Abstract

This article explores human responses to the climatic conditions of the late Little Ice Age (1850–1880s) in the Mediterranean world. Around the globe, the nineteenth century heralded the retreat of the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the arrival of the Anthropocene. Although the concept of the LIA has seen nearly half a century of research, scholars have paid little attention to the environmental and social consequences of its retreat in the mid- to late nineteenth century. This study maintains that the end of the Little Ice Age was significant, nuanced, and complex. It brought warmer and dryer conditions as well as periodic extreme weather to the Mediterranean zone, and these characteristics contributed to the rise of commercial agriculture and the decline of mobile pastoralism. The combination of climatic pressures with local social, political, and economic factors, however, led to very different outcomes among mobile pastoralists. This article uses extensive archival research as well as paleoclimatological data to map nineteenth-century climate change and to illuminate its impact around the Mediterranean, through case studies in Provence, northern Algeria, and southern Anatolia.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

Notes

1. Alexandre Surell, Étude sur les Torrents des Hautes-Alpes, deuxième édition (Paris: Dunod, 1870), 4-5. This and all subsequent translations are my own, unless otherwise noted.
2. Quoted in Cornelius Walford, “The Famines of the World: Past and Present,” Journal of the Statistical Society of London 41, no. 3 (1878): 496.
3. Systematic measurements of temperature and precipitation for relevant areas began in the late nineteenth century (1880s). This article relies heavily on climate reconstructions from tree rings (dendroclimatology), which helps to extend that record back in time. Extensive paleoclimatology data is available online at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) website, https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/ (accessed June 7, 2018).
4. Dagomar Degroot, The Frigid Golden Age: Climate Change, the Little Ice Age, and the Dutch Republic, 1560-1720 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018), 16.
5. These fluctuations included several periods of unusual cold often referred to as the “Spörer Minimum” (1440-1530), the “Maunder Minimum” (1645-1720), the “Grindelwald Fluctuation” (1560-1630), and the “Dalton Minimum” (1780-1820). See Dagomar Degroot, “Climate Change and Society in the 15th to 18th Centuries,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 9, no. 3 (May/June 2018): 2.
6. There is substantial work on past climate change in the Mediterranean region but little integrating climate change with human societies and development. For an example of the former, see Piero Lionello, ed., The Climate of the Mediterranean Region: From the Past to the Future (London: Elsevier, 2012).
7. A. T. Grove and Oliver Rackham, The Nature of Mediterranean Europe: An Ecological History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001), 130-31.
8. Faruk Tabak, The Waning of the Mediterranean, 1550-1870: A Geohistorical Approach (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), 22, 195-96, 297. For a key counterexample, see Brian Fagan, The Little Ice Age (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 181-204.
9. Fernand Braudel, preface to the English translation, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, trans. Siân Reynolds (New York: Harper & Row, 1972), 14.
10. J. R. McNeill, The Mountains of the Mediterranean World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 12.
11. Andrew Harding, Jean Palutikif, and Tom Holt, “The Climate System,” in The Physical Geography of the Mediterranean, ed. Jamie C. Woodward (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 69-70; Diana K. Davis, Resurrecting the Granary of Rome: Environmental History and French Colonial Expansion in North Africa (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007), 178.
12. Jean-Yves Royer, “Les transhumants du Roi René,” in Bergers (Turin: Imprimerie Mariogros, 1999), 13-14.
13. Thomas Shippers, “Le cycle annuel d’un berger transhumant,” in Histoire et actualité de la transhumance en Provence, ed. Danielle Musset (Mane: Les Alpes de Lumière, 1986), 63.
14. M. L. Ryder, Sheep and Man (London: Duckworth, 1983), 251.
15. İlhan Şahin, Osmanlı Döneminde Konar-Göçerler/Nomads in the Ottoman Empire (İstanbul: Eren, 2006), 34-35. See also Douglas Johnson, The Nature of Nomadism: A Comparative Study of Pastoral Migrations in Southwestern Asia and Northern Africa (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969), 20-21.
16. Gábor Ágoston, “A Flexible Empire: Authority and Its Limits on the Ottoman Frontiers,” International Journal of Turkish Studies 9, no. 1-2 (2003): 17; Reşat Kasaba, A Moveable Empire: Ottoman Nomads, Migrants, and Refugees (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2009), 18; John R. McNeill, “The Eccentricity of the Middle East and North Africa’s Environmental History,” in Water on Sand: Environmental Histories of the Middle East, ed. Alan Mikhail (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 33.
17. Kasaba, A Moveable Empire, 4-7; Reşat Kasaba, “Do States Always Favor Stasis?” in Boundaries and Belonging: States and Societies in the Struggle to Shape Identities and Local Practices, ed. Joel S. Midgal (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 27-48; Rhoads Murphey, “Some Features of Nomadism in the Ottoman Empire.”Journal of Turkish Studies 8 (1984): 191, 193-95; Ágoston, “A Flexible Empire.”
18. McNeill, “The Eccentricity of the Middle East and North Africa’s Environmental History,” 33-34.
19. Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World; Tabak, The Waning of the Mediterranean; Geoffrey Parker, The Grand Strategy of Philip II (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000).
20. See especially Geoffrey Parker, Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2013); and Geoffrey Parker, “History and Climate: The Crisis of the 1590s Reconsidered,” in Climate Change and Cultural Transition in Europe, ed. Claus Leggewie and Franz Mauelshagen (Leiden: Brill, 2018), 119-55.
21. Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Times of Feast, Times of Famine: A History of Climate since the Year 1000, trans. Barbara Bray (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971), 58-59, 82-95, 238.
22. Tabak, The Waning of the Mediterranean, 204-30; Abdüllatif Armağan, “XV. ve XVI. Yüzyıllarda Teke Sancağı’nda Konar-Göçerler: Sosyo-Ekonomik ve Demografik Durumları,” in Osmanlıdan Cumhuriyete Yörükler ve Türkmenler, ed. Hayati Beşirli and Ibrahim Erdal (Ankara: Phoenix, 2008), 88-89; Sam White, The Climate of Rebellion in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 229. For nomads’ avoidance of malaria, see Tabak, “The Waning of the Mediterranean,” 218; and Andrew G. Gould, “Pashas and Brigands: Ottoman Provincial Reform and Its Impact on the Nomadic Tribes of Southern Anatolia, 1840-1885” (PhD diss., UCLA, 1973), 12-13. In some cases, they may have developed an immunity. See Faisal Husain, “In the Bellies of the Marshes: Water and Power in the Countryside of Ottoman Baghdad,” Environmental History 19, no. 4 (Oct. 2014): 638-64.
23. HISTRHONE, https://histrhone.cerege.fr/ (accessed Dec. 23, 2018). HISTRHONE is an online searchable database of recorded events of flooding and freezing of the Rhône River from the fourteenth to twentieth centuries, based on archival data. See also Maurice Jorda and Jean-Christophe Roditis, “Les épisodes de gel du Rhône depuis l’an mil: Périodisation, fréquence, interprétation paléoclimatique,” Méditerranée 78, no. 3 (1993): 21. By contrast, Jorda and Roditis documented only three episodes of freezing during the entire twentieth century (1900-1993), in the years 1929, 1956, and 1963.
24. Mark Macklin and Jamie Woodward, “Rivers and Environmental Change,” in The Physical Geography of the Mediterranean, 344.
25. Marcel Lachiver, Les années de misère: La famine au temps du Grand Roi, 1680-1720 (Paris: Fayard, 1991), 207; James B. Collins, The State in Early Modern France (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 150.
26. François-Xavier Emmanuelli, ed., L’intendance de Provence à la fin du XVIIe siècle: Édition critique des mémoires “pour l’instruction du duc de Bourgogne” (Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale, 1980).
27. John Douglas Ruedy, Modern Algeria: The Origins and Development of a Nation (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992), 25; Mohammed Boukhobza, “Nomadisme et colonization: Analyse des mécanismes de déstructuration et de disparition de la société Pastorale traditionnelle en Algérie,” (Thèse au troisième cycle, Paris, EHESS, 1976), 32; J. Berque, Maghreb: Histoire et sociétés (Alger: SNED, 1974).
28. Ruedy, Modern Algeria, 26.
29. Carel van Leeuwen, ed., Nomads in Central Asia: Animal Husbandry and Culture in Transition (19th-20th century) (Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute, 1994), 67.
30. Boukhobza, “Nomadisme et colonization,” 3.
31. Boukhobza, “Nomadisme et colonization,” 19; Léon Lehuraux, Le nomadisme et la colonisation dans les Hauts Plateaux de l’Algérie (Paris: Ed. du Comite de l’Afrique Française, 1931), 74.
32. Boukhobza, “Nomadisme et colonization,” 35; Lehuraux, Le nomadisme et la colonization, 1-4.
33. Additional scholarship on natural disasters in medieval and early modern Anatolia and North Africa includes Halil İnalcık and Donald Quataert, An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 651-55; and Gernot Rotter, “Natural Catastrophes and Their Impact on Political and Economic Life during the Second Fitna,” in Land Tenure and Social Transformation in the Middle East, ed. Tarif Khalidi (Beirut: American University of Beirut, 1984).
34. White, Climate of Rebellion, 76-77, 123-225; William J. Griswold, The Great Anatolian Rebellion 1000-1020/1591-1611 (Berlin: K. Schwarz, 1983); Griswold, “Climatic Change: A Possible Factor in the Social Unrest of Seventeenth Century Anatolia,” in Humanist and Scholar: Essays in Honor of Andreas Tietze, ed. Heath W. Lowry and Donald Quataert (Istanbul: Isis, 1993); Karen Barkey, Bandits and Bureaucrats: The Ottoman Route to State Centralization (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994), 141-228; Ramzi Touchan et al., “May-June Precipitation Reconstruction of Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey during the Last 900 Years from Tree Rings,” Quaternary Research 68, no. 2 (Sept. 2007): 201.
35. White, Climate of Rebellion, 78-79; Walter Livingston Wright, ed., Ottoman Statecraft: The Book of Counsel for Vezirs and Governors (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1935), 89, 93, 117, 119, and 126-27; Barkey, Bandits and Bureaucrats, 200-201. See also Mustafa Akdağ, Türk Halkının Dirlik ve Düzenlik Kavgası (Ankara: Bilgi Yayınevi, 1975); and Akdağ, “Celâli İsyanlarından Büyük Kaçgunluk,” Tarih Araçtırmaları Dergisi 2 (1964): 1-49.
36. Ahmet Refik, Anadolu’da Türk Aşiretleri, 966-1200: Anadolu’da Yaşayan Türk Aşiretleri Hakkinda Divani Hümayun Mühmime Defterlerinde Mukayyet Hükümleri Havidir (İstanbul: Devlet Matbaasi, 1930); Cengiz Orhonlu, Osmanli İmparatorlugunda Asiretlerin İskâni (İstanbul: Eren yayincilik ve kitapçilik, 1987), 57-65, 107-9; Kasaba, A Moveable Empire, 66; White, Climate of Rebellion, 243-47; Meltem Toksöz, Nomads, Migrants and Cotton in the Eastern Mediterranean: The Making of the Adana-Mersin Region, 1850-1908 (Leiden: Brill, 2010), 65-73.
37. Fagan, The Little Ice Age, 50, 202; Jürg Luterbacher et al., “European Seasonal and Annual Temperature Variability, Trends, and Extremes since 1500,” Science 303, no. 5663 (2004): 1499-1503; Le Roy Ladurie, Times of Feast, 82-127; Thomas H. Painter et al., “End of the Little Ice Age in the Alps Forced by Industrial Black Carbon,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110, no. 38 (2013): 15216-21; and V. M. Mendoza et al., “Simulation of the Surface Temperature Anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere during the Last 300 Years of the Little Ice Age Using a Thermodynamic Model,” Climate Research 43, no. 3 (2010): 263-73.
38. These characteristics appear in paleoclimatological data for the Mediterranean zone, including local spring/summer precipitation reconstructions and annual summer temperature reconstructions for the region. Using these data requires a certain amount of literacy and interpretation. For instance, precipitation tends to be much more localized than temperature trends, particularly for the Mediterranean zone. For scholarship on the nineteenth-century Mediterranean climate, see Luterbacher et al., “European Seasonal and Annual Temperature Variability”; Le Roy Ladurie, Times of Feast; Lionell, ed., The Climate of the Mediterranean Region; Macklin and Woodward, “Rivers and Environmental Change,” 340; Laurent Simon, Vincent Clément, and Pierre Pech, “Forestry Disputes in Provincial France during the Nineteenth Century: The Case of the Montagne de Lure,” Journal of Historical Geography 33, no. 2 (Apr. 2007): 347; Tamara Whited, Forests and Peasant Politics in Modern France (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 57; Tabak, The Waning of the Mediterranean, 210; and R. Touchan et al., “Preliminary Reconstructions of Spring Precipitation in Southwestern Turkey from Tree-Ring Width,” International Journal of Climatology 23, no. 2 (2003): 157-71.
39. Ministère de l’intérieur, Sciences et Beaux-Arts, Circulaire, Paris, Apr. 25, 1821, 7 M 163, Archives départmentales des Bouches-du-Rhône (hereafter BDR), Marseille, France.
40. Louis Tassy, Études sur l’aménagement des forêts, troisième édition (Paris: Octave Doin, 1887), 32.
41. Prosper Demontzey, Traité pratique du reboisement et du gazonnement des montagnes (Paris: J. Rothschild, 1882), 4.
42. Surell, Étude sur les Torrents des Hautes-Alpes, 4-5.
43. Le Roy Ladurie includes an extensive survey of glaciation during the Little Ice Age in Times of Feast, 129-226. For literature on flooding in nineteenth-century France, see Whited, Forests and Peasant Politics, 56-58; Whited, “Extinguishing Disaster in Alpine France,” GeoJournal 51, no. 3 (2000): 263-70; Andrée Corvol, L’homme aux bois: Histoire des relations de l’homme et de la forêt, XVIIe-XXe siècle (Paris: Fayard, 1987), 291; and F. Fesquet, “La lutte contre les inondations au XIXème siècle. Aménagement des cours d’eau ou reboisement des montagnes: entre complémentarité et opposition des démarches” (communication au colloque international, La rivière aménagée entre héritage et modernité: Formes, techniques et mise en oeuvre, Orléans, Oct. 15-16, 2004), printed in AESTUARIA, cultures et développement durable 7 (2005): 299-314.
44. Agricultural Calamities, 1802-1896, First File, 7 M 135, BDR.
45. Second File (Tarascon, Nov. 2, 1840), 7 M 135, BDR.
46. Pierre de la Gorce, Histoire du second empire, Vol. II (New York: AMS Press, 1969), 40-41; Whited, Forests and Peasant Politics, 58.
47. Rémi Venture, “Arles et le Rhône,” Le Rhône à son delta 41-42 (Dec. 1993): 3.
48. Whited, Forests and Peasant Politics, 42; Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Valérie Daux, and Jürg Luterbacher, “Le Climat de Bourgogne et d’ailleurs XIXe-XIXe Siècle,” Histoire, Économie et Société 25, no. 3 (2006): 425, 433.
49. Les Baux en Provence, 1890-1900, 7 M 248, BDR; P. Carriere, “Prosper Demontzey, conservateur des forêts,” Revue des Eaux et forêts 3e série, 37 (1898): 214.
50. “Palmer Drought Severity Index,” Old World Drought Atlas, http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/expert/home/.jennie/.PDSI/.OWDA/.pdsi/figviewer.html (accessed June 7, 2018).
51. Ferdinand Allard, Les forêts et le régime forestier en Provence: Thèse pour le doctorat ès sciences politiques et économiques, Université d’Aix-Marseille (Paris: A. Rousseau, 1901), 132; Charles de Ribbe, Des incendies de forêts dans la région des Maures et de l’Esterel (Provence) leurs causes—leur histoire—moyens d’y remédier (Hyères: siège de la Société Librairie agricole, 1869), 137; Andrea E. Duffy, “Fighting Fire with Fire: Mobile Pastoralists and French Discourse on Wildfires in Nineteenth-Century Algeria,” Resilience: A Journal of the Environmental Humanities 3 (2015-2016): 71-87.
52. The Revue des Eaux et forêts includes records for annual wildfires in Provence. See also 7 M 192-193, BDR, for a brief catalog of fires in the Bouches-du-Rhône department.
53. Ligue du Reboisement de l’Algérie: De la promulgation en Algérie de la loi du 4 avril 1882, La conservation & la restauration des terrains en Montagne, Extrait du bulletin no 25 (Alger: Imprimerie Casabianca, 1883), 510.
54. Brock William Cutler, “Evoking the State: Environmental Disaster and Colonial Policy in Algeria, 1840-1870” (PhD diss., University of California, 2011), 96-143.
55. FM F80731, Archives nationales d’Outre-Mer (hereafter ANOM), Aix-en-Provence, France.
56. André Nouschi, Enquête sur le niveau de vie des populations rurales constantinoises de la conquête jusqu’en 1919 (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1961), 345; “Faits Divers,” Le Mobacher, June 20, 1867.
57. Charles-André Julien, Histoire de l’Algérie contemporaine: La conquête et les débuts de la colonisation (1827-1871) (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1964), 409.
58. “Note sur les incendies en forêt,” ALG/GGA/P128, ANOM.
59. Nouschi, Enquête sur le niveau, 338-74.
60. For natural disasters in nineteenth-century Anatolia, see Michael Ursinus, “Natural Disasters and Tevzi: Local Tax Systems of the Post-Classical Era in Response to Flooding, Hail and Thunder,” in Natural Disasters in the Ottoman Empire: Halcyon Days in Crete III: A Symposium Held in Rethymnon 10-12 January 1997 (Rethymnon: Crete University Press, 1999), 265-72; Mehmet Yavuz Erler, “XIX. Yüzyıldaki Bazı Doğal Afetler ve Osmanlı Yönetimi,” in Türkler, ed. Hasan Celal Güzel et al. (Ankara: Yeni Türkiye, 2002), 763-68; Mehmet Yavuz Erler, Osmanlı Devleti’nde Kuraklık (1800-1880) (İstanbul: Libra Kitap, 2010); Abdülkadir Gül, “Osmanlı Devletinde Kuraklık ve Kıtlık (Erzurum Vilayeti Örneği: 1892-1893 ve 1906-1908 Yılları),” Uluslar Arası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi (2009): 144-58; Orhan Kılıç, “Osmanlı Devleti’nde Meydana Gelen Kıtlıklar,” in Türkler, 718-30; Yunus Özdeğer, “XIX. Yüzyıl Sonlarında Meydana Gelen Bir Kuraklık ve Kıtlık Hadisesi ile Bunun Sosyo- Ekonomik Sonuçları,” Karadeniz Araştırmaları (2008): 87-96; and Yarun Ayalon, Natural Disasters in the Ottoman Empire: Plague, Famine, and Other Misfortunes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
61. Ertan Gökmen, “Batı Anadoluda Çekirge Felaketi,” Belleten 74, no. 269 (2010): 128, 145; see also Giles Veinstein, “Sur les sauterelles à Chypre, en Thrace et en Macedoine à époque ottomane,” in Armağan, Festschrift für Andreas Tietze, ed. I. Baldauf, Suraiya Faroqhi, and R. Vesely (Prague: Enigma, 1994), 215; Louis-Alexandre-Olivier de Corancez, Itinéraire d’une partie peu connue de l’Asie Mineure (Paris: Chez J.-M. Ebehrard, 1816), 238; and R. Jennings, “The Locust Problem in Cyprus,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 51 (1988): 281-313.
62. Report by Captain Stewart, Adalia (Antalya) Vilayet, Jan. 13, 1880, FO 222/2, British National Archives (hereafter BNA), Richmond, UK; Satheral to Layard, Konya, Apr. 16, 1880, FO 222/2, BNA.
63. Gül, “Osmanlı Devletinde Kuraklık ve Kitlık,” 146. Gül cites Mehmet Yavuz Erler, “Ankara ve Konya Vilayetlerinde Kuraklık ve Kıtlık (1845 ve 1874 Yılları)” (Diss., Samsun, Ondokuz Mayıs Univ., 1997), 82-89; Ünal Akdemir, Nesibe Köse, Aliye Aras, and H. Nüzhet Dalfes, “Anadolu’nun 350 Yılında Yaşanan Önemli Kurak ve Yağışlı Yıllar” (Türkiye Kuvarterner Sempozyumu, TORQUA-V, İTÜ, Avrasya Yer Bilimleri Enstitüsü, June 2-5, 2005), 129-35. See also Erler, “XIX. Yüzyıldaki Bazı Doğal Afetler ve Osmanlı Yönetimi,” 763-68. It seems that the 1820s were spared.
64. Accounts of firsthand observers are available in the Climate and Environmental History Collaborative Research Database (Tambora), https://www.tambora.org/index.php?r=research/search/index (accessed June 7, 2018). This resource represents a compilation of data from newspapers, journals, and other primary sources.
65. The Famine in Asia Minor: Its History, Compiled from the Pages of the “Levant Herald” (Istanbul: Isis, 1989); “Informations,” L’explorateur: Journal géographique et commercial 1-6 (1875): 120; Stanford J. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, vol. 2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976), 156; Toksöz, Nomads, Migrants and Cotton, 75.
66. Tabak, The Waning of the Mediterranean, 288-89.
67. Le Roy Ladurie, Times of Feast, 366-71.
68. Tabak, The Waning of the Mediterranean, 235-36; Toksöz, Nomads, Migrants and Cotton, 138.
69. Préfet des Basses-Alpes, 1792, quoted in Allard, Les forêts et le régime forestier en Provence, 53.
70. Sous-préfet d’Arles to Préfet des Bouches-du-Rhône, Arles, Oct. 26, 1869, 7 M 248, BDR.
71. “Les Baux en Provence, 1890s-1900,” 7 M 248, BDR.
72. Préfet des Bouches-du-Rhône to the Ministre de l’Agriculture, Arles, Dec. 7, 1886, 7 M 248, BDR.
73. Préfet des Bouches-du-Rhône to the Ministre de l’Agriculture, Arles, Dec. 7, 1886. According to this record, the state authorized forest grazing in response to extreme environmental conditions in 1840, 1843, and 1868. In 1893, another extremely dry year, the minister of agriculture offered financial assistance to Provençal farmers and approved the importation of foreign fodder. See Report by Ministre de l’Agriculture, May 1893, 7 M 105, BDR.
74. Simon, Clément, and Pech, “Forestry Disputes in Provincial France,” 343; Jacqueline Dumoulin, “Communes et pâturages forestiers en Provence au XIXe siècle: le témoignage des comptabilités communales,” Provence Historique 183 (1996): 88; Jean Lhomme, “La Crise Agricole à la Fin du XIXe Siècle en France: Essai d’Interprétation Économique et Sociale,” Revue économique 21, no. 4 (1970): 533. For the expansion of the Australian market, see J. F. Guthrie, A World History of Sheep and Wool (Australia: McCarron Bird Pty. Ltd., 1957), 75-78; Ryder, Sheep and Man, 610-32; Clarence McIvor, The History and Development of Sheep Farming from Antiquity to Modern Times (Sydney: Tilghman & Barnett, 1893); Harold B. Carter, The Sheep and Wool Correspondence of Sir Joseph Banks, 1781-1820 (Norwich: Fletcher and Son Ltd., 1979); and Timothy Lee, Wanganella and the Merino Aristocrats (Richmond, Victoria: Hardie Grant Books, 2011). For Spain, see Carla Phillips and William D. Phillips Jr., Spain’s Golden Fleece: Wool Production and the Wool Trade from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997).
75. A. Orange and M. Amalbert, Le mérinos d’Arles (Antibes: F. Genre & Cie, 1924), 35-36; “Société d’économie politique (réunion de septembre),” Journal des économistes (1869): 459; Jean-Claude Daumas, “L’industrie lainière en France: un siècle de mutations (1870-1973),” Matériaux pour l’histoire de notre temps 47, no. 1 (1997): 14-20.
76. Orange and Amalbert, Le mérinos d’Arles, 36-38; Le mouton en Provence: 6000 ans d’histoire (Grans: Association pour la Sauvegarde de la Crau, 2007), 96; Hugh Clout, “La transhumance: Passé, présent, avenir?” Modern & Contemporary France 13, no. 2 (2005): 227; Thomas Shippers, “Le cycle annuel d’un berger transhumant,” in Histoire et Actualité de la Transhumance en Provence, ed. Danielle Musset (Mane: Les Alpes de Lumière, 1986), 64.
77. Nouschi, Enquête sur le niveau, 338.
78. See Patricia M. E. Lorcin, Imperial Identities: Stereotyping, Prejudice and Race in Colonial Algeria (London: I. B. Tauris; New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995), 32, 78, 87; Nouschi, Enquête sur le niveau, 338-48; and Cutler, “Evoking the State,” 96-143.
79. Nouschi, Enquête sur le niveau, 339, 342.
80. Nouschi, Enquête sur le niveau, 345; “Faits Divers,” Le Mobacher, June 20, 1867.
81. Cutler, “Evoking the State,” 139. Cutler cites Gouvernement Général Civile de l’Algérie, Statistique générale de l’Algérie, années 1867 à 1872 (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1874), 296. According to the latter, the number of indigenous-owned beasts declined by 3,688,979.
82. Nouschi, Enquête sur le niveau, 369; Cutler, “Evoking the State,” 2, 142. Cutler cites Djilali Sari, Le désastre démographique (Algiers: Société nationale d’edition et de diffusion, 1982).
83. État-major de la division, section des Affaires indigènes, département de Constantine, territoires militaires, to Monsieur le Gouverneur Général Civil de l’Algérie à Alger, Constantine, Aug. 12, 1871, MI MIOM/78, ANOM.
84. Lorcin, Imperial Identities, 87.
85. Charles Robert Ageron, Modern Algeria: A History from 1830 to the Present, trans. Michael Brett (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1991), 52.
86. Nouschi, Enquête sur le niveau, 477.
87. Ageron, Modern Algeria, 52. See also Davis, Resurrecting the Granary of Rome, 92.
88. Ruedy, Modern Algeria, 93; Davis, Resurrecting the Granary of Rome, 92. This figure illustrates a decline in approximately six hundred thousand people since 1861.
89. J. D. Luciani, Chansons kabyles (Rev. Air. 1899), quoted in Nouschi, Enquête sur le niveau, 428-30.
90. Frederick Burnaby, On Horseback through Asia Minor (New York, 1985), 83.
91. Burnaby, On Horseback through Asia Minor, 66.
92. Dispatches Nos. 1-11, 1880: JDH Stewart, “Report on Konieh Province,” FO 222/2, BNA.
93. Toksöz, Nomads, Migrants and Cotton, 160n127.
94. There is a wide body of literature on this subject contesting the intent and impact of the law, which is largely beyond the scope of this study. A few representative works include: E. Attila Aytekin, “Hukuk, Tarih ve Tarihyazımı: 1858 Osmanlı Arazi Kanunnâmesi’ne Yönelik Yaklaşımlar,” TALID 3, no. 5 (2005): 723-44; Denise Jorgens, “Ottoman Land Code and Khedive Sai’id’s Law of 1858,” in New Perspectives on Property and Land in the Middle East, ed. Roger Owen (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000), 93-120; Ömer Lütfi Barkan, “Türk Toprak Hukuku Tarihinde Tanzimat ve 1274 (1858) Tarihli Arazi Kanunnamesi,” Türkiyede Toprak Meselesi (İstanbul: Gözlem Yay., 1980), 291-375; and Huri İslamoğlu-İnan, “Politics of Administering Property: Law and Statistics in the Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Empire,” in Constituting Modernity: Private Property in the East and West, ed. Roger Owen (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000).
95. Aytekin, “Hukuk, Tarih ve Tarihyazimi,” 733-34; Jorgens, “Ottoman Land Code,” 103; Huri İslamoğlu-İnan, The Ottoman Empire and the World Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Paris: Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l’homme, 1987), 32-33.
96. İslamoğlu-İnan, Ottoman Empire, 27; Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire, 114.
97. Ottoman Land Code of 1858, Art. 84.
98. Wolf-Dieter Hütteroth, “The Influence of Social Structure on Land Division and Settlement in Inner Anatolia,” in Turkey: Geographic and Social Perspectives, ed. Peter Benedict, Erol Tümertekin, and Fatma Mansur (Leiden: Brill, 1974), 23.
99. Toksöz, Nomads, Migrants and Cotton, 34-36.
100. See Orhonlu, Osmanli İmparatorlugunda; Yusuf Halaçoğlu, XVIII. Yüzyılda Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun İskân Siyaseti ve Aşiretlerin Yerleştirilmesi (Ankara: TTK Yayınları, 1988); and Abdullah Saydam, “XIX. Yüzyılin İlk Yarısında Aşiretlerin İskânına Dair Gözlemler,” in Anadolu’da ve Rumeli’de Yörükler ve Türkmenler, Sempozyumu Bildirileri, Tarsus, May 14, 2000, ed. Tufan Gündüz (Ankara: Yörtürk, 2000), 217-29. In one example, the Sublime Porte took definitive action in the form of a campaign to resettle all “undesirable” nomads to Cyprus in 1710. The nomads revolted and returned promptly to Anatolia. See Xavier de Planhol, De la plaine pamphylienne aux lacs pisidiens: Nomadisme et vie paysanne (Paris: Dépositaire Librairie Adrien-Maisonneuve, 1958), 117; McNeill, The Mountains of the Mediterranean World, 156.
101. Yusuf Halaçoğlu, “Fırka-i İslâhiye ve Yapmış Olduğu İskân,” Tarih Dergisi 27 (İstanbul 1973): 1-20; Orhonlu, Osmanli İmparatorlugunda, 116; Saydam, “XIX. Yüzyılin İlk Yarısında,” 229; Toksöz, Nomads, Migrants and Cotton, 65-73; Gould, Pashas and Brigands, 85-118.
102. These initiatives were associated with the Tanzimat. See Ayalon, Natural Disasters, 104-5, 110-33, 182.
103. Gül, “Osmanlı Devletinde Kuraklık ve Kıtlık,” 147-48; Burnaby, On Horseback through Asia Minor, 83.
104. Letter book, Consulate General, 1857, FO 195/55, BNA; Georges Perrot, Souvenirs d’un voyage en Asie Mineure (Paris: Michel Lévy frères, 1864), 67; Jean Vogt, “Sismicité historique du domaine ottoman,” in Natural Disasters in the Ottoman Empire; Gül, “Osmanlı Devletinde Kuraklık ve Kıtlık,” 144.
105. Toksöz, Nomads, Migrants and Cotton, 80.
106. Col. Wilson to Sir Layard, Sivas, Oct. 28, 1879, copy no. 33, FO 78/2987, BNA; D. A. J., “Obituary: Major-General Sir Charles William Wilson,” Geographical Journal 26, no. 6 (1905): 682-84.
107. Toksöz, Nomads, Migrants and Cotton, 79; Gould, Pashas and Brigands, 151-56.
108. Gould, Pashas and Brigands, 208-9; Kemal H. Karpat, “Ottoman Population Records and the Census of 1881/82-1893,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 9, no. 2 (May 1978): 274; Reşat Kasaba, A Moveable Empire, 116.
109. Fagan, The Little Ice Age, 194.
110. Philip Slavin provides an excellent study of the connections between climate and famine in history that effectively reassesses the role of climate change in the Irish Potato Famine but does not consider other famines that occurred at the end of the LIA. See Philip Slavin, “Climate and Famines: A Historical Reassessment,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 7, no. 3 (May/June 2016): 433-47. For a key counter example, see Mike Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World (London: Verso, 2001)