Recent work on internal and external perceptions of Southern United States English generally confirms long-standing accounts: it still awakens both negative and positive judgments in both outsiders (redneck but hospitable) and insiders (insecurity but local/regional pride). Differences lie in the details of recent research that focuses on the specific elements of these response types and emerge from two sources: (1) up-to-date experimental work, specifically, implicit attitude measures and studies of neurosociolinguistic responses, as well as (2) largely qualitative, in-depth discourse and conversational analyses.

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