Abstract

The Hellwig Brothers’ Farm in Chesterfield, Missouri, became a carceral space during World War II. The Hellwigs contracted Mexican and Mexican American farmworkers, incarcerated Japanese Americans, and prisoners of war from Italy and Germany through the War Food Administration, War Relocation Authority, and Office of the Provost Marshal General to meet wartime food demands. Growers racialized farmworkers’ access to space before the war, but wartime labor programs made the Hellwig Brothers’ Farm a formal prison. This article argues that the Hellwig Brothers’ Farm reveals the wartime combination of an agricultural preoccupation with worker mobility and the carceral preoccupation with making immobile prisoners productive. By focusing on how the Hellwigs configured their landscape before, during, and after World War II, this article demonstrates that farmers learned to control laborer mobility from the wartime carceral state.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

NOTES

1. St. Louis County, Missouri vs. Hellwig Bros., Inc., Answer, 336190 St. Louis County Circuit Court, 1972, 2.
2. “Cantaloupe,” St. Louis Star and Times, Aug. 29, 1940, 26; “High School Boys and Girls Help in Gathering Spinach: Sixty-Eight Pick 872 Bushels at 10 Cents a Bushel at Chesterfield Farm,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, May 2, 1943, 3A; “Americans of Japanese Descent Find Jobs in St. Louis,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, July 4, 1943, 3; “German War Prisoners in the County,” St. Louis Star and Times, Mar. 27, 1945, 11.
3. Charles E. Mace, “A Scene in the Cantaloupe Shipping Sheds,” Sept. 1, 1943, local call number WRA no. H-262, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (hereafter UC Berkeley).
4. Nestor Montez, “Message Board: Hellwig Brothers Chesterfield Missouri,” Ancestry.com, May 14, 2014.
5. “Cantaloupe”; Charles E. Mace, “Beet Weeding on the Hellwig Brothers Farm,” Aug. 31, 1943, local call number WRA no. H-266, Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley; “High School Boys and Girls Help in Gathering Spinach,” 3; Marcia L. Koenig, “Hellwig Brothers Selling Farm in Chesterfield after 45 Years,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, May 16, 1982, 1, 5.
6. For wartime food programs, see Gabrielle E. Clark, “From the Panama Canal to Post-Fordism: Producing Temporary Labor Migrants within and beyond Agriculture in the United States (1904-2013)” Antipode 49, no. 4 (2017): 997-1014; Clark, “Coercion and Contracts at the Margins: Deportable Labor and the Laws of Employment Termination under US Capitalism (1942-2015),” Law and Social Inquiry 43, no. 3 (Summer 2018): 618-46; Verónica Martínez-Matsuda, “For Labor and Democracy: The Farm Security Administration’s Competing Visions for Farm Workers’ Socioeconomic Reform and Civil Rights in the 1940s,” Journal of American History 106, no. 2 (Sept. 2019): 338-61.
7. Clark, “From the Panama Canal to Post-Fordism”; Clark, “Coercion and Contract at the Margins.” See also Torrie Hester, Deportation: The Origins of U.S. Policy (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017); and Nicholas De Genova, The Deportation Regime (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010).
8. Martínez-Matsuda, “For Labor and Democracy,” 352.
9. Cristina Salinas, Managed Migrations: Growers, Farmworkers, and Border Enforcement in the Twentieth Century (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2018).
10. A. Naomi Paik, Rightlessness: Testimony and Redress in U.S. Prison Camps since World War II (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016); Rebecca McLennan, The Crisis of Imprisonment: Protest, Politics, and the Making of the American Penal State, 1776-1941 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
11. Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (New York: New Press, 2010); also see McLennan, The Crisis of Imprisonment; Heather Ann Thompson, “Why Mass Incarceration Matters: Rethinking Crisis, Decline, and Transformation in Postwar American History,” Journal of American History 97, no. 3 (Dec. 2010): 703-34; Elizabeth Hinton, From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime: The Making of Mass Incarceration in America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016); Kelly Lytle Hernández, City of Inmates: Conquest, Rebellion, and the Rise of Human Caging in Los Angeles, 1771-1965 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017); Heidi Dodson, “Race and Contested Rural Space in the Missouri Delta: African American Farm Workers and the Delmo Labor Homes, 1940-51,” Buildings & Landscapes 23, no. 1 (Spring 2016): 78-101.
12. Koenig, “Hellwig Brothers Selling Farm in Chesterfield After 45 Years,” 1, 5; Nicki Jacobsmeyer, Chesterfield (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2016).
13. “Packing Plant Site Sold by J. C. Greulich Agency,” St. Louis Star and Times, Jan. 19, 1940, 25.
14. “St. Louis County Raises a Bumper Melon Crop,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Aug. 20, 1939, 1.
15. USDA Agricultural Marketing Service, “Farm Labor Report: Farm Wages Rates Up Over Year Ago,” July 12, 1940, 7, USDA Bureau of Agricultural Economics Archive, Albert R. Mann Library, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
16. See Linda Gordon, Dorothea Lange: A Life Beyond Limits (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2009); Neil Foley, The White Scourge: Mexicans, Blacks, and Poor Whites in Texas Cotton Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).
17. See Gordon, Dorothea Lange; and Martínez-Matsuda, “For Labor and Democracy.”
18. Gordon, Dorothea Lange, 158-59. Other New Deal agencies similarly segregated their rural labor services, such as the Civilian Conservation Corps and Soil Conservation Corps. See Neil Maher, Nature’s New Deal: The Civilian Conservation Corps and the Roots of the American Environmental Movement (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008). See also Charles Kenneth Roberts, “New Deal Community-Building in the South: The Subsistence Homesteads around Birmingham, Alabama,” Alabama Review 66, no. 2 (Apr. 2013): 83-121; Michael J. Chiarappa, “Working the Delaware Estuary: African American Cultural Landscapes and the Contours of Environmental Experience,” Buildings & Landscapes 5, no. 1 (Spring 2018): 86.
19. “High School Boys and Girls Help in Gathering Spinach,” 3; “Cantaloupe Packers ... Cantaloupe Pickers,” St. Louis Star and Times, Aug. 29, 1940, 26; “Cantaloupe Packers ... Cantaloupe Pickers,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Aug. 30, 1940, 23.
20. Foley, White Scourge, 164. Such interracial labor spaces may have developed in Chesterfield. A St. Louis Globe-Democrat article on St. Louis County cantaloupe cultivation depicts a white laborer bent over melon vines—though whether he worked for the Hellwigs was unclear. See “St. Louis County’s ‘Melon-Drama,‘” St. Louis Globe-Democrat, Sept. 11, 1938, 10.
21. “Showers, Cooler Today, Fair Tomorrow,” St. Louis Globe-Democrat, July 8, 1939, 1; “Occasional Showers and Cooler Today,” St. Louis Globe-Democrat, Aug. 20, 1939, 1; “Partly Cloudy with Little Change in Temperature,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Aug. 26, 1939, 1; “The Weather,” St. Louis Globe-Democrat, Aug. 31, 1943, 1; “The Weather,” St. Louis Star and Times, Aug. 26, 1943, 1; “Temperature Hits 100 for 3rd Straight Day,” St. Louis Star and Times, Aug. 26, 1943, 1.
22. Hi-Plane was associated with several different products across different markets and regions, such as Hi-Plane spinach and other produce sold by the Hellwigs, Hi-Plane tobacco from Virginia, and Hi-Plane bourbon whiskey from California. No direct link has been established. See “Hi-Plane Spinach,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Apr. 27, 1950, 3D; “Hi-Plane Turnips,” Southern Illinoisan, Jan. 22, 1958, 16; “Hi-Plane Smoking Tobacco” Jefferson City Post-Tribune, Sept. 16, 1938, 10; “Larus & Brother Company,” Virginia Museum of History & Culture, https://www.virginiahistory.org/collections-and-resources/how-we-can-help-your-research/researcher-resources/finding-aids/larus (accessed Oct. 27, 2019); Lehmann Printing and Lithographing Co. and Glaser Bros., “Hi-Plane Straight Bourbon whiskey, Glaser Bros., San Francisco,” 1935, Kemble Spec. Col. 7, California Wine Label and Ephemera Collection, California Historical Society, San Francisco, CA.
23. “Weights and Measures for Agricultural Commodities,” USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Information, Delaware Agricultural Statistics and Resource Directory (2009), 29.
24. “Weights and Measures for Agricultural Commodities,” 29.
25. “St. Louis County Raises a Bumper Melon Crop,” 1; Charles E. Mace, “A Scene on the Hellwig Brothers Farm,” Aug. 31, 1943, local call number WRA no. H-265, Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley.
26. “St. Louis County Raises a Bumper Melon Crop,” 1; Mireya Loza, Defiant Braceros: How Migrant Workers Fought for Racial, Sexual, and Political Freedom (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016).
27. Agricultural Statistics Board, “Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates,” Agricultural Handbook no. 628 (National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA, Dec. 1997).
28. “Bumper Melon Crops from St. Louis County’s Flooded Area,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Sept. 12, 1943, 4; “Bean Pickers,” St. Louis Star and Times, Sept. 30, 1947, 20; Agricultural Statistics Board, “Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates,” 26.
29. See Gordon, Dorothea Lange; Loza, Defiant Braceros.
30. Margarito Rodriguez, interview by author, St. Charles, Missouri, Sept. 28, 2018, copy held by author.
31. “U.S. Farmers Need More Aid,” Ironwood Daily Globe, July 6, 1943, 5.
32. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Table 6.8A, Persons Engaged in Production by Industry, 1941-1948, last revised July 31, 2018. The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) counts agriculture, forestry, and fisheries together, and these industries collectively lost 720,000 workers between 1941 and 1945. Farms, disaggregated from other industries, lost 740,000 persons engaged in production, whereas agricultural services, forestry, and fisheries gained 20,000 workers. The BEA also counts “food and kindred products” manufacturing separately, which also gained 117,000 workers as an industry between 1941 and 1945. Together, these statistics provide the number above. It is unclear whether the monthly USDA BEA surveys included temporary prison labor, but the agricultural census—taken every five years—did include POW labor in 1945. However, it remains uncertain whether these numbers reflect the use of Bracero or H2 Visa Program laborers or the impact of food production employment in Japanese American internment camps. See correspondence from J. A. Ulio to Commanding Generals, All Service Commands, nd (late 1944), folder “Labor of P/W in Conservation,” Declassified Subject Correspondence File, 1942-46, Prisoner of War Operations Division, Operations Branch, Records of the Provost Marshal General, RG 389, National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD (hereafter PMG Declassified, NARA II).
33. “Service Act to Be Requested,” Cincinnati Enquirer, Sept. 29, 1942, 2; “Agriculture Is War Industry,” Ludington Daily News, Jan. 22, 1943, 3; Martínez-Matsuda, “For Labor and Democracy.”
34. “High School Boys and Girls Help in Gathering Spinach,” 3A; “The First ‘Land Army’ of St. Louis Area Boys and Girls,” St. Louis Daily Globe-Democrat, May 2, 1943, 8A.
35. “The First ‘Land Army’ of St. Louis Area Boys and Girls,” 8A; “Spinach Cutters,” St. Louis Star and Times, Apr. 15, 1940, 25.
36. “The First ‘Land Army’ of St. Louis Area Boys and Girls,” 8A.
37. Cecilia Gowdy-Wygant, Cultivating Victory: The Women’s Land Army and the Victory Garden Movement (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2013), Chpt. 5.
38. “High School Boys and Girls Help in Gathering Spinach.”
39. Alvin J. Baumann, “The Spanish Mission of South St. Louis,” Mariner, 1932, 3-4, Chancery Parish Files, Our Lady of Covadonga Spanish Mission (Saint Boniface), PRSH/2251, Box A451, RG 04 B 40A, Archdiocese of St. Louis Archives, St. Louis, MO (hereafter Archdiocesan Archives Spanish Mission); “Spanish Colony Opens Its Church: Archbishop Dedicates Edifice for 400 Families, Some of Them Mexican Refugees,” St. Louis Republic, Aug. 19, 1915, Archdiocesan Archives Spanish Mission; Bryan Winston, “Mexican Corridors: Migration and Community Formation in the Central United States, 1900-1950” (PhD diss., Saint Louis University, 2019).
40. “High School Boys and Girls Help in Gathering Spinach,” 3.
41. See Cristina Salinas, Managed Migrations, 49, regarding the spatial “logic of the farm.”
42. Jason Morgan Ward, “‘Nazis Hoe Cotton’: Planters, POWs, and the Future of Farm Labor in the Deep South,” Agricultural History 81, no. 4 (Fall 2007): 471-92; George G. Lewis and John Mewha, “History of Prisoner of War Utilization by the United States Army 1776-1945,” Pamphlet no. 20-213 (Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1955), 179-80, 130-31; Barbara Schmitter Heisler, “The ‘Other Braceros’: Temporary Labor and German Prisoners of War in the United States, 1943-1946,” Social Science History 31, no. 2 (Summer 2007): 239-71.
43. “Areas Where Work Load of Food Increase Production-Conservation Operations Exist Suitable for Employment of Prisoners of War from Internment Camps,” May 31, 1943, folder “Food Increase Production, POW Camps,” PMG Declassified, NARA II.
44. H. D. Abbot to G. W. Hill, “Prisoner of War Camps,” June 16, 1943, folder “Food Increase Production, POW Camps,” PMG Declassified, NARA II.
45. “Areas Where Work Load of Food Increase.”
46. “Agreement for Civilian Internee and/or Prisoner of War Labor,” nd, 1-2, folder “Labor of P/W in Conservation,” PMG Declassified, NARA II.
47. Gordon, Dorothea Lange, 314. See also Connie Chiang, Nature behind Barbed Wire: An Environmental History of the Japanese American Incarceration (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018); Ellen D. Wu, The Color of Success: Asian Americans and the Origins of the Model Minority (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014); Lane Ryo Hirabayashi with Kenichiro Shimada, Japanese American Resettlement through the Lens: Hikaru Carl Iwasaki and the WRA’s Photographic Section, 1943-1945 (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2009).
48. “Arkansas Swamp to Be Reclaimed,” Chillicothe Constitution-Tribune, June 13, 1942, 4; Donald C. Swain, “The Bureau of Reclamation and the New Deal, 1933-1940,” Pacific Northwest Quarterly 61, no. 3 (July 1970): 137-46.
49. “Arkansas Swamp to Be Reclaimed,” 4.
50. War Relocation Authority, “The Relocation Program: A Guidebook for Residents of Relocation Centers,” May 1943, 2, Densho Digital Repository, https://ddr.densho.org/ddrcsujad-7-23/ (accessed Oct. 29, 2019).
51. “Military Areas 1 and 2,” Densho Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.densho.org/Military_Areas_1_and_2/ (accessed Oct. 29, 2019).
52. “Object to Jap Farmer Group near Marengo,” Chicago Tribune, Apr. 25, 1943, 1; “Miller Arranges Meeting Tuesday,” Marengo Republican-News, Apr. 29, 1943, 1; Tom Cook, “German POW Came Back to Nebraska,” Lincoln Star, June 16, 1976, 18; “Nisei Situation Unsettled at Shelton, Gibbon,” Fremont Tribune, Apr. 10, 1945, 1.
53. Charles E. Mace, “Many of the Large Farms along the Missouri River,” Sept. 2, 1943, local call number WRA no. H-257, Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley; Charles E. Mace, “Showing Some of the Dormitories and the Mess Hall,” Sept. 2, 1943, local call number WRA no. H-260, Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley.
54. “German War Prisoners in the County,” 11.
55. Montez, “Message Boards.”
56. “The Front Gate of the Pow Camp at Hellwig Brothers Farm on Gumbo Flats,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Mar. 1945; Carol Stelzer, interview by author, Hill Community Center, St. Louis, May 3, 2018, copy held by author.
57. John F. Godfrey to John P. Cody, Apr. 27, 1944, Chancery Files, PRSH/23131, RG4c5.2, Ascension (Chesterfield) Correspondence (1941-1988), Archdiocese of St. Louis Archives, St. Louis, MO (hereafter Archdiocesan Ascension Correspondence); David Fiedler, The Enemy among Us: POWs in Missouri during World War II (St. Louis: Missouri History Museum Press, 2003), 291; Robert A. Clavenna, “I Was a Stranger and You Took Me In,” St. Louis Review, Dec. 12, 1958, 13, Saint Louis Review News Clipping File, Ascension—Chesterfield, HIST/1116918, RG 07 B 16, Archdiocese of St. Louis Archives, St. Louis, MO (hereafter Archdiocesan Ascension Newspapers).
58. Clavenna, “I Was a Stranger and You Took Me In.”
59. Fiedler, The Enemy among Us, 292.
60. Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, with Annex, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), July 27, 1929, 2734 LNTS 118 (entered into force June 19, 1931); “Agreement for Civilian Internee and/or Prisoner of War Labor.”
61. The Bracero and H2 Visa Programs brought temporary laborers into American agriculture from Mexico, the Bahamas, and Jamaica. The WFA administered both programs. See Martínez-Matsuda, “For Labor and Democracy”; Clark, “Coercion and Contract at the Margins”; Loza, Defiant Braceros; Cindy Hahamovitch, No Man’s Land: Jamaican Guestworkers in America and the Global History of Deportable Labor (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011).
62. Ward, “‘Nazis Hoe Cotton,‘” 482.
63. “High School Boys and Girls Help in Gathering Spinach,” 3; “Chesterfield Case Is Example: Mexican Farm Labor Treated Worse than Prisoners of War,” St. Louis Review, Sept. 24, 1954, Archdiocesan Ascension Newspapers.
64. John P. Cody to John F. Godfrey, May 2, 1944, Archdiocesan Ascension Correspondence.
65. Godfrey to Cody, Apr. 27, 1944.
66. Cody to Godfrey, May 2, 1944.
67. Edward A. Bruemmer to John P. Cody, Dec. 19, 1944, Archdiocesan Ascension Correspondence; Edward A. Bruemmer to John P. Cody, Dec. 26, 1944, Archdiocesan Ascension Correspondence.
68. See James C. Scott, Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2017).
69. Loza, Defiant Braceros; Hahamovitch, No Man’s Land; de Genova, The Deportation Regime; Mae Ngai, Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004), 136.
70. Clark, “Coercion and Contracts at the Margins,” 625.
71. See also Salinas, Managed Migrations, Chpts. 4-5.
72. “Chesterfield Case Is Example.”
73. “Chesterfield Case Is Example.”
74. Mace, “Showing Some of the Dormitories and the Mess Hall”; E. S. Evans and Robert J. Kelly, “Suit over Farm’s Rent-Free Housing,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Sept. 1, 1972, 1C.
75. Salinas, Managed Migrations, 66.
76. St. Louis County, Missouri vs. Hellwig Bros., Inc., Petition for Injunction, 336190 St. Louis County Circuit Court, 1972.
77. Consolidated Index Sheet, May 9, 1944, 1, folder “Food”, box 1206, Prisoner of War Operations Division, Operations Branch, Unclassified Decimal File, 1942-45, Cross Index, E to I, PMG Unclassified, NARA II.
78. Dodson, “Race and Contested Rural Space in the Missouri Delta.”
79. For food security, see Stephen K. Wegren, Alexander M. Nikulin, and Irina Trotsuk, “The Russian Variant of Food Security,” Problems of Post-Communism 64, no. 1 (2017): 47-62; Angga Dwiartama and Ciniza Piatti, “Assembling Local, Assembling Food Security,” Agriculture and Human Values 33 (2016): 153-64.
80. Ricardo Rodriguez, interview by author, St. Charles, Missouri, Sept. 28, 2018.
81. In 1912 the Archdiocese of St. Louis established a “Spanish Mission” for Mexican, Mexican American, and Spanish migrants who worked at a local zinc factory. The archdiocese closed the mission in 1932, after repatriation campaigns removed much of St. Louis’s Mexican and Mexican American population. See “Spanish Colony Opens Its Church.” For Ritter desegregating the archdiocese, see Tim O’Neil, “Sept. 21, 1947—Parents Protest after St. Louis Catholic Schools Are Integrated,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Sept. 21, 2020.
82. John F. Godfrey to Joseph E. Ritter, Apr. 25, 1951, Archdiocesan Ascension Correspondence.
83. Godfrey to Ritter, Apr. 25, 1951.
84. John F. Godfrey, El Pequeño Voz, 1955, Archdiocesan Ascension Correspondence; John F. Godfrey to Joseph E. Ritter, July 15, 1956, Archdiocesan Ascension Correspondence; William M. Drumm to John F. Godfrey, July 17, 1956, Archdiocesan Ascension Correspondence.
85. Timothy M. Matovina, Guadalupe and Her Faithful: Latino Catholics in San Antonio, from Colonial Origins to the Present (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005); “Catholics to Meet on Mexican Labor,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Apr. 24, 1960, 7G.
86. See Hester, Deportation; and de Genova, The Deportation Regime.
87. “Chesterfield Case Is Example”; John F. Godfrey, “Enjoyed the ‘Stage 7,‘” Saint Louis Post-Dispatch, Dec. 23, 1956, 8.
88. Loza, Defiant Braceros; Salinas, Managed Migrations; Deborah Cohen, Braceros: Migrant Citizens and Transnational Subjects in the Postwar United States and Mexico (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011); Douglas S. Massey and Karen A. Pren, “Unintended Consequences of US Immigration Policy: Explaining the Post-1965 Surge from Latin America,” Population and Development Review 38, no. 1 (Mar. 2012): 1-29.
89. Charles Matiella, “Message Board: Hellwig Brothers Chesterfield Missouri,” Ancestry.com, Feb. 12, 2014.
90. Matiella, “Message Board”; Rodriguez interview; Fiedler, The Enemy among Us; “German War Prisoners in the County,” 11.
91. St. Louis County, Missouri vs. Hellwig Bros. Inc., “Helwig [sic] Farm: Minimum Housing Plumbing Investigation,” Exhibit B, 336190 St. Louis County Circuit Court, 1972.
92. Evans and Kelly, “Suit over Farm’s Rent-Free Housing,” 1C.
93. St. Louis County, Missouri vs. Hellwig Bros. Inc., “Petition for Injunction,” 336190 St. Louis County Circuit Court, 1972, 3-4.
94. Evans and Kelly, “Suit over Farm’s Rent-Free Housing,” 1C.
95. St. Louis County, Missouri vs. Hellwig Bros., Inc., Answer, 336190 St. Louis County Circuit Court, 1972, 1-2.
96. “Part 620—Housing for Agricultural Workers,” Federal Register 33, no. 213 (Oct. 31, 1968): 15992. First proposed in “Part 620—Housing for Agricultural Workers,” Federal Register 33, no. 138 (July 17, 1968): 10266.
97. “Part 620—Housing for Agricultural Workers,” 15992.
98. “Part 620—Housing for Agricultural Workers,” 15992-15994.
99. St. Louis County, Missouri vs. Hellwig Bros., Inc., Answer, 336190 St. Louis County Circuit Court, 1972, 2.
100. D. D. Obika, “Poor Called Victims in Blight Fight,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Jan. 17, 1973, 5N.
101. St. Louis County, Missouri vs. Hellwig Bros., Inc., 336190 St. Louis County Circuit Court (1975).
102. Koenig, “Hellwig Brothers Selling Farm in Chesterfield after 45 Years,” 1, 5.
103. Koenig, “Hellwig Brothers Selling Farm in Chesterfield after 45 Years,” 1.
104. Koenig, “Hellwig Brothers Selling Farm in Chesterfield after 45 Years,” 5.
105. “Restrictions Eased as Authorities Meet on Dayton Incident,” Minidoka Irrigator, Aug. 7, 1943, 3; “Object to Jap Farmer Group near Marengo,” 1; “Miller Arranges Meeting Tuesday,” 1; John Seabrook and Andrew Urban, “South Jersey’s Seabrook Farms: Innovation, Discrimination, and Opportunity,” South Jersey Times, Mar. 10, 2020; Schmitter Heisler, “The ‘Other Braceros,‘” 241.