Abstract

In 1918 and 1919, the Utah-Idaho Sugar Company was investigated by the US Bureau of Immigration, the US Department of Labor, and Idaho’s Labor Commission for the living conditions of Mexican laborers under its employ. Ultimately, the sugar corporation was exonerated of any wrongdoing even though it had executed contracts with the workers stipulating the company would cover their necessities in the winter. Instead, the Mexican families were blamed for ingratitude and exaggerating their conditions. The experiences of these workers in Blackfoot, Idaho were complicated by the fact that the company that recruited them—and let them live in deplorable conditions—was a corporation run by high officials in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a religion that also had a significant stock interest in Utah-Idaho Sugar as well as a significant population of members in Blackfoot. Examining this episode in the history of the Intermountain West highlights the racism and difficulties that migrant workers faced in the late 1910s. It also explores a time when the federal government relaxed immigration restrictions and requirements so corporations and farmers could utilize their labor, an important precursor to the bracero program that would follow during World War II.

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NOTES

1. See, for example, Carey McWilliams, Factories in the Field: The Story of Migratory Farm Labor in California (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1939); Heather M. Sinclair, “White Plague, Mexican Menace: Migration, Race, Class, and Gendered Contagion in El Paso, Texas, 1880-1930,” Pacific Historical Review 85, no. 4 (2016): 475-505; Julie M. Weise, Corazón de Dixie: Mexicanos in the U.S. South since 1910 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015); Zaragosa Vargas, Proletarians of the North: A History of Mexican Industrial Workers in Detroit and the Midwest, 1917-1933 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 24-34; Gilbert G. Gonzalez, Labor and Community: Mexican Citrus Worker Villages in a Southern California County, 1900-1950 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994).
2. See, for example, Camille Guerin-Gonzalez, Mexican Workers and American Dreams: Immigration, Repatriation, and California Farm Labor, 1900-1939 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994), 44; David Gutiérrez, Walls and Mirrors: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the Politics of Ethnicity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 51-53; Lori A. Flores, Grounds for Dreaming: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the California Farmworker Movement (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016), 19-20, 42; Douglas Monroy, Rebirth: Mexican Los Angeles from the Great Migration to the Great Depression (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999), 98; Dennis Nodín Valdés, Al Norte: Agricultural Workers in the Great Lakes Region, 1917-1970 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1991), 8-10; Cindy Hahamovitch, No Man’s Land: Jamaican Guestworkers in America and the Global History of Deportable Labor (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011), 19-20.
3. Mark Reisler, By the Sweat of Their Brow: Mexican Immigrant Labor in the United States, 1900-1940 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976), 24-48.
4. Neil Foley, The White Scourge: Mexicans, Blacks, and Poor Whites in Texas Cotton Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997), 51-58.
5. Kathleen Mapes, Sweet Tyranny: Migrant Labor, Industrial Agriculture, and Imperial Politics (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009), 10, 128-42.
6. Lawrence A. Cardoso, Mexican Emigration to the United States, 1897-1931: Socio-Economic Patterns (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1980), 46-48, 51-52.
7. Errol D. Jones and Kathleen R. Hodges, “A Long Struggle: Mexican Farmworkers in Idaho, 1918-1935,” in Memory, Community, and Activism: Mexican Migration and Labor in the Pacific Northwest, ed. Jerry Garcia and Gilberto Garcia (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press and JSRI Books, 2005), 41-84; Vicki L. Ruiz, From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth-Century America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 9, 20-21.
8. Kevin R. Marsh, “Crossing Divides: An Environmental History of Idaho,” in Idaho’s Place: A New History of the Gem State, ed. Adam M. Sowards (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2014), 48; Rodney Frey and Robert McCarl, “The Confluence of Rivers: The Indigenous Tribes of Idaho,” in Idaho’s Place, 16-17.
9. Davis Bitton, “The Making of a Community: Blackfoot, Idaho, 1878-1910,” Idaho Yesterdays 19 (Spring 1975): 2-15; Blackfoot First Ward, History, p. 2, LR 753 2, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah (hereafter cited as CHL).
10. “Blackfoot Stake,” 1-2, LR 766 2, vol. 1, folder 1, CHL; Blackfoot First Ward, History, p. 2, LR 753 2, CHL.
11. Quotation in Leonard J. Arrington, Beet Sugar in the West: A History of the Utah-Idaho Sugar Company, 1891-1966 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1966), 54; see also Leonard J. Arrington, History of Idaho (Moscow: University of Idaho Press, 1994), 19, 24; F. Ross Peterson, Idaho: A Bicentennial History (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1976), 7-8, 10.
12. F. S. Harris, “The American Beet-Sugar Industry,” The Utah Farmer 15 (Aug. 3, 1918): 1.
13. Matthew C. Godfrey, Religion, Politics, and Sugar: The Mormon Church, the Federal Government, and the Utah-Idaho Sugar Company, 1907-1921 (Logan: Utah State University Press, 2007), 45-47; Arrington, Beet Sugar in the West, 65-66.
14. Godfrey, Religion, Politics, and Sugar, 48, 95-96; Arrington, Beet Sugar in the West, 64-65.
15. Mapes, Sweet Tyranny, 75-76.
16. Cardoso, Mexican Emigration to the United States, 44-45; Matt Garcia, A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900-1970 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), 60.
17. “Testimony of Mr. Joseph F. Smith,” June 27, 1911, in House of Representatives Special Committee, Hearings Held Before the Special Committee on the Investigation of the American Sugar Refining Co. and Others on June 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, and 26, 1911, 62nd Cong., 1st sess., 1041; “Testimony of Mr. Thomas R. Cutler,” June 23, 1911, Hearings Held Before the Special Committee on the Investigation of the American Sugar Refining Co. and Others, 796.
18. Act of February 5, 1917 (39 Stat. 874).
19. Reisler, By the Sweat of Their Brow, 24-25.
20. W. B. Wilson, Secretary, to Commissioners of Immigration, Inspectors in Charge, and Others Concerned, May 23, 1917, Mexican Immigration, Series A: Subject correspondence files, reel 7, Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, Research Collections in American Immigration (Bethesda, MD: University Publications of America, 1992) [hereafter referred to as Records of the INS]; Reisler, By the Sweat of Their Brow, 26-27; Mapes, Sweet Tyranny, 128.
21. Anthony Caminetti, Commissioner-General, Memorandum for the Secretary (Through the Assistant Secretary), February 11, 1918, reel 7, Records of the INS. Three days after Wilson issued the order, another stating that Canadians could immigrate for the same purpose supplemented it, further expanding the farmers’ labor pool. Wilson to Commissioners of Immigration et al., May 26, 1917, reel 7, Records of the INS.
22. Anthony Caminetti, Commissioner-General, to Commissioners of Immigration, Inspectors in Charge, and Others Concerned, June 6, 1917, reel 7, Records of the INS.
23. Acting Supervising Inspector to Commissioner General of Immigration, September 22, 1917, reel 7, Records of the INS.
24. Gutiérrez, Walls and Mirrors, 51-53; Paul A. Kramer, “Empires, Exceptions, and Anglo-Saxons: Race and Rule between the British and United States Empires, 1880-1910,” The Journal of American History 88 (Mar. 2002): 1320-26, 1348-50.
25. Garcia, A World of Its Own, 92.
26. Jim Norris, North for the Harvest: Mexican Workers, Growers, and the Sugar Beet Industry (St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2009), 20, 27-29, 31; see also Koch, “The Mexican Laborer in the Sugar Beet Fields of the United States,” 2-3; Camila Montoya, “Not a Sweet Deal: Mexican Migrant Workers in the Sugar Beet Farms of the Midwest and Mountain States, 1900-1930,” (master’s thesis, Michigan State University, 2000), 6-10; Monroy, Rebirth, 106-07.
27. First quotation in Mapes, “‘A Special Class of Labor,‘” 68; second quotation in Rubén Donato, “Sugar Beets, Segregation, and Schools: Mexican Americans in a Northern Colorado Community, 1920-1960,” Journal of Latinos and Education 2, no. 2 (2003): 72.
28. Foley, The White Scourge, 52-55.
29. Reisler, By the Sweat of Their Brow, 28.
30. Guerin-Gonzales, Mexican Workers & American Dreams, 24; Gutiérrez, Walls and Mirrors, 49.
31. Guerin-Gonzalez, Mexican Workers & American Dreams, 38, 44; Gilbert G. Gonzalez, “Mexican Labor Migration, 1876-1924,” in Beyond La Frontera: The History of Mexico-U.S. Migration, ed. Mark Overmyer-Velazquez (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 39; George J. Sanchez, Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900-1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), 65-66.
32. Anthony Caminetti, Commissioner-General, Memorandum for the Secretary (Through the Assistant Secretary), Feb. 11, 1918, reel 7, Records of the INS.
33. Reisler, By the Sweat of Their Brow, 32.
34. Supervising Engineer to Commissioner-General of Immigration, Mar. 14, 1918, reel 7, Records of the INS.
35. Gonzalez, “Mexican Labor Migration, 1876-1924,” 36, 39-40.
36. W. B. Wilson, Secretary, to Commissioners of Immigration, Inspectors in Charge, Immigration Service, and Others Concerned, Apr. 12, 1918, reel 7, Records of the INS.
37. Anthony Caminetti, Commissioner-General, to Commissioners of Immigration, Inspectors in Charge, Immigration Service, and Others Concerned, Apr. 12, 1918, reel 7, Records of the INS; Anthony Caminetti, Commissioner-General, to Commissioners of Immigration, Inspectors in Charge, Immigration Service, and Others Concerned, May 10, 1918, reel 7, Records of the INS; Reisler, By the Sweat of Their Brow, 29-30.
38. Mapes, Sweet Tyranny, 6; Vargas, Proletarians of the North, 26.
39. Koch, “The Mexican Laborer in the Sugar Beet Fields of the United States,” 30-33.
40. F. W. Berkshire, Supervising Inspector, to Inspector in Charge, Immigration Service, July 27, 1918, reel 7, Records of the INS.
41. Utah-Idaho Sugar Company, Labor Contract, folder 2, box 16, Moses Alexander Papers, AR 2.0011, Idaho State Archives, Boise, Idaho. Contracts with beet workers in midwestern states likewise deducted transportation expenses from workers’ pay; see Valdés, Al Norte, 13-14.
42. United States Sugar Manufacturers Association to The Secretary of Labor, Dec. 28, 1918, folder 5, box 41, Reed Smoot Papers, MS 1187, L. Tom Perry Special Collections and Archives, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah; Kathleen Mapes, “‘A Special Class of Labor’: Mexican (Im)Migrants, Immigration Debate, and Industrial Agriculture in the Rural Midwest,” Labor: Studies in Working-Class History of the Americas 1, no. 2 (2004): 71; “Importing Farm Laborers,” The Cossette 1 (Apr. 20, 1918): 2; Mark Austin to Mr. C. W. Nibley, July 3, 1917, folder 22, box 6, Charles W. Nibley Papers, MS 1287, CHL. Another report estimated the number of migrant workers brought into Utah and Idaho at 1,700 for the 1918 beet season, while the US Immigration Service estimated that “something over 1000 aliens [had] already been imported to work in the sugar beet fields of Utah, Idaho and Montana” by May 1918. See “Noted Mormon Bound for His Home,” Salt Lake Telegram, Jan. 8, 1919, 9; and Supervising Inspector to Commissioner-General of Immigration, May 23, 1918, reel 7, Records of the INS.)
43. F. LaMond Tullis, Mormons in Mexico (Logan: Utah State University Press, 1987), 16-24, 51-57, 87-104.
44. 2 Nephi 5:20-21, 3 Nephi 2:15, in The Book of Mormon (Salt Lake City, UT: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1982), 66, 410; Max Perry Mueller, Race and the Making of the Mormon People (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017), 33-34.
45. First quotation in W. Paul Reeve, Religion of a Different Color: Race and the Mormon Struggle for Whiteness (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), 3; second quotation in Mueller, Race and the Making of the Mormon People, 20.
46. Mueller, Race and the Making of the Mormon People, 20.
47. “Noted Mormon Bound for His Home”; Andrew Jenson, Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia (Salt Lake City: Andrew Jenson Memorial Association, 1936), 4:348.
48. “Importing Farm Laborers,” The Cossette 1 (Apr. 20, 1918): 2; “To and From the Factories,” The Cossette 1 (Feb. 1919): 3.
49. “When You Come to Think of It,” The Cossette 1 (Apr. 20, 1918): 3.
50. World War I Civilian Draft Registrations, Bingham County, Idaho—1917-1918, indexed and submitted for use by the USGenWeb Project and IDGenWeb Project Archives by Raymond H. Banks, January 17, 1998, http://files.usgwarchives.net/id/bingham/military/ww1/wwibngA. txt (accessed July 27, 2020). According to Camille Guerin-Gonzalez, “most” Mexican migration “originated in the north-central region of Mexico, where large numbers of ejido farmers had lost their land.” See Guerin-Gonzalez, Mexican Workers & American Dreams, 29.
51. Anthony Caminetti, Commissioner-General, Supplemental Memorandum for the Secretary (Through the Assistant Secretary), March 16, 1918, reel 7, Records of the INS; Mapes, Sweet Tyranny, 130-32.
52. Commissioner of Conciliation to Anthony Caminetti, Commissioner-General, Bureau of Immigration, March 30, 1918, reel 7, Records of the INS.
53. Richard Baker, Los Dos Mundos: Rural Mexican Americans, Another America (Logan: Utah State University Press, 1995), 162.
54. Commissioner of Conciliation to Caminetti, March 30, 1918.
55. “New Regulations Provide for Importation of Mexican Labor,” The Idaho Republican, July 2, 1918, 3.
56. Howard Hopkins, Assistant Chief, Farm Service Division in charge of Mexican Labor, Memorandum for the Director General, July 3, 1918, reel 7, Records of the INS.
57. William McConnell, Immigration Inspector (Section 24), to Mr. Edward L. Johnson, Secretary, Local Union No. 1697, August 23, 1918, reel 7, Records of the INS.
58. Flores, Grounds for Dreaming, 20.
59. George E. Hill to Governor Alexander, January 20, 1918, folder 1, box 16, Alexander Papers.
60. First quotation in “‘Gringoes Won’t Fight‘” Idaho Daily Statesman, June 19, 1916, 4; second quotation in “Mexican Gambling,” Twin Falls Times, Oct. 30, 1917.
61. “Brutal Murder Near Sugar City,” The Current-Journal, July 20, 1917, 1; see also “Nearly Got a Mexican,” The Pocatello Tribune, Aug. 1, 1914, 1; “Jack Lands Three Mex,” Idaho Falls Daily Post, Sept. 27, 1918, 1; “Get Mex Carver,” Idaho Falls Daily Post, Oct. 9, 1918, 4; “Mex Flourish Guns,” Idaho Falls Daily Post, Oct. 17, 1918, 1.
62. Newspapers in Salina Valley, California, for example, covered “murders, fistfights, and petty theft involving Spanish-surnamed people,” which “led the reading public to make assumptions about Mexican-origin people as a whole.” See Flores, Grounds for Dreaming, 25-26. Likewise, presses in the Midwest depicted laborers “as incomprehensible and dangerous, often engaging in knife fights, lovers’ quarrels, drinking, and marijuana cultivation.” See Valdés, Al Norte, 19.
63. “About the Idaho Republican,” The Idaho Republican, July 22, 1904, 5.
64. The Idaho Republican, July 29, 1904, 4.
65. “Around the Court House,” The Idaho Republican, Oct. 18, 1918, 5.
66. “Mexicans Fight,” The Idaho Republican, Dec. 10, 1918, 7.
67. “Mexico is Blamed for Border Crime,” The Idaho Republican, Jan. 21, 1919.
68. “’Pray, Brother, Pray,” The Cossette 1 (Oct. 1918): 4. Kelley was appointed bishop of the Shelley Second Ward in August 1914 and served in that position until 1929. See Shelley Second Ward Historical Record, LR 8275 2, CHL.
69. Berkshire to Immigration Bureau, January 21, 1919, reel 7, Records of the INS.
70. Consul General of Mexico to the Honorable Governor of the State of Idaho, Oct. 1, 1918, folder 3, William J. A. McVety Papers; see also Jones and Hodges, “A Long Struggle,” 47-52.
71. Consul General of Mexico to the Honorable Governor of the State of Idaho, Oct. 1, 1918, folder 3, William J. A. McVety Papers, MS 307, Idaho State Archives, Boise, Idaho; see also Jones and Hodges, “A Long Struggle,” 47-52. The actions of the Consul General were not confined to Idaho; consuls protested conditions of Mexican laborers in other areas of the United States as well, including California. See Cardoso, Mexican Emigration to the United States, 66-68.
72. Moses Alexander to Mr. W. J. A. McVety, Oct. 4, 1918, folder 3, McVety Papers.
73. “Idaho Arbitrator Here,” Walla Walla Union, Aug. 1, 1917; E. B. Fussell, “Idaho Gang on Wild Political Spree,” The Nonpartisan Leader (St. Paul, MN), Feb. 10, 1919, 10.
74. William J. A. McVety to His Excellency, Moses Alexander, Oct. 24, 1918, folder 2, box 16, Alexander Papers; see also Jones and Hodges, “A Long Struggle,” 47-52.
75. McVety to Alexander, Oct. 24, 1918; see also Jones and Hodges, “A Long Struggle,” 47-52; Arrington, Beet Sugar in the West, 88, 169.
76. McVety to Alexander, Oct. 24, 1918; see also Jones and Hodges, “A Long Struggle,” 47-52.
77. McVety to Alexander, Oct. 24, 1918.
78. Anthony Caminetti, Commissioner General, to Commissioners of Immigration and Inspectors in Charge of Districts, Dec. 21, 1918, reel 7, Records of the INS; Inspector in Charge to Commissioner-General of Immigration, Dec. 28, 1918, reel 7, Records of the INS; Reisler, By the Sweat of Their Brow, 33. Fred Caine of the Utah-Idaho Sugar Company reported on Jan. 4, 1919, that “a number of Mexicans” who had been working in the sugar beet fields “deserted from Idaho Falls” on December 17, 1918, because they claimed their contract was up and they could thus “go where they pleased.” Eleven individuals left, both male and female, as did four families. See F. A. Caine, Superintendent of Labor, to Mr. Chas. K. Andrews, Jan. 4, 1918 [1919], reel 7, Records of the INS.
79. Quotations in United States Sugar Manufacturers Association to The Secretary of Labor, Dec. 28, 1918; see also W. B. Wilson, Memorandum for the Assistant Secretary; The Acting Secretary; The Commissioner-General of Immigration, Jan. 2, 1919, reel 7, Records of the INS; Reisler, By the Sweat of Their Brow, 33.
80. Wilson, Memorandum for the Assistant Secretary; The Acting Secretary; The Commissioner-General of Immigration, Jan. 2, 1919; Reisler, By the Sweat of Their Brow, 33.
81. Smoot to Hon. John D. Spreckles, Jan. 2, 1919, Reed Smoot Papers, folder 5, box 41; Reisler, By the Sweat of Their Brow, 33-34.
82. Utah-Idaho Sugar Company [Merrill Nibley] to Smoot, Jan. 8, 1919, Reed Smoot Papers, folder 5, box 41.
83. “Much Suffering among Mexicans,” The Idaho Republican, Jan. 14, 1919, 1.
84. “Friends among Missing,” The Idaho Republican, May 28, 1917, 4; The Idaho Republican, May 18, 1922, 5; The Idaho Recorder, Feb. 25, 1917, 7; “Double Wedding at Riverton,” The Idaho Republican, Dec. 2, 1919, 10.
85. “Much Suffering Among Mexicans,” 1.
86. “Much Suffering Among Mexicans,” 1.
87. “Commissioners’ Proceedings,” The Idaho Republican, Jan. 31, 1919, 8; “Business Changes,” The American Hatter 42 (July 1913): 161.
88. Ralph W. Adair to Addison T. Smith, Jan. 17, 1919, reel 7, Records of the INS.
89. Addison T. Smith to Hon. William B. Wilson, Jan. 18, 1919, reel 7, Records of the INS.
90. Anthony Caminetti, Commissioner-General, to Utah Idaho Sugar Co., Jan. 20, 1919, reel 7, Records of the INS; see also Commissioner-General of Immigration to Ralph W. Adair, Jan. 20, 1919, reel 7, Records of the INS; Anthony Caminetti to Immigration Service, Jan. 20, 1919, reel 7, Records of the INS.
91. Ralph W. Adair, Prosecuting Attorney, to Hon. Commissioner General of Immigration, Jan. 21, 1919, reel 8, Records of the INS.
92. In El Paso, Texas, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, whites blamed ethnic Mexicans for the spread of tuberculosis because they had “low racial immunity” and lived in poor conditions with inadequate food. See Sinclair, “White Plague, Mexican Menace.”
93. Utah Idaho Sugar Co., Per Merrill Nibley, to Caminitti [sic], Jan. 21, 1919, reel 7, Records of the INS.
94. F. A. Caine to Merrill Nibley, Jan. 25, 1919, Reed Smoot Papers, folder 5, box 34; copy also in reel 8, Records of the INS.
95. “‘Farming Out’ the Mex’s,” The Cossette 1 (Dec. 1918): 3.
96. F. A. Caine to Merrill Nibley, Jan. 25, 1919, Reed Smoot Papers, folder 5, box 34.
97. Utah Idaho Sugar Co. Per Merrill Nibley to Caminetti, Jan. 23, 1919, reel 8, Records of the INS.
98. Caminetti to McConnell, Jan. 21, 1919, reel 8, Records of the INS.
99. McConnell, Inspector, to Commissioner General of Immigration, Jan. 26, 1919, reel 8, Records of the INS; Wm. McConnell, Immigrant Inspector (Sec 24), to Commissioner-General of Immigration, Jan. 29, 1919, reel 8, Records of the INS.
100. McConnell to Commissioner-General of Immigration, Jan. 29, 1919.
101. McConnell to Commissioner-General of Immigration, Jan. 29, 1919.
102. McConnell to Commissioner-General of Immigration, Jan. 29, 1919; Intermountain Association of Sugar Beet Growers by C. G. Patterson, Secretary, to Hon. John L. Burnett, Chairman, Committee on Immigration, House of Representatives, Jan. 29, 1919, reel 8, Records of the INS; Reisler, By the Sweat of Their Brow, 34-35. The sentiment that the government should deport Mexicans to prevent white soldiers from missing out on jobs was present in other parts of the country, including St. Louis, Missouri, and elsewhere. See Inspector in Charge to Commissioner-General of Immigration, Jan. 30, 1919, reel 8, Records of the INS.
103. McWilliams, Factories in the Field, 148-49; see also Garcia, A World of Its Own, 97-98, 104.
104. Mexican Ambassador to Honorable Anthony Caminetti, Mar. 1, 1919, reel 8, Records of the INS.
105. Commissioner General to Juan F. Rojo, Counsellor, the Mexican Embassy, Mar. 24, 1919, reel 8, Records of the INS.
106. Intermountain Association of Sugar Beet Growers by C. G. Patterson to Hon. John L. Burnett, Chairman, Committee on Immigration, House of Representatives, Jan. 29, 1919, reel 8, Records of the INS.
107. Pocatello Building Trades Council by E. S. Bennett, Secretary, to Hon. William B. Wilson, Secretary of Labor, Feb. 18, 1919, reel 8, Records of the INS.
108. “To and From the Factories,” The Cossette 1 (Feb. 1919): 3.
109. “Some Family,” The Cossette 1 (Feb. 1919): 4.
110. Jones and Hodges, “A Long Struggle,” 45.
111. “Credit Due,” The Cossette 1 (Oct. 1919): 3.
112. 3 Nephi 2:15-16 in The Book of Mormon, 410.
113. “To and From the Factories,” The Cossette 1 (Feb. 1919): 3.