Abstract

This article highlights the important function of family and kinship networks in the pastoral industry of the Port Phillip District and Victoria, Australia, during the nineteenth century. Using the core case study of the extended Cameron family—or the Cameron “clan” from the Scottish Highlands—in the Western District of Victoria, it demonstrates how family networks assisted in the accumulation and consolidation of large pastoral properties and enterprises and thus aided the agricultural entrepreneurialism of migrants who saw greater commercial opportunities throughout the Empire than at home.

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Notes

1. Eliza Cook,
Journals: Volumes 1–2
(
London
:
John Owen Clarke
,
1849
),
194
; William Howitt,
Land, Labour and Gold: Or, Two years in Victoria: With Visits to Sydney and Van Diemen’s Land
,
2 vols.
(
London
:
Ticknor and Fields
,
1855
),
1
:
240
.
2. Angela McCarthy,
“Introduction: Personal Testimonies and Scottish Migration,”
in
A Global Clan: Scottish Migrant Networks and Identities Since the Eighteenth Century
, ed. McCarthy (
London
:
Tauris Academic Studies
,
2006
),
7
11
. This work has occurred within the context of a broader interest in imperial networks. For an influential overview, see, Gary Magee and Andrew S. Thompson,
Empire and Globalisation: Networks of People, Goods and Capital in the British World, c. 1850–1914
(
New York
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2010
).
3. Eric Richards,
“Scottish Networks and Voices in Colonial Australia,”
in
A Global Clan
,
150
82
; Tom Brooking,
“Weaving the Tartan into the Flax: Networks, Identities, and Scottish Migration to Nineteenth-Century Otago, New Zealand,”
in
A Global Clan
,
183
202
. Two studies of Highland immigration into the Western District are Donna Hellier,
“The Humblies: Scottish Highland Emigration into Nineteenth-Century Victoria,”
in
Families in Colonial Australia
, ed. Patricia Grimshaw et al. (
Melbourne
:
Allen & Unwin
,
1985
),
9
18
; Jane Beer,
“Highland Scots in Victoria’s Western District,”
in
Colonial Frontiers and Family Fortunes: Two Studies of Rural and Urban Victoria
, ed. Beer et al. (
Melbourne
:
University of Melbourne
,
1989
),
9
78
.
4. W. T. Jackson,
The Enterprising Scot
(
London
:
Jonathan Cape
,
1968
); Ian Donnachie,
“The Enterprising Scot,”
in
The Manufacture of Scottish History
, ed. Donnachie and Chris Whatley (
Edinburgh
:
Polygon
,
1992
),
90
105
; B. P. Lenman,
An Economic History of Modern Scotland, 1660–1976
(
London
:
B. T. Batsford
,
1977
),
166
93
; Richard Finlay,
“The Rise and Fall of Popular Imperialism in Scotland, 1850–1950,”
Scottish Geographical Magazine
113
:
1
(
1997
):
16
17
.
5. T. M. Devine,
Scotland’s Empire: The Origins of the Global Diaspora
(
London
:
Penguin
,
2004
),
250
51
; John Riddy,
“Warren Hastings: Scotland’s Benefactor?”
in
The Impeachment of Warren Hastings
, ed. Geoffrey Carnall and Colin Nicholson (
Edinburgh
:
Edinburgh University Press
,
1989
),
42
; G. J. Bryant,
“Scots in India in the Eighteenth Century,”
Scottish Historical Review
64
(Apr.
1985
):
23
24
; Alex M. Cain,
The Cornchest for Scotland: Scots in India
(
Edinburgh
:
National Library of Scotland
,
1986
),
7
; Margaret Steven,
“Campbell, Robert (1769–1846),”
Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography at the Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/campbell-robert-1876/text2197 (accessed May 31, 2013).
6.
Steven
,
Merchant Campbell, 1769–1846: A Study of Colonial Trade
(
Melbourne
:
Oxford University Press
,
1965
),
20
; Malcolm Prentis,
The Scots in Australia: A Study of New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland, 1788–1900
(
Sydney
:
Sydney University Press
,
2008
),
103
.
7. Richards, ed.,
That Land of Exiles: Scots in Australia
(
Edinburgh
:
Her Majesty’s Stationery Office
,
1988
),
86
88
; David Macmillan,
“The Scottish Australian Company, 1840–50: The Origins and Growth of an Aberdeen Venture in Colonial Development,”
Scottish Historical Review
39
(Apr.
1960
):
16
30
.
8. Richards, ed.,
That Land of Exiles
,
95
96
. The Clyde Company and Niel Black & Co. feature prominently in Margaret Kiddle,
Men of Yesterday: A Social History of the Western District of Victoria, 1834–1890
(
Carlton
:
Melbourne University Press
,
1961
); Liza Giffen,
Trustworthy: How Scots Financed the Modern World
(
Edinburgh
:
Luath
,
2011
),
13
14
.
9.
“Scottish Capital Abroad,”
Blackwood’s Magazine
(Oct.
1884
):
469
; John Darwin,
The Empire Project: The Rise and Fall of the British World-System, 1830–1970
(
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2009
),
114
15
; John MacKenzie and Devine, eds.,
Scotland and the British Empire
(
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
2011
),
24
25
; Christopher Harvie,
Scotland and Nationalism: Scottish Society and Politics 1707–1994
(
London
:
Routledge
,
1994
),
70
; Christopher Schmitz,
“The Nature and Dimensions of Scottish Foreign Investment, 1860–1914,”
Business History
39
:
2
(
1997
):
42
68
; C. H. Lee,
“Economic Progress: Wealth and Poverty,”
in
The Transformation of Scotland: The Economy Since 1700
, ed. Devine et al. (
Edinburgh
:
Edinburgh University Press
,
2005
),
139
; Ronald Michie,
Money, Mania and Markets: Investment, Company Formation and the Stock Exchange in Nineteenth-Century Scotland
(
Edinburgh
:
John Donald
,
1981
),
248
; P. J. Cain and A. G. Hopkins,
“Gentlemanly Capitalism and British Expansion Overseas I. The Old Colonial System, 1688–1850,”
Economic History Review
39
(Nov.
1986
):
504
508
; J. D. Bailey,
“Australian Borrowing in Scotland in the Nineteenth Century,”
Economic History Review
12
(Dec.
1959
):
269
.
10. Lord Glenelg,
“Port Philip—Downing-street, April 13, 1835,”
Australian
(Sydney), Mar. 14, 1837,
2
; Prentis,
Scots in Australia
,
54
; David Macmillan,
Scotland and Australia, 1788–1850: Emigration, Commerce and Investment
(
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
,
1967
),
73
,
77
86
.
11. Prentis,
Scots in Australia
,
55
56
; Devine,
Scotland’s Empire
,
281
; Prentis,
“Lowland Scottish Immigration until 1860,”
in
The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins
, ed. James Jupp (
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2001
),
647
48
.
12. Devine,
Scotland’s Empire
,
282
.
13. Prentis,
“Lowland Scottish Immigration,”
648
.
14.
Ibid.
,
649
; Richard Broome,
The Victorians Arriving
(
New South Wales
:
Fairfax, Syme & Weldon
,
1984
),
23
. The claim that around two-thirds of those who held squatting licenses in the larger Port Phillip District were Scots, and in its Western District region two-thirds of the squatters were from Scotland is unattributed, but is likely drawn from Kiddle,
Men of Yesterday
,
14
,
517
.
15.
1836 Census of the Port Phillip District
, microfilm IN 65, State Library of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia (hereafter SLV);
New South Wales and Port Phillip General Post Office Directory for 1839
(
Sydney
:
James Maclehose
,
1839
);
The Squatters’ Directory: Containing a List Of All the Occupants of Crown Lands in the Intermediate and Unsettled Districts of Port Phillip
(
Melbourne
:
Edward Wilson
,
1849
),
3
. Adapted from Robert Spreadborough and Hugh Anderson,
Victorian Squatters
(
Melbourne
:
Red Rooster
,
1983
); Don Garden,
Hamilton: A Western District History
(
North Melbourne
:
Hargreen
,
1984
),
13
.
16. John D. Lang,
Phillipsland; Or, the Country Hitherto Designated Port Phillip: Its Present Condition and Prospects, as a Highly Eligible Field for Emigration
(
London
:
Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans
,
1847
),
175
.
“Phillipsland”
is a reference to the Port Phillip District, later Victoria.
17. Cook,
Journals
,
194
. For early immigration to Port Phillip, see, Broome,
Victorians
,
40
58
.
18.
Hamilton Spectator
(Victoria), Apr. 6; Apr. 13, 1870; Jan. 11, 1887; Spreadborough and Anderson,
Victorian Squatters
,
125
; Lang,
Phillipsland
,
175
.
19.
“Persons on government ships,”
Aug. 1837–40, vol.
4/4780
, NRS 5313, State Records New South Wales, Kingswood, NSW (hereafter SRNSW); Roland Campbell,
“Passing of an Old Resident,”
Border Watch
(Mount Gambier), Jan. 25, 1938,
4
;
Hamilton Spectator
, Mar. 4, 1899;
“A South-Eastern Pioneer,”
South Australian Register
(Adelaide), June 5, 1890,
3
; R. V. Billis and A. S. Kenyon,
Pastoral Pioneers of Port Phillip
(
Melbourne
:
Macmillan
,
1931
),
214
; Agricultural Bureau of South Australia,
“Wattle Range and its Origins,”
Journal of the Department of Agriculture of South Australia
54
(Oct.
1950
):
295
; Lottie McKay,
“Origin of Penola,”
Border Watch
, Nov. 2, 1935,
4
;
“Stories of Penola,”
Border Watch
, Nov. 14, 1939,
8
;
“Early History,”
Portland Guardian
, Mar. 7, 1938,
2
;
Squatters’ Directory
,
6
.
20.
Squatters’ Directory
,
6
; Armytage family, Station Records, 1858–1948, MS 7829, SLV.
21.
Squatters’ Directory
,
6
; Agricultural Bureau of South Australia,
“Wattle Range and its Origins,”
295
;
Hamilton Spectator
, Aug. 21; Nov. 13, 1863; J. D. MacInnes,
“Some Western District Pioneers,”
Victorian Historical Magazine
11
(June
1926
):
269
; Colonial Secretary,
“Commissioners of Crown Lands—Itineraries,”
X814
X818
, NRS 906;
“Itineraries of Commissioner Foster Fyans, Jan. 1844–Jun. 1846”
and
“Returns of population and livestock, Jan. 1844–Jan. 1846,”
X690
X691
, NRS 1391, SRNSW.
22.
Hamilton Spectator
, Feb. 24, 1894; Dorothy Fitzpatrick,
“MacPherson, John Alexander (1833–1894),”
Australian Dictionary of Biography, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/macpherson-john-alexander-4135/text6621 (accessed June 7, 2013).
23. Agricultural Bureau of South Australia,
“Wattle Range and its Origins,”
295; Lang,
Phillipsland
,
187
,
100
; Campbell,
“Passing of an Old Resident.”
24.
Hamilton Courier
, Aug. 6, 1859;
Hamilton Spectator
, Apr. 5, 1881.
25. Susan Priestly,
The Victorians; Making Their Mark
(
New South Wales
:
Fairfax, Syme & Weldon
,
1984
),
86
87
;
Hamilton Spectator
, Nov. 20, 23, 1861; Nov. 9, 1876; Feb. 3,
8
; June 14, 1877; Alexander Henderson, ed.,
Australian Families: A Genealogical and Biographical Record
(
Melbourne
:
A. Henderson
,
1941
),
91
.
26. For the Highland Clearances, see, Richards,
The Highland Clearances
(
Edinburgh
:
Berlinn
,
2002
). On the Highland and Island Emigration Society (HIES), see, David Macmillan,
“Sir Charles Trevelyan and the Highland and Island Emigration Society, 1849–1859,”
Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society
49
:
3
(
1963
):
16
1188
; Richards,
“Varieties of Scottish Emigration in the Nineteenth Century,”
Historical Studies
21
(Sept.
1985
):
473
94
. Not all assisted migrants from the Highlands were impoverished, see, for example, Richards,
“St. Kilda and Australia: Emigrants at Peril, 1852–3,”
Scottish Historical Review
71
(Apr.
1992
):
129
55
. Passenger Lists, HD4/5, HIES, National Archives of Scotland, Edinburg, Scotland (hereafter NAS);
“Highland Emigration,”
Sydney Morning Herald
, Nov. 27,
1852
,
2
.
27. Passenger Lists—Family No. 569, 115, HD4/5, HIES, NAS;
Register of Assisted Migrants from the UK
(microform copy of VPRS 14),
198
202
, book 10, VPRS 3502, Public Record Office of Victoria,
Melbourne, Australia
.
28.
“Death of a Pioneer,”
Border Watch
, Mar. 4, 1919,
3
;
“Obituary. Mrs D. A. Cameron,”
Portland Guardian
, Oct. 8,
1928
,
2
.
29. “Death of a Pioneer”; Free Church of Scotland,
The Home and Foreign Record of the Free Church of Scotland
,
6 vols.
(
Edinburgh
:
J. Nicols
,
1854
),
4
:
107
108
; The Vagabond,
“Picturesque Victoria,”
Argus
(Melbourne), Mar. 28, 1885,
4
; Donald Morison,
“1854 Reminiscences of Hamilton,”
handwritten mss., c. 1909, Hamilton History Centre Inc., Hamilton, Victoria, Aus.; Charles Withers,
Gaelic in Scotland, 1698–1981: The Geographical History of a Language
(
Edinburgh
:
John Donald
,
1984
),
87
90
,
173
.
30. St. Andrew’s Presbyterian Church,
The First 100 years, 1854–1954
(
Hamilton
:
Osborn Mannett
,
1954
),
6
;
Hamilton Spectator
, Oct. 21, 1868; Nov. 24, 1949. This echoes the experience of Highlanders migrating to the urban Lowlands in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuies, whose religion and language made their presence traceable in censuses. See, Charles Withers,
Urban Highlanders: Highland-Lowland Migration and Urban Gaelic Culture, 1700–1900
(
Linton
:
Tuckwell
,
1998
).
31. McKay,
“Origin of Penola”; “Stories of Penola”
Squatters’ Directory
,
6
.