Abstract

This study aims to incorporate sociocultural and everyday life historical perspectives into the existing research on South Korean land reform. It seeks to position the excluded voices of farmers into the narrative of economic history and, by doing so, examines the possibility of comparative studies of land reform within the politics of Cold War developmentalism. South Korean land reform in 1950 transformed most tenant farmers into independent small farm owners. Tenant farmers attained their long-held desire to own land, but individual farm management left them in a precarious state. Disconnected from organized labor as well as from landlords’ financial support, small-landed farmers began to suffer from the effects of low household income and a chronic lack of operating funds. To make matters worse, under the Syngman Rhee government, post–Korean War rehabilitation focused on fostering manufacturing while controlling inflation through intervention in the agricultural sector. In time, agrarian poverty led to a rural exodus, with the population of farm households dipping below 50 percent for the first time in 1969. In part because of these rapid shifts in population and production, the problems of a contracting agricultural sector were reduced to the problems of an expanding manufacturing sector. This context framed the South Korean government’s decision to initiate the New Village Movement under the slogan of rural modernization.

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NOTES

1. Kim Chun-bo, Han’guk chabonjuŭisa yŏn’gu [A Study on the History of Korean Capitalism], vol. 2 (Seoul: Ilchogak, 1974); Pak Hyŏn-ch’ae, Han’guk nongŏp ŭi kusang [Plans for Korean Agriculture] (Seoul: Han’gilsa, 1981); Hwang Han-sik, “Han’guk nongji kaehyŏk yŏn’gu [A Study on the South Korean Land Reform],” in Han’guk hyŏndaesa [Contemporary History of Korea], vol. 1, ed. Ch’oe Chang-jip (Seoul: Yŏlŭmsa, 1985).
2. For comprehensive information and data on the enactment, execution, and aftermath of the Land Reform Law, see Kim Sŏng-ho et al., eds., Nongji kaehyŏksa yŏn’gu [A Study on the History of the Land Reform in South Korea] (Seoul: Han’guk nongch’on kyŏngje yŏn’guwŏn, 1989). See also Chang Sang-hwan, “Nongji kaehyŏk kwajŏng e kwanhan siljŭngjŏk yŏn’gu— Ch’ungnam Sŏsan-gun Kŭnhŭng-myŏn ŭi silt’ae chosa rŭl chungsim ŭro [A Case Study on the Process of South Korean Land Reform—Centering on the Survey of Actual Conditions in Kŭnhŭng-myŏn, Sŏsan-gun, Ch’ungnam Province],” in Haebang chŏnhusa ŭi insik [Perceptions of Korean History Before and After Liberation], vol. 2, ed. Han’gilsa (Seoul: Han’gilsa, 1985); Pak Sŏk-tu, “Nongji kaehyŏk kwa singminji chijuje ŭi haech’e: Kyŏngju Yi ssi ka ŭi t’oji kyŏngyŏng sarye rŭl chungsim ŭro [The Land Reform and the Dissolution of the Colonial Landlord System: Centering on the Case of Kyŏngju Yi Clan’s Farm Management],” Kyŏngje sahak [Review of Economic History] 11 (Dec. 1987): 187–281.
3. Pang Kie-chung, “Nongji kaehyŏk sasang chŏnt’ong kwa nongjŏng inyŏm [The Intellectual Tradition and Agrari-political Ideology of the Land Reform],” in Nongji kaehyŏk yŏn’gu [Studies on the Land Reform], ed. Hong Sŏng-ch’an (Seoul: Yŏnse taehakkyo ch’ulp‘anbu, 2001); Pang Kie-chung and Michael D. Shin, eds., Landlords, Peasants and Intellectuals in Modern Korea (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University East Asia Program, 2005); Kim Sŏng-bo, Nam-Pukhan kyŏngje kujo ŭi kiwŏn kwa chŏn’gae: Pukhan nongŏp ch’eje ŭi hyŏngsŏng ŭl chungsim ŭro [Origin and Development of North and South Korean Economic Structures: Centering on the Formation of the North Korean Agricultural System] (Seoul: Yŏksa pip’yŏngsa, 2000); Hong Sŏng-ch’an, ed., Nongji kaehyŏk yŏn’gu [Studies on the Land Reform] (Seoul: Yŏnse taehakkyo ch’ulp‘anbu, 2001).
4. Alice H. Amsden, Asia’s Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989); John Lie, Han Unbound: The Political Economy of South Korea (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998); Robert Wade, Governing the Market: Economic Theory and the Role of Government in East Asian Industrialization (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990); Peter Evans, Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995).
5. Sŏ Chung-sŏk, “Ilche sigi Mi kunjŏnggi ŭi chwau taerip kwa t’oji munje [Left-Right Confrontations and Land Issues in Korea during the Periods of the Japanese Colonial Rule and the US Military Government],” Han’guksa yŏn’gu [Journal of Korean History] 67 (Dec. 1989): 101–46; Pak T’ae-gyun, Wŏnhyŏng kwa pyŏnyong: Han’guk kyŏngje kaebal kyehoek ŭi kiwŏn [Archetype and Metamorphosis: The Origin of Korea’s Economic Development Plans] (Seoul: Seoul taehakkyo ch’ulp’anbu, 2007), 28–35.
6. For the Land Reform in North Korea, see Kim, Nam-Pukhan kyŏngje kujo ŭi kiwŏn kwa chŏn’gae [Origin and Development of North and South Korean Economic Structures].
7. Kim et al., eds., Nongji kaehyŏksa yŏn’gu [A Study on the History of the Land Reform in South Korea], 1211.
8. Kim et al., eds., Nongji kaehyŏksa yŏn’gu [A Study on the History of the Land Reform in South Korea], 1211–18.
9. The market price of agricultural land was generally 400 percent of normal crop harvest. For more information, see Han’guk nongch’on kyŏngje yŏn’guwŏn [Korea Rural Economic Institute], Nongji kaehyŏksa kwan’gye charyojip [Historical Materials on the Land Reform], vol. 4 (Seoul: Han’guk nongch’on kyŏngje yŏn’guwŏn, 1984), 20; Kim et al., eds., Nongji kaehyŏksa yŏn’gu [A Study on the History of the Land Reform in South Korea], 456.
10. Hong Sŏng-ch’an, Han’guk kŭndae nongch’on sahoe ŭi pyŏndong kwa chijuch‘ŭng: 20-segi chŏnban’gi Chŏnnam Hwasun-gun Tongbok-myŏn iltae ŭi sarye [Land Tenure System and Changes in the Rural Society in Modern Korea: A Case Study on Tongbok Township in Hwasun County, South Chŏlla Province] (Seoul: Chisik sanŏpsa, 1992), 384–426; Chang Sang-hwan, “Nongji kaehyŏk kwajŏng e kwanhan silchŭngjŏk yŏn’gu (sang): Ch’ungnam Sŏsan-gun Kŭnhŭng-myŏn ŭi silt’ae chosa rŭl chungsim ŭro [An Empirical Study on the Process of the Land Reform (1): Centering on the Actual Conditions of Kŭnhŭng Township in Sŏsan County, South Ch’ungch‘ŏng Province],” Kyŏngje sahak [Review of Economic History] 8 (Dec. 1984): 241–72; Pak Sŏk-tu, “Nongji kaehyŏk kwa singminji chijuje ŭi haech’e: Kyŏngju Yi ssi ka ŭi t’oji kyŏngyŏng sarye rŭl chungsim ŭro [The Land Reform and the Dissolution of the Colonial Landlord System: Centering on the Case of Kyŏngju Yi clan’s Farm Management],” Kyŏngje sahak [Review of Economic History] 11 (Dec. 1987): 243–55.
11. Kim et al., eds., Nongji kaehyŏksa yŏn’gu [A Study on the History of the Land Reform in South Korea], 1029.
12. Pak Chin-do, “Nongji kaehyŏk ŭi yŏksajŏk han’gye [The Historical Limitations of the Land Reform],” Kŭnhyŏndaesa kangjwa [Issues on Modern History] 3 (1993): 122–34.
13. According to the official announcement of the Ministry of Agriculture on Dec. 21, 1949, the total number of farmhouses was 2,473,833, and the agricultural population reached 14,416,365, which was about 71 percent of total population in South Korea. For more information, see Han’guk nongch’on kyŏngje yŏn’guwŏn [Korea Rural Economic Institute], Nongji kaehyŏksa kwan’gye charyojip [Historical Materials on the Land Reform], vol. 3 (Seoul: Han’guk nongch’on kyŏngje yŏn’guwŏn, 1984), 23.
14. Yi Se-yŏng, P’ungdŏk maŭl ŭi Saemaŭl Undong: Yi Se-yŏng sugi [New Village Movement in P’ungdŏk Village: Yi Se-yŏng’s Memoir] (Seoul: Sŏul munhwa inswae, 2003), 118–20.
15. Yi, P’ungdŏk maŭl ŭi Saemaŭl Undong [New Village Movement in P’ungdŏk Village], 118.
16. Yi, P’ungdŏk maŭl ŭi Saemaŭl Undong [New Village Movement in P’ungdŏk Village], 118.
17. Nongnimbu [Ministry of Agriculture], Nongga kyŏngje chosa kyŏlgwa pogo [Report on the Results of the Farm Household Economy Survey] (Seoul: Nongnimbu, 1962–1970); Kim Chong-ch’ae, “Han’guk sahoe nongminch’ŭng punhae e kwanhan il yŏn’gu [A Study on Peasant Differentiation in Korean Society],” in Hyŏndae Han’guk ŭi nongŏp munje wa nodong undong [Agrarian Problems and the Labor Movement in Contemporary Korea], ed. Han’guk sahoesa yŏn’guhoe (Seoul: Munhak kwa chisŏngsa, 1990), 83.
18. For the percentage of farm households by the size of farmland, see Table 2.
19. Nongnimbu [Ministry of Agriculture], Nongga kyŏngje chosa kyŏlgwa pogo [Report on the Results of the Farm Household Economy Survey]; Kim Chong-ch’ae, “Han’guk sahoe nongminch’ŭng punhae e kwanhan il yŏn’gu [A Study on Peasant Differentiation in Korean Society],” 83.
20. “Nongch’on korich’ae 8-hal i ŭmsŏng kŭmyung sinse, Subak kŏt’alkisik Nongŭn chipkye ron 500-ŏk, Kanan halsurok ssaige maryŏn [80 percent of usurious loans in the countryside are illegal; the Agricultural Bank estimates the amount at 50 billion wŏn superficially; The poorer are bound to have more debts],” Chosŏn ilbo, Aug. 15, 1960.
21. Chu Kang-hyŏn, “Ilche singminji sidae ‘Ture’ ŭi munhakchŏk hyŏngsanghwa: Ture wa munhak ŭi him, p’ungsok ŭi him [Literary Descriptions of Ture in the Japanese Colonial Period: Ture and the Power of Literature and Custom],” Han’guk munhwa yŏn’gu [A Study on Korean Culture] 1 (Jan. 1998): 238–46.
22. Yi Ki-yŏng, Kohyang [Home Village] (1936; repr., Seoul: Munhak sasangsa, 1994), 261–62.
23. 20-segi minjung saenghwalsa yŏn’gudan [Research Group for the History of 20th Century People’s Lives], Han’guk minjung kusul yŏlchŏn (Vol. 18): Sŏ Sun-rye, 1927-yŏn 1-wŏl 23-il saeng [Oral Statements of Korea’s General Public (Vol. 18): Sŏ Sun-rye born in Jan. 23, 1927] (Seoul: Nunbit, 2007), 91.
24. According to Chu Kang-hyŏn’s analysis on the disappearing point of Ture, thirty Tures out of his sixty cases in total disappeared after the 1950s. In other words, 50 percent of Ture was actually disappearing after the land reform and the Korean War. Yet he adds that traditional Ture had already disappeared during colonial rule and that the Tures after the liberation of Korea were transformed and residual types of Ture. For more information, see Chu Kang-hyŏn, Ture, nongmin ŭi yŏksa [Ture, the History of Peasants] (Kyŏnggi-do P’aju-si: Tŭlnyŏk, 2006), 745–46.
25. There have been different opinions about the disappearance of Ture. Kang Chŏngt’aek, an agricultural economist who prepared a draft for the land reform as a vice-minister of agriculture in South Korea, understood that it had already begun to collapse at the end of the Japanese colonial period (Kang Chŏng-t’aek, Singminji Chosŏn ŭi nongch’on sahoe wa nongŏp kyŏngje: Kang Chŏng-t’aek sŏnsaeng ŭi saengae wa hangmun [The Rural Society and Economy in Colonial Korea: Kang Chŏng-t’aek’s Life and Scholarship], trans. Pak Tong-sŏng and ed. Yi Munung [Seoul: YBM Sisa, 2008]). Anthropologist Chu Kang-hyŏn explains that this phenomenon resulted from various factors, such as migration after the Korean War, rural outmigration since the 1960s, and the advent and diffusion of herbicides in the 1970s (Chu Kang-hyŏn, Ture, nongmin ŭi yŏksa [Ture, the History of Peasants], 746–49).
26. Chu, Han’guk ŭi Ture [Korea’s Ture], vol. 2 (Seoul: Chimmundang, 1997), 274.
27. Chu, Han’guk ŭi Ture [Korea’s Ture], vol. 2, 373.
28. Chu, Han’guk ŭi Ture [Korea’s Ture], vol. 2, 278.
29. Chu, Han’guk ŭi Ture [Korea’s Ture], vol. 2, 475.
30. Chu, Han’guk ŭi Ture [Korea’s Ture], vol. 2, 585.
31. Chu, Han’guk ŭi Ture [Korea’s Ture], vol. 2, 502.
32. Yi, P’ungdŏk maŭl ŭi Saemaŭl Undong [New Village Movement in P’ungdŏk Village], 118.
33. O Ch’ang-hyŏn, “Nongji kaehyŏk kwa maŭl kongdongch’e ŭi pyŏnhyŏng: Kyŏnggi tongnambu ŭi tu chiyŏk ŭl chungsim ŭro [Land Reform and the Transformation of Rural Community: A Comparative Study on Two Districts in Kyŏnggi Province],” Pigyo munhwa yŏn’gu [Cross-Cultural Studies] 14, no. 2 (July 2008): 95–101.
34. “Nongch’on nodongnyŏk: Chŏlmŭn nom ŭn ttŏnagado ttang i choba nama tonda [Labor power in the countryside: The size of farmland is so small that there is a surplus of land, even if the young move into the city],” Chosŏn ilbo, Aug. 22, 1960.
35. “Nongch’on nodongnyŏk [Labor power in the countryside].”
36. Chu, Han’guk ŭi Ture [Korea’s Ture], vol. 2, 274.
37. Han’guk nongch’on kyŏngje yŏn’guwŏn [Korea Rural Economic Institute], Nongga kyŏngje ŭi silchŭngjŏk chosa yŏn’gu [An Empirical Investigation of Farm Household Economy] (Seoul: Han’guk nongch’on kyŏngje yŏn’guwŏn, 1986), 48; Kim Chong-ch’ae, “Han’guk sahoe nongminch’ŭng punhae e kwanhan il yŏn’gu [A Study on Peasant Differentiation in Korean Society],” in Han’guk sahoesa yŏn’guhoe, Hyŏndae Han’guk ŭi nongŏp munje wa nodong undong [Agrarian Problems and Labor Movement in Contemporary Korea], 74.
38. “Mokpulin’gyŏn ŭi ch’amsang [Unbearable misery to witness],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Apr. 2, 1956.
39. “Maengnyŏnggi e hŏdŏginŭn nongch’on ch’amsang [The misery of rural villages struggling with Barley Hill season],” Tonga ilbo, June 6, 1955; “Mokpulin’gyŏn ŭi ch’amsang [Unbearable misery to witness].”
40. “Sum kappun porit kogae, Ch’ungnam sŏman 200-yŏ sedae ka inong [Breathless Barley Hill; About 200 farm households leave the land in South Ch’ungch‘ŏng Province alone],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Mar. 26, 1953; “Sum kappŭl porit kogae [Barley Hill to be breathless],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Apr. 30, 1955; “Sum kappŭn porit kogae (sang)(chung)(ha) [Breathless Barley Hill (1)(2)(3)],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, June 4–6, 1957; “Ch’un‘gung pori nŭn charajiman porit kogae nŭn sum kappŭda [Although barley keeps growing during the spring poverty season, the Barley Hill still makes life hard],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Apr. 4, 1959.
41. “Pyŏkchisŏn ch’ogŭnmokp’i ro yŏnmyŏng [Remote villagers subsist on herb-roots and tree-bark],” Tonga ilbo, Jan. 31, 1957.
42. “Susujuk kkŭrinŭn ch‘ŭng ŭn sangryu, Puhwangj‘ŭng hwanja sokch’ul [Sorghum porridge is a rather better meal for the rich; Patients with symptoms of yellowish swelling from starvation appear in succession],” Tonga ilbo, Feb. 23, 1957.
43. “Mokpulin’gyŏn ŭi ch’amsang [Unbearable misery to witness]”; “Sangsang oe ŭi ch’amsang …, Chŏllyang nongga honam hyŏnji pogo [Misery beyond imagination; Field report on food-short farm households in Chŏlla Province],” Tonga ilbo, Mar. 11, 1957.
44. “Pyŏkchisŏn ch’ogŭnmokp’i ro yŏnmyŏng [Remote villagers subsist on herb-roots and tree-bark]”; “Susujuk kkŭrinŭn ch‘ŭng ŭn sangryu, Puhwangj‘ŭng hwanja sokch’ul [Sorghum porridge is a rather better meal for the rich; Patients with symptoms of yellowish swelling from starvation appear in succession]”; “Puhwangjŭng e kŏllyŏ imi 5-myŏng samang [Five dead already from yellowish swelling from starvation],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Mar. 30, 1958.
45. “9-hal i kyŏlsik adong, Chuch’on kungmin hakkyo ŭi ch’amsang [90 percent of students undernourished; The misery of Chuch’on elementary school],” Tonga ilbo, June 13, 1956.
46. “Kyŏlsik adong 7000-yŏmyŏng, Hongch‘ŏn-gun ha ŭi ch’amsang [7000 poorly fed children; The misery of Honch‘ŏn County],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, July 11, 1956.
47. “Inong, chasal nallo nŭnda [Rural exodus and suicide increase day by day],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Mar. 25, 1957.
48. “Ssal an chundago panghwa, Sum kappŭn porit kogae [Refusal to lend rice leads man to set fire to his friend’s house; The misery of breathless Barley Hill],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, May 10, 1955.
49. “Ton poda ssal chuo, Porit kogae ka chun pŏmjoe [Give me rice rather than money! Crime caused by Barley Hill],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, May 21, 1955.
50. “Inong, chasal nallo nŭnda [Rural exodus and suicide increase day by day].”
51. “Porit kogae aptugo sokch’ul hanŭn chasal [Facing the Barley Hill, a rash of suicides],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Jan. 18, 1956.
52. Nonsusanbu [Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries], Han’guk yangjŏngsa [History of Korean Food Policies] (Seoul: Nongsusanbu, 1978), 41.
53. “P’ungnyŏn kigŭn ŭi ch’amsang [The misery of a rich year’s famine],” Tonga ilbo, Dec. 4, 1957.
54. Yi Tae-gŭn, Haebang hu 1950-yŏndae ŭi kyŏngje: Kongŏphwa ŭi sachŏk paegyŏng yŏn’gu [The Post-Liberation Economy of 1950s Korea: A Study on the Historical Background of Industrialization] (Seoul: Samsŏng kyŏngje yŏn’guso, 2002), 430.
55. “P’ungnyŏn kigŭn ŭi ch’amsang [The misery of a rich year’s famine].”
56. “P’ungnyŏn kigŭn ŭi ch’amsang [The misery of a rich year’s famine].”
57. “Pori sŏnmae tto sijak [The advance sale of barley starts again],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Mar. 15, 1953; “Porit kogae e hŏdŏginŭn nongch’on [Rural villages struggling with Barley Hill],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, May 21, 1955.
58. “Monaegi to kkŭnnagi chŏn e ipto sŏnmae sŏnghaeng [The advance sale of rice prevalent even before finishing rice planting],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, July 23, 1955; “Pŏlssŏ put’ŏ ipto sŏnmae [The advance sale of rice already occurring],” Tonga ilbo, Aug. 14, 1955; “Pŏlssŏ put’ŏ kogaedŭn ipto sŏnmae [The advance sale of rice already rears its head],” Tonga ilbo, July 28, 1956; “Ipto sŏnmae sŏnghaeng [The advance sale of rice is prevalent],” Tonga ilbo, Sept. 20, 1957; “Pŏlssŏ put’ŏ ipto ŭi sŏnmae sŏnghaeng [The advance sale of rice is already prevalent],” Tonga ilbo, Aug. 2, 1958; “Pŏlssŏ chŏnnong ŭi pan i ipto sŏnmae [Half of the total farm households already sell standing rice plants before harvest],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Sept. 25, 1960.
59. “Porit kogae e hŏdŏginŭn nongch’on [Rural villages struggling with Barley Hill],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, May 21, 1955; “Monaegi to kkŭnnagi chŏn e ipto sŏnmae sŏnghaeng [The advance sale of rice prevalent even before finishing rice planting],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, July 23, 1955.
60. “Yŏjŏnhan ipto sŏnmae [The advance sale of rice still continues],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Oct. 1, 1953; “Ipto sŏnmae chagŭm ŭi sibiron [The rights and wrongs of the advance sale prevention fund],” Tonga ilbo, Aug. 30, 1954.
61. “Ipto sŏnmae chagŭm ŭi sibiron [The rights and wrongs of the advance sale prevention fund].”
62. “Sasŏl: Ch’un’gunggi chŏllyang nongga e taehan taebich’aek ŭl sewŏra [Editorial: Take relief measures for food-short farm households in the spring poverty season],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Mar. 3, 1954.
63. “Ipto sŏnmae chagŭm ŭi sibiron [The rights and wrongs of the advance sale prevention fund].”
64. “Ipto sŏnmae chagŭm ŭi sibiron [The rights and wrongs of the advance sale prevention fund].”
65. “Nongch’on kungp’ip ŭi taech’aek ŭn? [What are the countermeasures against rural poverty?],” Tonga ilbo, Jan. 14, 1955.
66. “Yŏjŏn han ipto sŏnmae [The advance sale of rice still continues],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Oct. 1, 1953; “Nongch’on ŭi mosun t’agaech’aek [Remedy for the problems in the rural villages],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Aug. 9, 1954; “Ipto sŏnmae chagŭm ŭi sibiron [The rights and wrongs of the advance sale prevention fund]”; “Nongch’on kungp’ip ŭi taech’aek ŭn? [What are the countermeasures against rural poverty?].”
67. Pang Kie-chung, “1953–55-yŏn Kŭmyungjohap Yŏnhaphoe ŭi Siksan’gye Puhŭng Saŏp yŏn’gu: Yi Sŭng-man chŏngkwŏn ŭi hyŏptongjohap chŏngch’aek kwa kwallyŏn hayŏ [A Study on the Siksan’gye Reconstruction Movement of the Financial Association, 1953–1955: In relation to the Syngman Rhee Regime’s Agricultural Cooperatives Policy],” Tongbanghakchi 105 (Sept. 1999): 208.
68. Nongji kaehyŏksa p’yŏnch’an wiwŏnhoe [The Land Reform History Compilation Committee], Nongji kaehyŏksa [History of the Land Reform in South Korea], vol. 1 (Seoul: Nongji kaehyŏksa p’yŏnch’an wiwŏnhoe, 1971), 369–70; Pang Kie-chung, “Haebang chŏnggukki chungganp’a nosŏn ŭi kyŏngje sasang: Kang Chin-guk ŭi sanŏp chaegŏnnon kwa nongŏp kaehyŏknon ŭl chungsim ŭro” [Economic Thought of the Neutral Parties in Post-Liberation Period: Centering on Kang Chin-guk’s Ideas of Industrial Reconstruction and Agricultural Reform],” in Kyŏngje iron kwa Han’guk kyŏngje: Ch’oe Ho-jin paksa kangdan 50-chunyŏn kinyŏm nonmunjip [Economic Theories and Korean Economy] (Seoul: Pakyŏngsa, 1993), 185.
69. Pang, “Nongji kaehyŏk sasang chŏnt’ong kwa nongjŏng inyŏm [The Intellectual Tradition and Agri-political Ideology of the Land Reform],” 121–27.
70. Chin Hŭng-bok, “Chonghap nonghyŏp ŭi sŏllip [The Establishment of the Comprehensive Agricultural Cooperatives],” in Nongjŏng pansegi chŭngŏn [Witnesses to the Half-Century History of Korean Agricultural Administration], ed. Han’guk nongch’on kyŏngje yŏn’guwŏn [Korea Rural Economic Institute] (Seoul: Nongnimbu, 1999), 147–58; Han’guk nongch’on kyŏngje yŏn’guwŏn [Korea Rural Economic Institute], Han’guk nongjŏng 50-yŏnsa [50 Years of Agricultural Policies in Korea], vol. 2 (Seoul: Nongnimbu, 1999), 2408.
71. Chŏng Chin-a, “Che-1 Konghwaguk ch’ogi (1948–1950) ŭi kyŏngje chŏngch’aek yŏn’gu [A Study on the Economic Policies in the Early First Republic of Korea, 1948–1950],” Han’guksa yŏn’gu [Journal of Korean History] 106 (Sept. 1999): 231–71; Chŏng Chin-a, “Che-1 Konghwaguk (1948–1960) Yi Sŭng-man chŏngkwŏn ŭi kyŏngje chŏngch’aek yŏn’gu: Kukka chudo sanŏphwa chŏngch’aek kwa kyŏngje kaebal kyehoek ŭl chungsim ŭro [The Syngman Rhee Government’s Economic Policies in the First Republic of Korea, 1948–1960: State-led Industrialization Policies and Economic Development Plans]” (PhD diss., Yonsei University, 2007), 59–155.
72. “Yŏjŏk [Excursus (Kyŏnghyang sinmun column)],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Feb. 9, 1957; “Hoengsŏl susŏl [Nonsense],” Tonga ilbo, Mar. 16, 1955.
73. Chin, “Chonghap nonghyŏp ŭi sŏllip [The Establishment of the Comprehensive Agricultural Cooperatives],” 153–58; Han’guk nongch’on kyŏngje yŏn’guwŏn [Korea Rural Economic Institute], Han’guk nongjŏng 50-yŏnsa [50 Years of Agricultural Policies in Korea], vol. 2, 2414–15.
74. “Nongŏp hyŏpcho pŏban t’onggwa [Law on Agricultural Cooperatives passes],” Tonga ilbo, Feb. 2, 1957; “Nongŭn pŏban wanjŏn t’onggwa [Law on the Agricultural Bank passes completely],” Tonga ilbo, Feb. 3, 1957; “Nongŭn sŏllip wi kusŏng [Committee set up to establish an Agricultural Bank],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Apr. 8, 1957.
75. Nongŏp hyŏptong chohap chunganghoe [National Agricultural Cooperative Federation], Han’guk nongŏp kŭmyungsa [History of Korean Agricultural Finance] (Seoul: Nongŏp hyŏptong chohap chunganghoe, 1963), 283–84.
76. Nongŏp hyŏptong chohap chunganghoe [National Agricultural Cooperative Federation], Han’guk nongŏp kŭmyungsa [History of Korean Agricultural Finance], 283.
77. Kim Tong-uk, “1940–1950-yŏndae Han’guk ŭi inp’ŭlleisyŏn kwa anjŏnghwa chŏngch’aek [A Study on Inflation and the Stability Policy in Korea during the 1940s and 1950s]” (PhD diss., Yonsei University, 1994); Chŏng, “Che-1 Konghwaguk (1948–1960) Yi Sŭng-man chŏngkwŏn ŭi kyŏngje chŏngch’aek yŏn’gu [The Syngman Rhee Government’s Economic Policies in the First Republic of Korea, 1948–1960],” 59–155.
78. Chŏng, “Che-1 Konghwaguk (1948–1960) Yi Sŭng-man chŏngkwŏn ŭi kyŏngje chŏngch’aek yŏn’gu [The Syngman Rhee Government’s Economic Policies in the First Republic of Korea, 1948–1960],” 84–100.
79. Paek Tu-jin, “Wŏnjo mulcha wa Han’guk kyŏngje [Foreign Aid Goods and the Korean Economy],” Kukhoebo [National Assembly Report] 1 (Nov. 1949): 44–49.
80. Kim So-nam, “1950-yŏndae Imsi t’oji sudŭkse pŏp ŭi sihaeng kwajŏng yŏn’gu [A Study on the Enforcement of the Land Income Tax Law in 1950s Korea],” Yŏksa wa hyŏnsil [Quarterly Review of Korean History] 43 (Mar. 2002): 279–80.
81. Yi Tae-gŭn, Han’guk chŏnjaeng kwa 1950-yŏndae chabon ch’ukchŏk [The Korean War and Capital Accumulation in the 1950s] (Seoul: Kkach’i, 1987), 174.
82. Yi Ho-ch’ŏl, “Imsi t’oji sudŭkse pugwa [The Imposition of the Temporary Land Yield Tax],” in Nongjŏng pansegi chŭngŏn [Witnesses to the Half-Century History of Korean Agricultural Administration], 57–72.
83. Kim, “1950-yŏndae Imsi t’oji sudŭkse pŏp ŭi sihaeng kwajŏng yŏn’gu [A Study on the Enforcement of the Land Income Tax Law in 1950s Korea],” 293–98.
84. Kim, “1950-yŏndae Imsi t’oji sudŭkse pŏp ŭi sihaeng kwajŏng yŏn’gu [A Study on the Enforcement of the Land Income Tax Law in 1950s Korea],” 298–300.
85. Kim Hyŏng-hwa and Kim Pyŏng-t’aek, Kyŏngje palchŏn kwa migok chŏngch’aek: Chŏn’gae kwajŏng kwa palchŏn panghyang [Economic Development and Rice Policy in Korea: Development Process and Direction] (Seoul: Han’guk nongch’on kyŏngje yŏn’guwŏn, 1984), 46–149; Yi, “Imsi t’oji sudŭkse pugwa [The Imposition of the Temporary Land Yield Tax],” 64.
86. “T’oji sudŭkse chingsu rŭl wallyo [Collection of the Land Yield Tax completed],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Jan. 5, 1954.
87. “Sudŭkse minapcha e ch’aap ŭl tanhaeng [The Land Yield Tax defaulters foreclosed upon],” Tonga ilbo, Dec. 8, 1955; “Nongch’on ŭi ch’aap sodong [Property seizure disturbance in rural villages],” Tonga ilbo, Dec. 14, 1955; “T’ojise minapcha e ch’aap sodong ausŏng ch’inŭn Okku-gun Imp’i-myŏnmin [Residents of Imp’i Township in Okgu County cry out for seizure of property on default caused by the Land Yield Tax],” Tonga ilbo, Dec. 26, 1955.
88. “T’osuse sunap kanggwŏn e ch’aap chungji hoso [Farmers appeal to stop seizure of property against strong-arm collection of the Land Yield Tax],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Dec. 9, 1955.
89. “T’osuse sunap kanggwŏn e ch’aap chungji hoso [Farmers appeal to stop seizure of property against strong-arm collection of the Land Yield Tax]”; “T’ojise minapcha e ch’aap sodong ausŏng ch’inŭn Okku-gun Imp’i-myŏnmin [Residents of Imp’i Township in Okgu County cry out for seizure of property on default caused by the Land Yield Tax].”
90. “Nongch’on ŭi ch’aap sodong [Property seizure disturbance in rural villages].”
91. “Nongch’on ŭi ch’aap sodong [Property seizure disturbance in rural villages]”; “Kŭmp’um i chwau hanŭn t’oji sudŭkse chojŏng [The Land Yield Tax easily determined by bribes; Adjustment needed],” Tonga ilbo, Oct. 1, 1957.
92. “Chŏng-Pu myŏnjang hoch’ul [The chief and deputy chief of a township summoned],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Mar. 10, 1955; “Seri wa myŏnjang tŭng kiso, hŏwi kongmunsŏ rŭl chaksŏng [Tax officials and a township chief prosecuted for forgery of official documents],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, May 22, 1955; “Sudŭkse sakkam mikki ro seri wa myŏn chigwŏn hyŏpchap [Tax officials and a township chief trick farmers by offering to reduce the Land Yield Tax],” Tonga ilbo, June 21, 1955; “Chibang kwan’gi e ilŏn, Sŏndaegŭm haengbang kunggŭm [Remark on the discipline of local officials: Where have the funds for farmers gone?],” Tonga ilbo, Dec. 7, 1955; “Sudŭkse kamhae chundago ilturak 500-hwan kyakch’ul [Man offers to reduce the Land Yield Tax asking for 500 hwan per patch of rice paddy],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Nov. 20, 1956; “Ton patko t’osuse kammyŏn, Suhoehan seri rŭl kusok [Tax official arrested for reducing the Land Yield Tax and taking bribes],” Tonga ilbo, Nov. 19, 1959; “Myŏnjang i kŭmp’um ŭl kangyo, kamse sik’yŏ chukettago [Township chief demands money by offering reduction of tax],” Tonga ilbo, Dec. 1, 1959.
93. “Chŏng-Pu myŏnjang hoch’ul [The chief and deputy chief of a township summoned]”; “Kŏaek hoengnyŏng hyŏmŭi ro Tong-Sŏdaemun Semusŏ naesa [Tongdaemun and Sŏdaemun tax offices under internal investigation on suspicion of large-scale embezzlement],” Tonga ilbo, July 8, 1955; “Pujŏng seri p’igŏm [Corrupt tax officials arrested],” Tonga ilbo, Aug. 19, 1955; “T’ojise pujŏng chingsu myŏn ch’ŏsa e pinansŏng [Loud criticism against township office’s corrupted collection of the Land Yield Tax],” Tonga ilbo, Nov. 26, 1955; “Konyang-myŏnjang kusok paeim, hoengnyŏng hyŏmŭi ro [Chief of Konyang Township arrested on charges of malpractice and embezzlement],” Tonga ilbo, Nov. 27, 1955; “Sudŭkse ch’akpok, Sŏsam-myŏnjang ŭi piwi [Embezzlement of the Land Yield Tax; Corruption of Sŏsam Township’s chief],” Tonga ilbo, Aug. 4, 1956; “Myŏnjang pihaeng soksok t’allo, Haengjŏng kamsa kyŏlgwa [Administrative inspection reveals misdeeds of a township chief file by file],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Nov. 10, 1956; “Tong-myŏn myŏnjang tŭng kusok, Chŏngbumi hoengnyŏng hyŏmŭi ro [Chief of Tong Township arrested in suspicion of embezzling government-stocked rice],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Mar. 8, 1957; “Myŏnjang tŭng i kyŏlt’ak, Chŏngbugok ŭl hoengnyŏng [Embezzlement of government-stocked rice occurs in collusion with township chief],” Tonga ilbo, Mar. 9, 1957; “Myŏnjang 3-myŏng ŭl kusok [Three township chiefs arrested],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Jan. 16, 1959; “Pujŏng kongmuwŏn tto 2-kŏn, Konggŭm t’osuse tŭng ŭl ch’akpok [Two more corruption cases of officials; Embezzlement of public money and the Land Yield Tax],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Feb. 5, 1959; “Sudŭkse hoengnyŏng, Inch’ŏn tu chigwŏn kusok [Two officials in Inch’ŏn arrested for embezzling the Land Yield Tax],” Tonga ilbo, Feb. 5, 1959; “Hoengnyŏng suroe se myŏnjang ŭl munch’o [Three township chiefs are under investigation on charges of embezzling and taking bribes],” Tonga ilbo, Feb. 17, 1959; “Chingsuhan segŭm chakpok, Sŏsam-myŏnjang ŭl sugam [Chief of Sŏsam Township put in jail on charge of embezzling tax revenue],” Tonga ilbo, Aug. 6, 1959.
94. “Salch’ungje mŏkko chasal [Man commits suicide by ingesting pesticide],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Sept. 21, 1957; “Sujaemin i chasal, Segŭm tokch’ok e mot igyŏ [Flood victim commits suicide under pressure of tax payment],” Tonga ilbo, Sept. 21, 1957; “Millin segŭm e chollyŏ chungnyŏn yŏin i ŭmdok chasal [Middle-aged woman commits suicide under the pressure of overdue tax],” Tonga ilbo, Oct. 29, 1959; “T’oji pangmae sŏnghaeng, Kakchong puch’ae tŭngssal e [All sorts of debt drive the widespread selling of farmland],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Feb. 9, 1955.
95. Pak Hyŏn-ch’ae, “Mi ingyŏ nongsanmul wŏnjo ŭi kyŏngjejŏk kwigyŏl [US Aid of Surplus Agricultural Products and Its Economic Consequences],” in 1950-yŏndae ŭi insik [Understanding the 1950s], ed. Chin Tŏk-kyu et al. (Seoul: Han’gilsa, 1981), 280.
96. Pak, “Mi ingyŏ nongsanmul wŏnjo ŭi kyŏngjejŏk kwigyŏl [US Aid of Surplus Agricultural Products and Its Economic Consequences],” 280.
97. “Tosi kyŏngje wa nongch’on kyŏngje [The urban economy and rural economy],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Nov. 25, 1954; “Nongch’on kungp’ip t’agae ŭi taech’aek (5) [Solutions to rural poverty (5)],” Tonga ilbo, July 26, 1955; “Ssal kwa piryo, Kyŏngje anjŏng munje ŭi ch’ochŏm (sang) [Rice and fertilizer; Key to economic stability (1)],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Sept. 18, 1955; “Nongmin ŭl salliryŏmyŏn (sang) [To save farmers (1)],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Mar. 30, 1956; “Singnyang chŏngch’aek e hoeŭi (2) [Skepticism about food policy (2)],” Tonga ilbo, May 20, 1957.
98. “P’ungjak edo kippŭm morŭn nongch’on, Kokka p’oknak e pimyŏng [Gloomy farm villages despite a good harvest; Shrieking in grain price collapse],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Oct. 6, 1953.
99. Pak, “Mi ingyŏ nongsanmul wŏnjo ŭi kyŏngjejŏk kwigyŏl [US Aid of Surplus Agricultural Products and Its Economic Consequences],” 285–86.
100. Pak, “Mi ingyŏ nongsanmul wŏnjo ŭi kyŏngjejŏk kwigyŏl [US Aid of Surplus Agricultural Products and Its Economic Consequences],” 282–83.
101. Pak, “Mi ingyŏ nongsanmul wŏnjo ŭi kyŏngjejŏk kwigyŏl [US Aid of Surplus Agricultural Products and Its Economic Consequences],” 288–89.
102. “Nongch’on ŭi pin’gon wi e tosi ŭi pŏnyŏng [Prosperity of the city at the cost of rural poverty],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Aug. 4, 1960.
103. “Nongch’on ŭi pin’gon wi e tosi ŭi pŏnyŏng [Prosperity of the city at the cost of rural poverty].”
104. “Kyŏngje ŭi iyul paebansŏng (7): Kokka wa chŏmulka [Contradictions of the economy (7): Grain price and low prices],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Sept. 21, 1960.
105. “Kokka wa changgwan saim [Grain price and the minister’s resignation],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Apr. 8, 1954.
106. “Nongmin to hyŏn’gŭm ŭl kajil su itke [Enable farmers also to have affordable cash in hand],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Sept. 4, 1953.
107. “P’ungjak edo kippŭm morŭn nongch’on, Kokka p’oknak e pimyŏng [Gloomy farm villages despite a good harvest; Shrieking in grain price collapse].”
108. “Nongch’on ŭi pin’gon wi e tosi ŭi pŏnyŏng [Prosperity of the city at the cost of rural poverty].”
109. Kong Che-uk, 1950-yŏndae Han’guk ŭi chabon’ga yŏn’gu [A Study on Korean Capitalists in the 1950s] (Seoul: Paeksan sŏdang, 1993); Kim Yang-hwa, “1950-yŏndae chejoŏp taejabon ŭi chabon ch’ukchŏk e kwanhan yŏn’gu: Myŏnbang, somobang, chebun kongŏp ŭl chungsim ŭro [A Study on the Capital Accumulation of Large Manufacturers in 1950s Korea: Centering on the Industries of Cotton Spinning, Worsted Spinning, and Flour Milling]” (PhD diss., Seoul National University, 1990).
110. Kim Sungjo, “1950-yŏndae kigansanŏp kongjang ŭi kŏnsŏl kwa chabon’ga ŭi sŏngjang [Construction of Fundamental Industrial Plants and the Growth of Capitalists in 1950s Korea]” (MA thesis, Yonsei University, 2003), 51–59.
111. Yi, Han’guk chŏnjaeng kwa 1950-yŏndae chabon ch’ukchŏk [The Korean War and Capital Accumulation in the 1950s], 481; Hong Sŏng-yu, “Han’guk kyŏngje ŭi chabon ch’ukchŏk kwa chaejŏng kŭmyung chŏngch’aek (1953–1963) [Capital Accumulation Process and Financial Policy in Korean Economy, 1953–1963],” Kyŏngje nonjip [Korean Economic Journal] 3, no. 3 (1964): 125.
112. Cho Sŏk-kon, “1960-yŏndae nongŏp kujo kaehyŏk nonŭi wa kŭ hamŭi [The Historical Meaning of the Agriculture Reform Discussion in Korea during the 1960s],” Yŏksa pip’yŏng [Critical Review of History] 88 (Aug. 2009): 324–57; Han To-hyŏn, “1960-yŏndae nongch’on sahoe ŭi kujo wa pyŏnhwa [Structure and Change of Rural Society in 1960s Korea],” in 1960-yŏndae sahoe pyŏnhwa yŏn’gu: 1963–1970 [Studies on Social Changes in 1960s Korea, 1963–1970], ed. Han’guk chŏngsin munhwa yŏn’guwŏn [Academy of Korean Studies] (Seoul: Paeksansŏdang, 1999).
113. Cho, “1960-yŏndae nongŏp kujo kaehyŏk nonŭi wa kŭ hamŭi [The Historical Meaning of the Agriculture Reform Discussion in Korea during the 1960s],” 328.
114. Yi Hwan-gyu, “Nongŏch’on korich’ae chŏngni [The Liquidation of Usurious Loans in Farming and Fishing Villages],” in Nongjŏng pansegi chŭngŏn [Witnesses to the Half-Century History of Korean Agricultural Administration], 178–81.
115. “Korich’ae chŏngni wa nongŏch’on ŭi p’yojŏng [Liquidation of usurious loans and the current state of farming and fishing villages],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Aug. 10, 1961.
116. “Korich’ae chŏngni wa nongŏch’on ŭi p’yojŏng [Liquidation of usurious loans and the current state of farming and fishing villages].”
117. “Korich’ae chŏngni wa nongŏch’on ŭi p’yojŏng [Liquidation of usurious loans and the current state of farming and fishing villages].”
118. Yi, “Nongŏch’on korich’ae chŏngni [The Liquidation of Usurious Loans in Farming and Fishing Villages],” 181–82.
119. Yi, “Nongŏch’on korich’ae chŏngni [The Liquidation of Usurious Loans in Farming and Fishing Villages],” 188–89, 200.
120. Yi, “Nongŏch’on korich’ae chŏngni [The Liquidation of Usurious Loans in Farming and Fishing Villages],” 197–200.
121. Nongnimbu [Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry], Nongnim t’onggye yŏnbo [Statistical Yearbook of Agriculture and Forestry] (Seoul: Nongnimbu, 1970), 25; Han, “1960-yŏndae nongch’on sahoe ŭi kujo wa pyŏnhwa [Structure and Change of Rural Society in 1960s Korea],” 129.
122. Kwon Tai-Hwan, “Estimates of Net Internal Migration for Korea, 1955–1970,” Bulletin of the Population and Development Studies Center 4 (1975): 54–103; Kwon Tai-Hwan, “Estimates of Net Internal Migration for Korea, 1970–1975,” Bulletin of the Population and Development Studies Center 7 (1978): 43–58; Han, “1960-yŏndae nongch’on sahoe ŭi kujo wa pyŏnhwa [Structure and Change of Rural Society in 1960s Korea],” 130.
123. Park Jin Hwan, “Han’guk nongŏp ŭi saengsan yangsik kwa saengsansŏng [Production Mode and Productivity of Korean Agriculture],” in Han’guk kyŏngje palchŏn ŭi iron kwa hyŏnsil [Theory and Reality of Korea’s Economic Development], vol. 4, ed. Naegak kihoek chojŏngsil [Cabinet Office of Planning and Coordination] (Seoul: Naegak kihoek chojŏngsil, 1970), 63–73.
124. Park, “Han’guk nongŏp ŭi saengsan yangsik kwa saengsansŏng [Production Mode and Productivity of Korean Agriculture],” 58.
125. Park Jin Hwan, “Charip kyŏngje wa nonggong pyŏngjin [Self-supporting Economy and the Concurrent Development of Agriculture and Manufacturing],” in Han’guk kyŏngje palchŏn ŭi iron kwa hyŏnsil [Theory and Reality of Korea’s Economic Development], vol. 4, ed. Naegak kihoek chojŏngsil [Cabinet Office of Planning and Coordination] (Seoul: Naegak kihoek chojŏngsil, 1970), 222.
126. Park, “Charip kyŏngje wa nonggong pyŏngjin [Self-supporting Economy and the Concurrent Development of Agriculture and Manufacturing],” 222; “5-kaenyŏn kyehoek hyangbang (1): Nongnim susanŏp (sang)” [Direction of the Five-Year Plan (1): Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries (1)], Maeil kyŏngje, June 23, 1969.
127. “Kyŏktong hanŭn chaegye (4): Pulhwang sok sijang kakch’ukchŏn [Turbulent business circle (4): Heated competition for market share in the recession],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, Dec. 11, 1970.
128. Kim, “1950-yŏndae kigansanŏp kongjang ŭi kŏnsŏl kwa chabon’ga ŭi sŏngjang [Construction of Fundamental Industrial Plants and the Growth of Capitalists in 1950s Korea].”
129. “Sŏngjang sanŏp: Pyŏnmo hanŭn sijang, Han’gukchŏk t’ŭkchil (2)—Kajŏn chep’um [Growing industries: Changing market and Characteristics of Korea (2), Electric home appliance],” Kyŏnghyang sinmun, May 27, 1970.
130. “Tosi nongch’on sodŭk kyŏkch’a kŭksim [Income gap between the city and the countryside becomes severe],” Maeil kyŏngje, Mar. 9, 1970.
131. Chu Chong-hwan, “Uri sanŏp kujo e issŏsŏ nongŏp ŭi wich’i wa yŏkhal [Position and Role of Agriculture in Korean Industrial Structure],” in Han’guk nongŏp chŏngch’aek p’yŏngnonjip [Critical Essays on Korean Agricultural Policies] (Seoul: Ilbit, 1994), 118.
132. “Paramjikhan han’guk kyŏngje miraesang [Desirable future of Korean economy],” Maeil kyŏngje, Aug. 16, 1967.