Abstract

“Reaping the Judenfrage” integrates the vast body of literature on the nineteenth-century “Jewish question” with the long-forgotten “artificial wine question” of the same period. German and Austrian Jews played pivotal roles in the wine trade, often as merchants connecting winegrowers to distant consumers. As new technologies, modern commercial strategies, and the burgeoning field of enology revolutionized the Central European wine trade, German and Austrian winegrowers struggled to remain competitive. Political parties and other pressure groups portrayed the Jewish wine merchant as the embodiment of this dislocation. In doing so, the “artificial wine question,” the single-most important debate to emerge from the trade's crisis, was explicitly connected to the by-then mainstreamed “Jewish question.” Consequently, discussions of “natural” and “artificial” as they related to wine—so influential for later discursive developments in the broader food trades—were, from their birth, marked by the overlapping ideologies of anti-Semitism and anti-capitalism.

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NOTES

1. The author is responsible for all translations from the original German. Friedrich Holl,
“Ein Irrlicht für Winzer,”
Deutsche Wein-Zeitung
,
Oct.
22
,
1884
,
363
;
“Produzent und Konsument,”
Deutsche Wein-Zeitung
,
Mar.
15
,
1886
,
89
.
2. August Wilhelm von Babo,
“Hauer und Weinhändler,”
Die Weinlaube
(
Jan.
4
,
1880
):
1
3
. The German Second Reich, or Imperial Germany, was founded as a constitutional monarchy in 1871. The Reich dissolved in 1918. Austria-Hungary was founded in 1867. Far more ethnically and culturally diverse than Germany, it was weakened by nationalist and regional tensions. It also disbanded in 1918 after defeat in World War I.
3. James Simpson,
Creating Wine: The Emergence of a World Industry, 1840–1914
(
Princeton
:
Princeton University Press
,
2011
),
92
98
; Kevin D. Goldberg,
“Acidity and Power: The Politics of Natural Wine in Nineteenth-Century Germany,”
Food and Foodways
19
(Winter
2011
).
4. For an example of combining phylloxera scholarship with other viticultural questions, see, Marta Macedo,
“Port Wine Landscape: Railroads, Phylloxera, and Agricultural Science,”
Agricultural History
85
(Spring
2011
):
157
73
. Jacob Toury,
“The Jewish Question: A Semantic Approach,”
Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook
11
(
Jan.
1966
):
85
106
. The Judenfrage was a fluid category, both real and contrived. Here, I deal with its postemancipation (1867–1871) context, when it “was a fiction created by anti-Semitic non-Jews who thought that Germany, or Christendom, should emancipate itself from the [emancipated] Jews.” The original, pre-emancipation context dealt with whether or not Jews deserved equal citizenship with non-Jews. Olaf Blaschke,
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(
Lincoln
:
University of Nebraska Press
,
2009
),
19
; Christopher Clark,
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(
Cambridge
:
Harvard University Press
,
2006
),
586
87
.
5. For an introduction to wine adulteration, see, Hugh Johnson,
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(
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:
Simon and Schuster
,
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). The wine trade revolution is traditionally conceived as both a twentieth-century and French phenomenon. Leo Loubère,
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(
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:
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,
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).
6. Recent research on food legislation in Europe and the United States between the 1870s and 1930s has shown the complexity and contradictions of the movement. For example, see, Michael French and Jim Phillips,
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:
Manchester University Press
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2002
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183
208
; Vera Hierholzer,
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(
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. This anxiety is acknowledged by Hitler in Mein Kampf: “Notwithstanding that Vienna in those days counted nearly two hundred thousand Jews among its inhabitants, I did not see them.” Ivar Oxaal et al., eds.,
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38
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(
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. In her study of the German-Jewish middle class in Imperial Germany, Marion Kaplan points out that “parasitism” was often used by critics of capitalism in their attempt to prove the low moral character of trades that had been judaicized. Kaplan,
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61
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96
. Soloveitchik argues that rabbis were reluctant to give up wine-related prohibitions, even though this was a poor financial decision, because of the challenges in amending regnant law under such practical difficulties.
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:
Harvard University Press
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Israel und die Gojim: Beiträge zur Beurtheilung der Judenfrage
(
Leipzig
:
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1880
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“Jüdisches Bürgertum—sein Beitrag zur Entwicklung der Stadt Bingen vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg,”
Heimat am Mittelrhein
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Sept.
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Dec.
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May
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2004
). For Kitzingen, see,
“Die Erfolgsgeschichte der jüdischen Weinhändle,”
www.kitzingen.info/fileadmin/…/juedische_geschichte_weinhaendler.pdf (accessed July 21, 2011, site discontinued). On Landau, see, Günther List,
“Juden im Landauer Weinhandel: Skizze einer Gründerzeit,”
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Juden in der Provinz: Beiträge zur Geschichte der Juden in der Pfalz zwischen Emanzipation und Vernichtung
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Neustadt
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Verlag Pfälzische Post
,
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65
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“Ab heute in arischem Besitz: Die Ausschaltung der Juden aus der Wirtschaft,”
in
Als die letzten Hoffnungen verbrannten: Mainzer Juden zwischen Integration und Vernichtung
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Mainz
:
Verlag Hermann Schmidt
,
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53
54
. Rheingans claims that “a good third” of the three hundred thirty Jewish businesses in Mainz traded in agricultural goods, “especially in the trade of wine.”
16. Richarz,
“Occupational Distribution,”
48
.
17. Zahava Szász Stessel,
Wine and Thorns in Tokay Valley: Jewish Life in Hungary: The History of Abaújszántó
(
Madison, NJ
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),
55
,
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; Glenn Dynner,
“Legal Fictions: The Survival of Rural Jewish Tavernkeeping in the Kingdom of Poland,”
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66
.
18. Niall Ferguson,
The House of Rothschild: The World's Banker, 1849–1999
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81
; Otto Warburg,
“Über Aufbewahrung und Verpackung von Weintrauben,”
Palästina
1
(
Jan.
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25
26
;
“Weinproduktion und Ausfuhr Palästinas,”
Palästina
2
(
Feb.
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88
. The 1900 vintage produced just under eighty thousand hectoliters of wine, with almost ten thousand hectoliters destined for Germany. The next largest importer was Egypt, with about five thousand hectoliters.
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(
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.
19. See, the membership list in Stenographischer Bericht; “Verwertung der Domanialweine, insbesondere der Abstaz durch Verkauf und Versteigerung,” Bd. 6, Abt. 454, Nr. 263, Hessisches Hauptstaatsarchiv, Wiesbaden, Germany. See, also, Abt. 454, Nr. 334. Brokers, both Jews and non-Jews, facilitated communication, payment, and transportation between producers and consumers. This method of sales was adopted by many Rheingau estates to replace traditional relationships.
20. Franz Josef Ehrhart,
“Zum Neuen Weingesetzentwurf,”
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(
1908
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11
;
Nationalliberale Partei
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Berlin
:
Verlag der Buchhandlung der Nationalliberalen Partei
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1907
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1,112
23
. For the behaviors and language of anti-Semitism in Central Europe, see, Shulamit Volkov,
Germans, Jews, and Antisemites: Trials in Emancipation
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in
The Economy in Jewish History: New Perspectives on the Interrelationship between Ethnicity and Economic Life
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Berghahn
,
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),
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54
.
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,
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,
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Deutsch-Soziale Blätter
,
Jan.
24
,
1901
,
47
. These trials were causes célèbres at the local level. Respected Jewish merchants were scandalized as defendants in highly publicized criminal cases and libel suits. As Barnet Hartston has pointed out, these kinds of trials mainstreamed the anti-Semitism of influential men like Otto Glagau and Adolf Stöcker. Hartston,
Sensationalizing the Jewish Question: Anti-Semitic Trials and the Press in the Early German Empire
(
Boston
:
Brill
,
2005
).
23.
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Deutsche Wein-Zeitung
,
Mar.
1
,
1882
,
49
;
“Urtheilsverkündigung gegen Julius Kahn I. in Bingen,”
Deutsche Wein-Zeitung
,
Mar.
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,
1882
,
55
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“Zur Lage des Winzerstandes,”
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Gesellschaft für Buchdruckerei
,
1885
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26
58
.
24. It is impossible to chemically analyze wine for origin and constituency with 100 percent accuracy. Nessler's method is, unfortunately, not reported. Damaris Christensen,
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Science News
157
(
Jan.
1
,
2000
):
12
13
. For trial coverage, see,
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Wein-Halle
(
Nov.
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,
1880
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7
;
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,
Feb.
1
,
1881
,
23
24
. Due to the trial's damage to the brothers' reputation, Simon and Leopold resettled in Hamburg, where they founded the firm Vinicola S. & L. Durlacher trading in Spanish wines. In 1892 Moritz joined his brothers, and the family became prominent in Hamburg's Jewish community around 1900. Hamburgische Wissenschaftliche Stiftung, http://www.hmb-wiss-stift.de/home/donatoren_16.php?name=13&PHPSESSID=ea1b7da1e441034eec7707509a6d3196 (accessed Aug. 31, 2012).
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. (
Berlin
:
Ecksteins Biographischer Verlag
, c.
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sec. 5.1; Götz Aly,
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Frankfurt
:
S. Fischer
,
2011
);
Stenographischer Bericht
,
16
17
.
26. Grandjean,
“Jüdisches Bürgertum,”
sec. 5.1; Ran Aaronsohn,
“The Beginnings of Modern Jewish Agriculture in Palestine: ‘Indigenous’ Versus ‘Imported,’”
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69
(Summer
1995
):
446
.
27. Carl E. Schorske,
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(
New York
:
Vintage
,
1981
),
116
80
; J. Seidl,
Der Jude des 19ten Jahrhunderts, oder Warum sind Wir Antisemiten?
(
Graz
:
Verlags-Buchhandlung
,
1899
),
41
42
.
28.
“Antrag der Abgeordneten Herzog, Dötz, Malik und Genossen, betreffend das gänzliche Verbot der Erzeugung und der Einfuhr von Kunstwein und des Handels mit demselben,”
Beilagen zu den stenogr. Protokollen des Abgeordnetenhauses. XVII. Session, 1901
,
Österreichische Nationalbibliothek
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, sess. 17, vol.
5
(
Vienna
:
kaiserlich-königlichen Hof- und Staatsdruckerei
,
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).
30.
“Interpellation der Abgeordneten Johann Mayer, Leopold Daschl, Kühschelm und Genossen an Seine Excellenz den Herrn Ministerpräsidenten als Leiter des Ministeriums des Innern und des Justizministeriums,”
Haus der Abgeordneten,
254
, Sitzung der XVII, morning session, Dec. 10, 1903, in
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, sess. 17, vol.
26
(
Vienna
:
kaiserlich-königlichen Hof- und Staatsdruckerei
,
1904
).
31. Abgeordneter Herzog, Haus der Abgeordneten, 477, Sitzung der XVII, morning session, Jan. 18, 1907, in
Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Hauses der Abgeordneten des österreichischen Reichsrates in den Jahren 1906 und 1907
, sess. 17, vol.
45
(
Vienna
:
kaiserlich-königlichen Hof- und Staatsdruckerei
,
1907
).
32. The literature on Austrian anti-Semitism is abundant. See, Bruce F. Pauley,
From Prejudice to Persecution: A History of Austrian Anti-Semitism
(
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
1992
); Oxaal,
Jews, Antisemitism and Culture
.
33. Jonathan Karp,
“Can Economic History Date the Inception of Jewish Modernity,”
in
Economy in Jewish History
,
23
; Olaf Blaschke,
Katholizismus und Antisemitismus im Deutschen Kaiserreich
(
Göttingen
:
Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
,
1999
),
264
65
.