Conclusion: Privileging Gesture and Bodies in Studies of Religion and Power
The conclusion of the book summarizes the major findings, emphasizing the multivalent meanings and uses of bimpampa, zakama, and makinu over time and in different contexts, and noting the importance of embodied performances in everyday social interactions for both constituting and challenging secular and religious authority and supporting nationalism. The chapter returns to three themes in regards to the body in studies of religion, nationalism, and power: the body as center, conduit, and catalyst. The chapter also provides suggestions for future research and lines of inquiry by discussing the significance of this study for research on embodied practices across the Atlantic in the New World.
Rapport Annuel, Territoires des Mayumbe, Manianga, Thysville, Luozi
Assorted Missionary Correspondence
Assorted Annual Reports
1973 Festival d’Animation, November 24, 1973. Répertoire Choc des Chansons et Slogans, Révolutionnaires du Bas-Zaire. Carton mpr, Juillet IV.
N.d. Unnumbered document, mpr carton, “Topo et Synthèse de la nouvelle conception.”
Baptist Missionary Magazine
Congo Mission News
Congo News Letter
Ne Nkamu Luyindula, April 28, 2005, Kinshasa, DRC, September 20 and 23, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Father Masamba, June 3, 2005, Kinshasa, DRC, interview by author and Alain Nkisi.
Tata George Matadi, July 16, 2005, Kinshasa, DRC.
Tata Mbumba, July 21, 2005, Mayidi, DRC.
Tata Tuzolana, July 22, 2005, Mayidi, Bas-Congo, interview by author, Ndundu Kivwila, and Abbe Hippolyte Ngimbi.
Mama Nsafu, September 20, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Tata Nkuku, September 29, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Tata Kimfumu, September 29, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Ma Mayazola, October 5, 2005, Kinshasa, DRC.
Ma Ntima, October 10, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Ne Mosi, October 10, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Ne Tatu, October 10, 2005, and October 23, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Ma Bangoma, October 14, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Tata Nkolele, October 14, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Tata Malanda, October 28, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Tata Yangalala, October 30, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Pastor Kasambi, November 12, 2005, and July 19, 2010, Luozi, DRC.
Group Members of Groupe Traditionelle Manianga, December 17, 2005, Kinshasa, DRC.
Tata Mukiese, January 30, 2006, and February 18, 2006, Luozi, DRC.
Ne Zole, February 7 and February 9, 2006, Luozi, DRC.
Dr. Mbala Nkanga, July 19, 2007, Ann Arbor, Michigan (informal interview/conversation).
Tata Kizole, July 20, 2010, Luozi, DRC.
Tata Vita, July 21, 2010, Luozi, DRC.
Ma Makanda, July 23, 2010, Luozi, DRC.
Ma Kudia, July 25, 2010, Luozi, DRC.
Ma Kudada, July 26, 2010, Luozi, DRC.
Ma Luzitu, July 27, 2010, Luozi, DRC.