Re-creating the Past, Performing the Future
Bundu dia Kongo and Embodied Revolutions: Performing Kongo Pride, Transforming Modern Society
This chapter focuses on the movement of Bundu dia Kongo in the current post-Mobutu era, highlighting how they use the body in mobilizing large groups of people for concerted action. Bundu dia Kongo, a Kongo politico-religious-nationalist group struggling for the political representation and governance of Kongo people, has the ultimate goal of establishing a separate Kongo nation-state. The chapter examines their ideological beliefs and political goals and then focuses on the ways that Bundu dia Kongo uses the body and the reformation of bodily habits, both in everyday interactions and spiritual worship, as a means of unifying Kongo people around cultural memories of the former Kongo Kingdom. This chapter also considers attempts by the leadership of Bundu dia Kongo to control forms of embodiment that may act as sites from which others may challenge the growing but tenuous authority of the movement.
Rapport Annuel, Territoires des Mayumbe, Manianga, Thysville, Luozi
Assorted Missionary Correspondence
Assorted Annual Reports
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Baptist Missionary Magazine
Congo Mission News
Congo News Letter
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Father Masamba, June 3, 2005, Kinshasa, DRC, interview by author and Alain Nkisi.
Tata George Matadi, July 16, 2005, Kinshasa, DRC.
Tata Mbumba, July 21, 2005, Mayidi, DRC.
Tata Tuzolana, July 22, 2005, Mayidi, Bas-Congo, interview by author, Ndundu Kivwila, and Abbe Hippolyte Ngimbi.
Mama Nsafu, September 20, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Tata Nkuku, September 29, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Tata Kimfumu, September 29, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Ma Mayazola, October 5, 2005, Kinshasa, DRC.
Ma Ntima, October 10, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Ne Mosi, October 10, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Ne Tatu, October 10, 2005, and October 23, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Ma Bangoma, October 14, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Tata Nkolele, October 14, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Tata Malanda, October 28, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Tata Yangalala, October 30, 2005, Luozi, DRC.
Pastor Kasambi, November 12, 2005, and July 19, 2010, Luozi, DRC.
Group Members of Groupe Traditionelle Manianga, December 17, 2005, Kinshasa, DRC.
Tata Mukiese, January 30, 2006, and February 18, 2006, Luozi, DRC.
Ne Zole, February 7 and February 9, 2006, Luozi, DRC.
Dr. Mbala Nkanga, July 19, 2007, Ann Arbor, Michigan (informal interview/conversation).
Tata Kizole, July 20, 2010, Luozi, DRC.
Tata Vita, July 21, 2010, Luozi, DRC.
Ma Makanda, July 23, 2010, Luozi, DRC.
Ma Kudia, July 25, 2010, Luozi, DRC.
Ma Kudada, July 26, 2010, Luozi, DRC.
Ma Luzitu, July 27, 2010, Luozi, DRC.