Elite Domination, and Control of the State in Guyana and Trinidad
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Holland
Dorothy
,
William
Lachicotte
Jr.
,
Debra
Skinner
; and
Carole
Cain.
1998
.
Identity and Agency in Cultural Worlds
.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
Harvard University Press
.
Holquist
Michael.
1990
.
Dialogism: Bakhtin and His World
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Hutchins
Edwin.
1995
.
Cognition in the Wild
.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
MITPress
.
Iser
Wolfgang.
1978
.
The Act of Reading: A Theory of Aesthetic Response
.
Baltimore
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
James
C. L. R.
1959
.
Independence, Energy and Creative Talent of Carnival Can Do Other Wonders
.
Nation,
February
21
,
1959
.
James
C. L. R.
[
1938
]
1963
.
The Black Jacobins
.
New York
:
Vintage
.
James
C. L. R.
[
1962
]
1977
.
Nkrumah and the Ghana Revolution
.
London
:
Allison and Busby
.
James
C. L. R.
[
1948
]
1980
.
Notes on Dialectics: Hegel, Marx, Lenin
.
Westport, Conn.
:
L. Hill
.
James
C. L. R.
[
1962
]
1984
.
Party Politics in the West Indies
.
Port of Spain
:
Inprint
.
James
C. L. R.
1986
.
Cricket
.Edited by
Anna
Grimshaw.
London
:
Allison and Busby
.
James
C. L. R.
[
1950
]
1986
.
State Capitalism and World Revolution
.
Chicago
:
Kerr
.
James
C. L. R.
[
1963
]
1993
.
Beyond a Boundary
.
Durham, N.C.
:
Duke University Press
.
Jameson
Fredric.
1988
.
Cognitive Mapping
.
In Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture,
edited by
Cary
Nelson
and
Lawrence
Grossberg
,
347
57
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
.
Jankowiak
William
,and
C.
Todd White
.
1999
.
Carnival on the Clipboard: An Ethnological Study of New Orleans Mardi Gras
.
Ethnology
38
, no.
4
:
335
49
.
Janssen
Daniela
,and
Friedhelm
Nachreiner.
2004
.
Health and Psychosocial Effects of Flexible Working Hours
.
Revista de Saúde Pública
38
(supplement):
11
18
.
Jha
J. C.
[
1974
]
1985
.
The Indian Heritage in Trinidad
.
In Calcutta to Caroni: The East Indians of Trinidad,
edited by
John La
Guerre
,
21
30
.
St. Augustine
:
University of the West Indies, Extra-mural Unit
.
John
A. Meredith.
1988
.
The Plantation Slaves of Trinidad, 1783–1816: A Mathematical and Demographic Enquiry
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Johnson
Kim.
2002
.
Renegades: The History of the Renegades Steel Orchestra of Trinidad and Tobago
.
Oxford
:
MacMillan
.
Jones
James M.
; and
Liverpool
Hollis.
1976
.
Calypso Humour in Trinidad
.
In Humour and Laughter: Theory, Research and Applications,
edited by
Anthony J.
Chapman
and
Hugh C.
Foot
,
259
86
.
London
:
John Wiley and Sons
.
Joseph
E. L.
1838
.
History of Trinidad: A Descriptive Account of the History and Geography of Trinidad
.
London
:
A. K. Newman and Company
.
Juneja
Renu.
1989
.
We Kind of Music
.
Popular Music and Society
13
:
37
51
.
Keil
Charles
,and
Steven
Feld.
1994
.
Music Grooves: Essays and Dialogues
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Khan
Aisha.
1993
.
What Is “a Spanish”? Ambiguity and “Mixed” Ethnicity in Trinidad
.
In Trinidad Ethnicity,
edited by
Kevin
Yelvington
,
180
207
.
Knoxville
:
University of Tennessee Press
.
Khan
Aisha.
2001
.
Journey to the Center of the Earth: The Caribbean as Master Symbol
.
Cultural Anthropology
16
, no.
3
:
271
302
.
Khan
Aisha.
2004
.
Callaloo Nation: Metaphors of Race and Religious Identity among South Asians in Trinidad
.
Durham, N.C.
:
Duke University Press
.
Koningsbruggen
Petrus Hendrikus van.
1997
.
Trinidad Carnival: A Quest for National Identity
.
London
:
Macmillan Education
.
Korom
Frank J.
2003
.
Hosay Trinidad: Muharram Performances in an Indo-Caribbean Diaspora
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
La Guerre
John Gaffar.
1972
.
The General Elections of 1946 in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Social and Economic Studies
21
:
184
204
.
La Guerre
John Gaffar
,ed.
1997
.
The General Elections of 1995 in Trinidad and Tobago
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
University of the West Indies, School of Continuing Studies
.
Lakoff
George
,and
Mark
Johnson.
1980
.
Metaphors We Live By
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Lakoff
George
,
1999
.
Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought
.
New York
:
Basic
.
Langer
Susanne.
1953
.
Feeling and Form: A Theory of Art Developed from Philosophy in a New Key
.
New York
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
.
Langer
Susanne.
1979
.
Philosophy in a New Key: A Study in the Symbolism of Reason, Rite, and Art
.3rd ed.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
Harvard University Press
.
Lave
Jean
,and
Etienne
Wenger.
1991
.
Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Lavie
P.
2001
.
Sleep-wake as a Biological Rhythm
.
Annual Review of Psychology,
52
:
277
303
.
Le Roy Ladurie
Emmanuel.
1979
.
Carnival in Romans
.
New York
:
G. Braziller
.
Ledgister
Fragano.
1998
.
Class Alliances and the Liberal-Authoritarian State: The Roots of Postcolonial Democracy in Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, and Surinam
.
Trenton, N.J.
:
Africa World Press
.
Leon
Raphael de.
N.d.
Calypso: From France to Trinidad, 800 Years of History
.
San Juan, Trinidad
:
General Printers
.
Lewis
Gordon K.
1968
.
The Growth of the Modern West Indies
.
New York
:
Monthly Review Press
.
Lewis
W. Arthur.
1950
.
The Industrialization of the British West Indies
.
Caribbean Economic Review
1
:
1
61
.
Lewis
W. Arthur.
1954
.
Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour
.
Manchester School
22
, no.
2
:
139
91
.
Lewis
W. Arthur.
1955
.
The Theory of Economic Growth
.
Homewood, Ill.
:
Richard D. Irwin
.
Lewis
W. Arthur.
[
1965
]
1973
.
On Being Different
.
In The Aftermath of Sovereignty: West Indian Perspectives,
edited by
David
Lowenthal
and
Lambros
Comitas
,
293
302
.
Garden City
:
Anchor
.
Linger
Daniel.
1992
.
Dangerous Encounters: Meanings of Violence in a Brazilian City
.
Stanford, Calif.
:
Stanford University Press
.
Littlewood
Roland.
1988
.
From Vice to Madness: The Semantics of Naturalistic and Personalistic Understandings in Trinidadian Local Medicine
.
Social Science and Medicine
7
, no.
2
:
129
48
.
Littlewood
Roland.
1993
.
Pathology and Identity
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Liverpool
Hollis.
1990
.
Kaiso and Society
.
Diego Martin, Trinidad
:
Juba
.
Liverpool
Hollis.
1994
.
Researching Steelband and Calypso Music in the British Caribbean and the U.S. Virgin Islands
.
Black Music Research Journal
14
, no.
2
:
179
201
.
Liverpool
Hollis.
2001
.
Rituals of Power and Rebellion: The Carnival Tradition in Trinidad and Tobago, 1763–1962
.
Chicago
:
Research Associates School Times
.
Lobdell
Richard.
1972
.
Patterns of Investment and Credit in the British West Indian Sugar Industry, 1838–1918
.
Journal of Caribbean History
4
:
31
53
.
Lomax
Alan.
1962
.
Song Structure and Social Structure
.
Ethnology
1
, no.
4
:
425
51
.
London
Clement B. G.
1991
.
Forging a Cultural Identity: Leadership and Development in Mass Education in a Developing Caribbean Country
.
Journal of Black Studies
21
, no.
3
:
251
67
.
Lukes
Steven.
1985
.
Emile Durkheim, His Life and Work: A Historical and Critical Study
.
Stanford, Calif.
:
Stanford University Press
.
Lutz
Catherine.
1986
.
Emotion, Thought, and Estrangement: Emotion as a Cultural Category
.
Cultural Anthropology
1
, no.
3
:
287
309
.
MacAloon
John J.
1984
.
Olympic Games and the Theory of Spectacle in Modern Societies
.
In Rite, Drama, Festival, Spectacle: Rehearsals toward a Theory of Cultural Performance,
edited by
John J.
MacAloon
,
241
80
.
Philadelphia
:
Institute for the Study of Human Issues
.
Manuel
Peter.
1995
.
Caribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae
.
Philadelphia
:
Temple University Press
.
Manuel
Peter.
2000
.
East Indian Music in the West Indies: Tan-singing, Chutney and the Making of Indo-Caribbean Culture
.
Philadelphia
:
Temple University Press
.
Marriott
McKim.
1966
.
The Feast of Love
.
In Krishna: Myths, Rites, and Attitudes,
edited by
Milton
Singer
,
201
12
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Mason
Peter.
1998
.
Bacchanal: The Carnival Culture of Trinidad
.
Philadelphia
:
Temple University Press
.
Mauss
Marcel.
1967
.
The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies
.Translated by
Ian
Cunnison.
New York
:
Norton
.
McEachron
Donald L.
,and
Jonathan
Schull.
1993
.
Hormones, Rhythms, and the Blues
.
In Hormonally Induced Changes in Mind and Brain,
edited by
Jay
Schulkin
,
287
355
.
San Diego
:
Academic Press
.
Merleau-Ponty
Maurice.
1962
.
Phenomenology of Perception
.
New York
:
Humanities
.
Miller
Daniel.
1990
.
Fashion and Ontology in Trinidad
.
Culture and History
7
:
49
77
.
Miller
Daniel.
1991
.
Absolute Freedom in Trinidad
.
Man
26
, no.
2
:
323
41
.
Miller
Daniel.
1993
.
Christmas against Materialism in Trinidad
.
In Unwrapping Christmas,
edited by
Daniel
Miller
,
134
53
.
Oxford
:
Clarendon
.
Miller
Daniel.
1994
.
Modernity: An Ethnographic Approach—Dualism and Mass Consumption in Trinidad
.
Oxford
:
Berg
.
Miller
Daniel.
1997
.
Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach
.
Oxford
:
Berg
.
Mistlberger
Ralph E.
,and
Debra J.
Skene
.
2005
.
Nonphotic Entrainment in Humans?
Journal of Biological Rhythms
20
:
339
52
.
Mohammed
Patricia.
2002
.
Taking Possession: Symbols of Empire and Nationhood
.
Small Axe
11
:
31
58
.
Monk
Timothy H.
2000
.
What Can the Chronobiologist Do to Help the Shift Worker?
Journal of Biological Rhythms
15
:
86
94
.
Monteleone
Palmiero
,
Antonio
Fuschino
,
Giovanni
Nolfe
,and
Mario
Maj.
1992
.
Temporal Relationship between Melatonin and Cortisol Responses to Nighttime Physical Stress in Humans
.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
17
:
81
86
.
Moodie-Kublalsingh
Sylvia.
1994
.
The Cocoa Panyols of Trinidad: An Oral Record
.
London
:
British Academic Press
.
Moore-Ede
Martin C.
1993
.
The 24-Hour Society: Understanding Human Limits in a World That Never Stops
.
Reading, Mass.
:
Addison-Wesley
.
Moore-Ede
Martin C.
,
Frank M.
Sulzman
,and
Charles
Fuller.
1982
.
The Clocks That Time Us: Physiology of the Circadian Timing System
.
Harvard, Mass.
:
Harvard University Press
.
Mordecai
John.
1968
.
Federation of the West Indies
.
Evanston, Ill.
:
Northwestern University Press
.
Mrosovsky
N.
1996
.
Locomotor Activity and Non-photic Influences on Circadian Clocks
.
Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
71
:
343
72
.
Mrosovsky
N.
,
S. G.
Reebs
,
G. I.
Honrado
,and
P. A.
Salmon
.
1989
.
Behavioral Entrainment of Circadian Rhythms
.
Experientia
45
:
696
702
.
Munasinghe
Viranjini.
2001
.
Callaloo or Tossed Salad? East Indians and the Cultural Politics of Identity in Trinidad
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Myers
Helen.
1998
.
Music of Hindu Trinidad: Songs from the Indian Diaspora
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Naipaul
V. S.
[
1962
]
1981
.
The Middle Passage: Impressions of Five Societies—British, French, and Dutch—in the West Indies and South America
.
New York
:
Vintage
.
National Planning Commission.
1963
.
Draft: Second Five-Year Plan, 1964–1968
.
Trinidad
:
Government Printery
.
Ong
Walter J.
1982
.
Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word
.
New York
:
Methuen
.
Ortiz
Fernando.
[
1947
]
1995
.
Cuban Counterpoint: Tobacco and Sugar
.
Durham, N.C.
:
Duke University Press
.
Oxaal
Ivar.
1982
.
Black Intellectuals and the Dilemmas of Race and Class in Trinidad
.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
Schenkman
.
Pastor
Robert.
1992
.
Whirlpool: U.S. Policy toward Latin America and the Caribbean
.
Princeton, N.J.
:
Princeton University Press
.
Premdas
Ralph R.
1998
.
The Ascendance of an Indian Prime Minister in Trinidad and Tobago: The 1995 Elections
.
In Identity, Ethnicity and Culture in the Caribbean,
edited by
Ralph R.
Premdas
,
323
58
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
University of the West Indies School of Continuing Studies
.
Prendas
Ralph R.
,and
Bishnu
Ragoonath.
1998
.
Ethnicity, Elections and Democracy in Trinidad and Tobago: Analysing the 1995 and 1996 Elections
.
Commonwealth and Comparative Politics
36
, no.
3
:
30
53
.
Prime Minister’s Best Village Trophy.
1967
.
The Prime Minister’s Best Village Trophy
.
Port of Spain
.
Puri
Shalini.
2004
.
The Caribbean Postcolonial: Social Equality, Post-Nationalism, and Cultural Hybridity
.
New York
:
Palgrave MacMillan
.
Quera-Salva
Maria Antonia
;
Christian
Guilleminault
,
Bruno
Claustrat
,
Remy
Defrance
,
Philippe
Gajdos
,
Catherine
Crowe McCann
, and
Jacques De
Lattre
.
1997
.
Rapid Shift in Peak Melatonin Secretion Associated with Improved Performance in Short Shift Work Schedule
.
Sleep
20
, no.
12
:
1145
50
.
Quevedo
Raymond.
1983
.
Atilla’s Kaiso: A Short History of Trinidad Calypso
.
St. Augustine
:
University of the West Indies, Department of Extra-mural Studies
.
Quinn
Naomi.
1982
.
“Commitment” in American Marriage: A Cultural Analysis
.
American Ethnologist
9
, no.
4
:
775
98
.
Quinn
Naomi.
1996
.
Culture and Contradiction: The Case of Americans Reasoning about Marriage
.
Ethos
24
, no.
3
:
391
425
.
Rajaratnam
Shantha M. W.
, and
Josephine
Arendt.
2001
.
Health in a 24-h Society
.
Lancet
358
:
999
1005
.
Ramnarine
Tina K.
2001
.
Creating Their Own Space: The Development of an Indian- Caribbean Musical Tradition
.
Kingston, Jamaica
:
University of the West Indies Press
.
Ramsaran
Ramesh F.
1994
.
The Theory and Practice of Structural Adjustment with Special Reference to the Commonwealth Caribbean
.
In Structural Adjustment, Public Policy and Administration in the Caribbean,
edited by
John La
Guerre
,
9
37
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
University of the West Indies, School of Continuing Studies
.
Reddock
Rhoda.
1999
.
Jahaji Bhai: The Emergence of a Dougla Poetics in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Identities
5
, no.
4
:
569
601
.
Regis
Louis.
1999
.
Political Calypso: True Opposition in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
.
Richardson
Michael
,and
Krzysztof
Fijalkowski.
1996
.
Introduction
to
Refusal of the Shadow: Surrealism and the Caribbean,
edited by
Michael
Richardson
and
Krzysztof
Fijalkowski
,
1
33
.
London
:
Verso
.
Roberts
John Storm.
1972
.
Black Music of Two Worlds
.
Tivoli, N.Y.
:
Original Music
.
Rodney
Walter.
1981
.
A History of the Guyanese Working People, 1881–1905
.
Baltimore
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
Rodney
Walter.
[
1969
]
1990
.
The Groundings with My Brothers
.
London
:
Bogle-L’Ouverture Publications
.
Rodney
Walter.
1990
.
Walter Rodney Speaks
.
Trenton, N.J.
:
Africa World Press
.
Rohlehr
Gordon.
1990
.
Calypso and Society in Pre-Independence Trinidad
.
Port of Spain
.
Rodney
Walter.
1992
a.
Articulating a Caribbean Aesthetic: The Revolution of Self-Perception
.
In My Strangled City and Other Essays,
1
16
.
Port of Spain
:
Longman Trinidad
.
Rodney
Walter.
1992
b.
The Shape of That Hurt: An Introduction to
Voiceprint. In The Shape of That Hurt and Other Essays,
164
90
.
Port of Spain
:
Longman Trinidad
.
Rodney
Walter.
1992
c.
Apocalypso and the Soca Fires of 1990
.
In The Shape of That Hurt and Other Essays,
305
71
.
Port of Spain
:
Longman Trinidad
.
Rodney
Walter.
1997
.
The Culture of Williams: Context, Performance, Legacy
.
Callaloo
20
, no.
4
:
849
88
.
Rodney
Walter.
1998
.
“We Getting the Kaiso That We Deserve”: Calypso and the World Music Market
.
Drama Review
42
, no.
3
:
82
95
.
Rodney
Walter.
2004
a.
Change and Prophecy in the Trinidad and Tobago Calypso towards the Twenty-first Century
.
In A Scuffling of Islands: Essays on Calypso,
335
73
.
San Juan, Trinidad
:
Lexicon Trinidad
.
Rodney
Walter.
2004
b.
Calypso Reinvents Itself
.
In A Scuffling of Islands: Essays on Calypso,
374
449
.
San Juan, Trinidad
:
Lexicon Trinidad
.
Rodney
Walter.
2004
c.
A Scuffling of Islands: The Dream and Reality of Caribbean Unity in Poetry and Song
.
In A Scuffling of Islands: Essays on Calypso,
22
101
.
San Juan, Trinidad
:
Lexicon Trinidad
.
Rodney
Walter.
2004
d.
The Calypsonian as Artist: Freedom and Responsibility
.
In A Scuffling of Islands: Essays on Calypso,
164
97
.
San Juan, Trinidad
:
Lexicon Trinidad
.
Rouget
Gilbert.
1984
.
Music and Trance: A Theory of the Relationship of Music and Possession
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Rubin
David C.
1995
.
Memory in Oral Traditions: The Cognitive Psychology of Epic, Ballads, and Counting-out Rhymes
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Rubin
Vera.
1962
.
Culture, Politics and Race Relations
.
Social and Economic Studies
11
:
433
56
.
Ryan
Selwyn.
1972
.
Race and Nationalism in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Toronto
:
University of Toronto Press
.
Ryan
Selwyn.
1989
.
Revolution and Reaction: A Study of Parties and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago, 1970–1981
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies
.
Ryan
Selwyn.
1990
a.
The Pursuit of Honour: The Life and Times of H. O. B. Wooding
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
Institute of Social and Economic Research
.
Ryan
Selwyn.
1990
b.
The Disillusioned Electorate: The Politics of Succession in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Port of Spain
:
Inprint
.
Ryan
Selwyn.
1991
.
The Muslimeen Grab for Power: Race, Religion and Revolution in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Port of Spain
:
Inprint
.
Ryan
Selwyn
,ed.
1991
.
Social and Occupational Stratification in Contemporary Trinidad and Tobago
.
St. Augustine
:
Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies
.
Ryan
Selwyn.
1996
.
Pathways to Power: Indians and the Politics of National Unity in Trinidad and Tobago
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
Institute for Social and Economic Research
.
Ryan
Selwyn.
1999
.
The Jhandi and the Cross: The Clash of Cultures in Post-Creole Trinidad and Tobago
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies
.
Ryan
Selwyn.
2003
.
Deadlock: Ethnicity and Electoral Competition in Trinidad and Tobago, 1995–2002
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies
.
Scher
Philip W.
2002
.
Copyright Heritage: Preservation, Carnival and the State in Trinidad
.
Anthropological Quarterly
75
, no.
3
:
453
84
.
Scher
Philip W.
2003
.
Carnival and the Formation of a Caribbean Transnation
.
Gainesville
:
University Press of Florida
.
Segal
Daniel.
1989
.
Nationalism in a Colonial State: A Study of Trinidad and Tobago
. PhD diss.,
University of Chicago
.
Segal
Daniel.
1993
.
“Race” and “Colour” in Pre-independence Trinidad and Tobago
.
In Trinidad Ethnicity,
edited by
Kevin
Yelvington
,
82
115
.
Knoxville
:
University of Tennessee Press
.
Segal
Daniel.
1994
.
Living Ancestors: Nationalism and the Past in Postcolonial Trinidad and Tobago
.
In Remapping Memory: The Politics of TimeSpace,
edited by
Jonathan
Boyarin
,
221
39
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Selvon
Samuel.
1987
.
Three into One Can’t Go—East Indian, Trinidadian, Westindian
.
In India in the Caribbean,
edited by
David
Dabydeen
and
Brinsley
Samaroo
,
13
24
.
London
:
Hansib
.
Shephard
C. Y.
1935
.
Agricultural Labour in Trinidad
.
Tropical Agriculture
12
:
3
9
,
43
47
,
56
64
,
84
88
,
126
31
,
153
57
,
187
92
.
Simpson
George Eaton.
1966
.
Baptismal “Mourning” and “Building” Ceremonies of the Shouters in Trinidad
.
Journal of American Folklore
79
, no.
314
:
537
50
.
Singh
Kelvin.
1985
.
Indians and the Larger Society
.
In Calcutta to Caroni: The East Indians of Trinidad,
edited by
John La
Guerre
,
33
60
.
St. Augustine, Trinidad
:
University of the West Indies, Extra-mural Studies Unit
.
Smith
M. G.
1965
.
The Plural Society in the British West Indies
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Smith
Raymond T.
1996
.
The Matrifocal Family: Power, Pluralism, and Politics
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Sobo
Elisa.
1993
.
One Blood: The Jamaican Body
.
Albany
:
SUNY Press
.
Spivak
Gayatri Chakravorty.
1988
.
Subaltern Studies: Deconstructing Historiography
.
In Selected Subaltern Studies,
edited by
Ranajit
Guha
and
Gayatri
Chakravorty Spivak
,
3
32
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
.
Stewart
John O.
1986
.
Patronage and Control in the Trinidad Carnival
.
In The Anthropology of Experience,
edited by
Victor
Turner
and
Edward
Bruner
,
289
315
.
Urbana
:
University of Illinois Press
.
Stoler
Ann Laura.
1997
.
On Political and Psychological Essentialisms
.
Ethos
25
:
101
06
.
Stoller
Paul.
1997
.
The Taste of Ethnographic Things: The Senses in Anthropology
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Strauss
Claudia.
1992
.
Models and Motives
.
In Human Motives and Cultural Models,
edited by
Roy
D’Andrade
and
Claudia
Strauss
,
1
20
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Strauss
Claudia
,and
Naomi
Quinn.
1997
.
A Cognitive Theory of Cultural Meaning
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Stuempfle
Stephen.
1995
.
The Steelband Movement: The Forging of a National Art in Trinidad and Tobago
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Taylor
Daphne Pawan.
1977
.
Parang of Trinidad
.
Trinidad and Tobago
:
National Cultural Council
.
Thomas
Clive.
1988
.
The Poor and the Powerless: Economic Policy and Change in the Caribbean
.
New York
:
Monthly Review
.
Turner
Victor.
1967
.
The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu Ritual
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Turner
Victor.
1974
.
Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human Society
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Turner
Victor.
1977
.
The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure
.
Ithaca, N.Y.
:
Cornell University Press
.
Turner
Victor.
1987
.
The Anthropology of Performance
.
New York
:
PAJ
.
United States Congress, Office of Technology Assessment.
1991
.
Biological Rhythms: Implications for the Worker
.
Washington, D.C.
:
United States Government Printing Office
.
Van Dongen
Hans P. A.
,
Greg
Maislin
,
Janet M.
Mullington
,and
David F.
Dinges
.
2003
.
The Cumulative Cost of Additional Wakefulness: Dose-Response Effects on Neurobehavioral Functions and Sleep Physiology from Chronic Sleep Restriction and Total Sleep Deprivation
.
Sleep
26
:
117
26
.
Van Reeth
Olivier
,
Jeppe
Sturis
,
Maria M.
Byrne
,
John D.
Blackman
,
Mireille
L’Hermite-Balériaux
,
Rachel
Leproult
,
Craig
Oliner
,
Samuel
Refetoff
,
Fred W.
Turek
, and
Eve Van
Cauter
.
1994
.
Nocturnal Exercise Phase Delays Circadian Rhythms of Melatonin and Thyrotropin Secretion in Normal Men
.
American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism
266
:E
964
E
974
.
Vertovec
Steven.
1992
.
Hindu Trinidad: Religion, Ethnicity, and Socio-Economic Change
.
London
:
MacMillan
.
Vygotsky
L. S.
1978
.
Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes
.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
Harvard University Press
.
Wade
Peter.
2000
.
Music, Race, and Nation: Música Tropical in Colombia
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Walcott
Derek.
1986
.
The Spoiler’s Return
.
In Collected Poems, 1948–1984,
432
38
.
New York
:
Farrar, Straus and Giroux
.
Walcott
Derek.
[
1992
]
1993
.
The Antilles, Fragments of Epic Memory: The 1992 Nobel Lecture
.
World Literature Today
67
, no.
2
:
260
67
.
Wardle
Huon.
2002
.
Ambiguation, Disjuncture, Commitment: A Social Analysis of Caribbean Cultural Creativity
.
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
8
, no.
3
:
493
508
.
Warner
Keith.
1982
.
Kaiso! The Trinidad Calypso
.
Washington, D.C.
:
Three Continents Press
.
Warner
Keith.
1993
.
Ethnicity and the Contemporary Calypso
.
In Trinidad Ethnicity,
edited by
Kevin
Yelvington
,
275
91
.
Knoxville
:
University of Tennessee Press
.
Waters
Anita.
1985
.
Race, Class, and Political Symbols: Rastafari and Reggae in Jamaican Politics
.
New Brunswick, N.J.
:
Transaction Books
.
Wedenoja
William.
1990
.
Ritual Trance and Catharsis: A Psychobiological and Evolutionary Perspective
.
In Personality and the Cultural Construction of Society,
edited by
David K.
Jordan
and
Marc J.
Swartz
,
275
307
.
Tuscaloosa
:
University of Alabama Press
.
Weibel
L.
,and
G.
Brandenberger
.
1998
.
Disturbances in Hormonal Profiles of Night Workers during Their Usual Sleep and Work Times
.
Journal of Biological Rhythms
13
, no.
3
:
202
8
.
Weibel
L.
,
M.
Follénius
,and
G.
Brandenberger
.
1999
.
Les rythmes biologiques: leur altération chez les travailleurs de nuit
.
La Presse Médicale
28
:
252
58
.
Weiner
Annette.
1992
.
Inalienable Possessions: The Paradox of Keeping While Giving
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Wells
Diana E.
1999
.
Re-dyeing the Cloth: The Women’s Political Platform and Trinidad and Tobago’s General Election of 1995
.
Identities
5
, no.
4
:
543
68
.
Wenger
Etienne.
1998
.
Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Wertsch
James V.
1985
.
Vygotsky and the Social Formation of Mind
.
Cambridge, Mass.
:
Harvard University Press
.
West India Royal Commission.
1945
.
Report
.
London
:
His Majesty’s Stationery Office
.
Wever
Rütger A.
1979
.
The Circadian System of Man: Results of Experiments under Temporal Isolation
.
New York
:
Springer-Verlag
.
Whitehead
Neil.
1997
.
Introduction to Sir Walter Ralegh’s
The Discoverie of the Large, Rich and Bewtiful Empyre of Guiana,
3
116
.
Norman
:
University of Oklahoma Press
.
Williams
Eric.
[
1962
]
1964
.
History of the People of Trinidad and Tobago
.
New York
:
Praeger
.
Williams
Eric.
1969
.
Inward Hunger: The Education of a Prime Minister
.
London
:
Deutsch
.
Williams
Eric.
[
1964
]
1981
.
Report to the People on the “Meeting of the People” Tour
.
In Forged from the Love of Liberty,
edited by
Paul
Sutton
,
217
21
.
Trinidad
:
Longman Caribbean
.
Williams
Eric.
[
1962
]
1993
.
Massa Day Done
.
In Eric Williams Speaks,
edited by
Selwyn
Cudjoe
,
237
64
.
Wellesley, Mass.
:
Calaloux
.
Williams
Eric.
[
1970
]
1993
.
The Chaguaramas Declaration
.
In Eric Williams Speaks,
edited by
Selwyn
Cudjoe
,
272
316
.
Wellesley, Mass.
:
Calaloux
.
Williams
Leroy
“Flathead.”
1991
.
1991 Carnival and Calypsos
.
Santa Cruz
:
Leroy “Flathead” Williams
.
Williams
Raymond.
1977
.
Marxism and Literature
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Williams-Connell
Erica.
[
1991
]
1993
.
Bournes Road Address
.
In Eric Williams Speaks,
edited by
Selwyn
Cudjoe
,
369
96
.
Wellesley, Mass.
:
Calaloux
.
Willis
Paul.
2000
.
The Ethnographic Imagination
.
Cambridge
:
Polity
.
Wood
Donald.
1968
.
Trinidad in Transition: The Years after Slavery
.
London
:
Institute of Race Relations
.
Worthman
Carol.
1999
.
Emotions: You Can Feel the Difference
.
In Biocultural Approaches to Emotions,
edited by
Alexander
Laban Hinton
,
41
74
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Wynter
Sylvia.
1981
.
In Quest of Matthew Bondsman: Some Cultural Notes on the Jamesian Journey
.
Urgent Tasks
12
:
54
68
.
Yelvington
Kevin.
1993
.
Ethnicity at Work in Trinidad
.
In The Enigma of Ethnicity: An Analysis of Race in the Caribbean and the World,
edited by
Ralph R.
Premdas
,
99
122
.
St. Augustine
:
University of the West Indies, School of Continuing Studies
.
Yelvington
Kevin.
1995
a.
Producing Power: Ethnicity, Gender, and Class in a Caribbean Workplace
.
Philadelphia
:
Temple University Press
.
Yelvington
Kevin.
1995
b.
Ethnicity ‘Not Out’: The Indian Cricket Tour of the West Indies and the 1976 Elections in Trinidad and Tobago
.
In Liberation Cricket,
edited by
Hilary
Beckles
and
Brian
Stoddart
,
205
21
.
Manchester
:
Manchester University Press
.
Yelvington
Kevin.
2001
.
The Anthropology of Afro-Latin America and the Caribbean: Diasporic Dimensions
.
Annual Review of Anthropology
30
:
227
60
.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal