The Kherlen-Bars Pagoda is a little-known, undocumented monument in Dornad province of eastern Mongolia. This article argues that the pagoda was built during the period of Khitan rule in North Asia. It begins by comparing it with dated and undated pagodas of the Liao dynasty in eastern Inner Mongolia and Liaoning. The discussion then turns to less tangible aspects of Liao pagoda architecture that are observed at Kherlen-Bars: the relation between a tall monument and lower ones within viewing range, and the relation between a tall Khitan structure and a nearby walled town. A newly discovered Liao pagoda site in Xishanpo, Inner Mongolia, is presented. Finally, the article proposes sources for the three-monument arrangement at Kherlen-Bars in Northern Wei, Northern Qi, and the Silla kingdom of Korea.