Abstract

A longstanding assumption posits that white ranchers from the French Caribbean colony of Saint-Domingue, now Haiti, provided the knowledge to establish the first cattle ranches in Louisiana in the mid-eighteenth century, that blacks merely provided the labor, and that the herding ecology involved was the same as that of the Acadian ranchers who followed. Reconstruction of the locations of the first major ranches and the backgrounds of their owners and slaves, however, reveals that none of them came to Louisiana from Saint-Domingue and that the ranches occupied the western margin of the Atchafalaya basin, an environment quite different than the prairies of southwestern Louisiana later inhabited by Acadian ranchers. While the sources cannot yield a complete account of the process through which cattle ranching became established, they do suggest that none of the white ranchers brought relevant experience from the Caribbean or France, that some of the blacks might have brought such experience from Africa, and that people of African, European, native, and mixed origins all contributed knowledge and creativity, as well as labor, in founding a distinctive herding ecology that differed substantially from that of the subsequent Acadian ranches.

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Notes

1.
The Attakapas Post was at present-day St. Martinville
.
Attakapas
1766
, fol. 1–52, leg. 2595, Sección Gobierno, Audiencia de Santo Domingo, Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla, Spain (hereafter SGASD); Terry G. Jordan,
North American Cattle-Ranching Frontiers: Origins, Diffusion, and Differentiation
(
Albuquerque
:
University of New Mexico Press
,
1993
),
121
,
311
12
; Reports of Apr. 30 and Sept. 30, 1765 from Aubry and Foucault to Etienne François de Choiseul and Account of Apr. 30, 1765 by Foucault listing goods supplied to the Acadians, fols. 21–24, 30–30v, 31–33, Vol. 45, Correspondance à l'Arrivée en Provenance de la Louisiane, Séries C13a, Archives Nationales d'Outre-mer, Aix-en-Provence, France (hereafter ANO). For a detailed account of the Acadian settlement of Louisiana, see, Carl A. Brasseaux,
The Founding of New Acadia: The Beginnings of Acadian Life in Louisiana, 1765–1803
(
Baton Rouge
:
Louisiana State University Press
,
1987
). A league measured both distance and area, with each square league measuring 4,916 meters on a side and therefore containing 2,417 hectares, see, Roland Chardon,
“The Linear League in North America,”
Annals of the Association of American Geographers
(
June
1980
):
129
53
.
2. Jordan,
Frontiers
,
120
22
; Lauren C. Post,
Cajun Sketches: From the Prairies of Southwest Louisiana
(
Baton Rouge
:
Louisiana State University Press
,
1962
); Lauren C. Post,
“The Domestic Animals and Plants of French Louisiana as Mentioned in the Literature, with Reference to Sources, Varieties, and Uses,”
Louisiana Historical Quarterly
(
Oct.
1933
):
554
86
; James W. Taylor,
“The Agricultural Settlement Succession on the Prairies of Southwest Louisiana”
(
PhD diss.
,
Louisiana State University
,
1956
); Bill Jones,
Louisiana Cowboys
(
Gretna, La.
:
Pelican Publishing
,
2007
). The proportion of Acadian households in the Attakapas district that owned slaves increased from less than 4 percent in 1794 to 56 percent in 1810; Brasseaux,
Founding
,
188
97
.
3. The United States considered all of Louisiana to be public land except for those tracts individuals had acquired through grants from the French or Spanish governments or through purchase from native peoples. The General Land Office accumulated evidence of colonial land grants and their subsequent subdivision and conveyance to make recommendations to Congress regarding the validity of each claim. The resulting archive ranges from the evidence of colonial documents and transcripts of testimony, through case summaries and reports, acts of Congress confirming approved claims, surveys and patents, and original plat maps for each township. General Land Office reports to Congress appear in the
American State Papers: Public Lands
,
8
Vols. (
Washington, DC
:
Gales and Seaton
,
1832–61
). The Louisiana State Land Office (hereafter SLO) retains some of the documentation, which is available online at the Division of Administration,
State of Louisiana
, doa.louisiana.gov (accessed on Oct. 21, 2011).
4. Grant of Mar. 2, 1765 to Massé and Dauterive, Louisiana Land Grants 1753–1769,
Tulane University
,
New Orleans, La.
(hereafter TU); Sworn statement of Aug. 20, 1771 by Dauterive, Folder 1771/08/03-01, Cabildo Records, Louisiana State Museum Historical Center, New Orleans, La. (hereafter CR); Report of Apr. 24, 1765 by Aubry to Choiseul, fols. 47–52v, Vol.
45
, ANO;
1765
Appraisals of Dauterive's property, Nos. 37–41, Vol. 1 (1760–1779), Volumes of Original Acts, St. Martin Parish Courthouse, St. Martinville, La. (hereafter VOA); Survey of Apr. 10, 1798 by Gonsoulin for Louis and Alexandre de la Houssa, No. G27, Louisiana Land Surveys, Louisiana Manuscripts, Clements Library, University of Michigan–Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, Mich. (hereafter Louisiana Land Surveys); Brief of Complaints by the Dauterive Heirs, MS 2001-246-RL.13, Historic New Orleans Collection, New Orleans, La. (hereafter HNOC); Stephen K. Williams, ed.,
Cases Argued and Decided in the Supreme Court of the United States and Others, Bk. 13, 1850–1851
(
Rochester
:
Lawyers' Cooperative Publishing
,
1901
),
560
68
;
American State Papers
,
2
:
744
871
;
Claim by the Attakapas Church
, pp.
210
11
, Vol.
22
, Claim Papers for the Southwestern District (hereafter Claim Papers SWD);
Abstracts of French and Spanish Grants
, pp.
6
7
;
Claims of the Dauterive heirs
, pp.
95
106
, Pt. 2, Bk. 1, Opelousas Land Claims; Original Township Plat for T11S, R6E SWD, Dec. 23, 1845; Resurvey of T10S, R5E SWD, Apr. 23, 1856; Resurvey of T10S, R6E SWD, Feb. 4, 1881; Resurvey of T10S, R7E SWD, Dec. 17, 1846, SLO.
5. The French and Spaniards called the Ishak people the Attakapas, a derogatory Choctaw term meaning cannibal. See, Fred B. Kniffen et al.,
The Historic Indian Tribes of Louisiana: From 1542 to Present
(
Baton Rouge
:
Louisiana State University Press
,
1987
). Abstracts of French and Spanish Grants, pp.
6
7
; Petition of July 16, 1765 by Grevemberg to Aubry and Claim by Elizabeth Taley, pp.
162
65
,
306
, Pt. 2, Bk. 1, Opelousas Land Claims; Claim by the Attakapas Church, pp.
210
11
, Vol.
22
; Testimony recorded prior to Apr. 10, 1813, p.
216
, Vol.
20
; Claim by the legal representatives of Sam Fuselier, pp.
158
65
, Vol.
18
; Claim by Patrick Morgan and Daniel Clark, pp.
73
77
, Vol.
37
, Claim Papers SWD; Original Township Plat for T11S, R6E SWD, Dec. 23, 1845; Original Township Plat for T11S, R7E SWD, Dec. 28, 1875; Original Township Plat for T7S, R5E SWD, Sept. 27, 1845; Resurvey of T8S, R5E SWD, June 18, 1855; Resurvey of T9S, R5E SWD, June 18, 1855; Resurvey of T9S, R6E SWD, June 30, 1854; Resurvey of T10S, R5E SWD, Apr. 12, 1856; Resurvey of T8S, R6E SWD, Apr. 26, 1855; Original Township Plat for T7S, R6E SWD, Apr. 26, 1855; Testimony of Andrew Martin, pp.
11
13
, Private Claims in Opelousas District, SLO; Survey of Apr. 10, 1798 by Gonsoulin for Louis and Alexandre de la Houssa, No. G27; Survey of 1799 by Trudeau for Jumonville de Villiers, No. G12, Louisiana Land Surveys; Report of Mar. 14, 1756 from Viceroy Amarillas on Blancpain's arrest, fols. 166–67v, exp. 72, Vol. 1, Ser. 1, Correspondencia de los Virreyes, Archivo General de la Nación, Mexico City (hereafter CV); Ordinance of Feb. 18, 1770 by O'Reilly, fols. 7–8, exp. 2, leg. 188A, Sección Papeles Procedentes de Cuba, Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla, Spain (hereafter PPC). The ordinance specified that agricultural grants would have six to eight arpents of stream frontage and forty arpents extending back from the stream. Owners of large herds of cattle qualified for larger grants: half a league square for every hundred head up to a maximum of either one league of frontage by one league of depth, or, if topography or prior grants made that impossible, one-and-a-half leagues of frontage by a half league of depth. Brasseaux,
Founding
,
193
; Anonymous draft survey of 1793 for Arthur Strother; Uncatalogued 1799 survey by Trudeau for Charles Jumonville de Villiers, Folder for Attakapas, Survey Collection, Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collections, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, La. (hereafter LLMVC); Survey of May 20, 1793 byGonsoulin for Strother, fols. 182–83v, Cont. 6 (1790–91), Louisiana Miscellany, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC; Estate sale of May–June 1785 of Ledée's goods, No. 68, Vol. 4 (1784–85), VOA; Copy of Mar. 5, 1795 by Trudeau of survey for Strother, No. G30; Survey of June 20, 1800 by Trudeau for Marie Babin, No. G38, Folder for Attakapas 1793–1803, Louisiana Land Surveys;
American State Papers
,
3
:
77
150
,
5
:
736
39
,
3
:
151
62
,
2
:
744
871
; Sale of land by Jung to Ledée on Mar. 8, 1762, Folder 1762/03/08-04, Superior Council Records, Louisiana State Museum Historical Center, New Orleans, La. (hereafter SCR); Grant of Feb. 19, 1769 to Ledée; Grant of June 13, 1764 to Degoutin, Louisiana Land Grants 1753–69, TU; Estate sale on Mar. 14, 1786 of Ledée's land, Documents of the Opelousas Post, 1764–1789, Louisiana State Archives, Baton Rouge, La. (hereafter LSA); Chardon,
“Linear League in North America.”
6. Petition of July 16, 1765 by Grevemberg to Aubry, p. 162, Pt. 2, Bk. 1, Opelousas Land Claims, SLO.
7. “Early Cattle on Rancho and Vacherie,” Folder 149, Box 4, Lauren Chester Post Papers, LLMVC; Daniel H. Usner,
Indians, Settlers, and Slaves in a Frontier Exchange Economy: The Lower Mississippi Valley Before 1783
(
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
1992
),
176
80
; Antoine Simon le Page du Pratz,
Histoire de la Lousiane
,
3
Vols. (
Paris
:
Chez de Bure
,
1758
),
1
:
297
; H. Sophie Burton and F. Todd Smith,
Colonial Natchitoches: A Creole Community on the Louisiana-Texas Frontier
(
College Station
:
Texas A&M University Press
,
2008
),
146
67
; Post,
“Domestic Animals and Plants,”
559
63
; John D. W. Guice,
“Cattle Raisers of the Old Southwest: A Reinterpretation,”
Western Historical Quarterly
(
Apr.
1977
):
167
87
,
173
; Jordan,
Frontiers
,
120
21
.
8. Brasseaux,
Founding
,
92
; Attakapas 1766, fols. 1–52, leg. 2595, SGASD.
9. Attakapas 1766, fol. 26, leg. 2595, SGASD.
10. Herbert E. Bolton,
“Spanish Activities on the Lower Trinity River, 1746–1771,”
Southwestern Historical Quarterly
(
Apr.
1913
):
339
77
; Letter of July 22, 1756 from Barrios to Viceroy Amarillas, fols. 289–91v, exp. 119, Vol. 1, Ser. 1, CV; Petition of July 16, 1765 by Grevemberg to Aubry, p. 162, Pt. 2, Bk. 1, Opelousas Land Claims, SLO; Attakapas y Opelousas 1771, fol. 42–47, leg. 188C, PPC; Sworn statement of Aug. 20, 1771 by Dauterive, Folder 1771/08/03-01, CR.
11. The St. Martin Parish Courthouse has the two earliest brand books: Brand Book A and Brand Book B. The Brand Book for Opelousas and Attakapas Districts, 1739–1888 is in the Special Collections, University of Louisiana–Lafayette (hereafter ULL-Brand Book).
12. ULL-Brand Book, 68, 135, 339, 146; Brand Book A, 81; Brand Book B, 10, 155, 31; Attakapas y Opelousas 1771, fol. 43v, leg. 188C, PPC; Attakapas 1766, fol. 11, leg. 2595, SGASD; Burial of Oct. 7, 1800 of Anne Tellier, No. 217, Registre de Enterrements de 1787–1830, St. Martin of Tours Catholic Church, St. Martinville, La. (hereafter SMT); Winston Deville,
Colonial Louisiana Marriage Contracts
, Vol.
5
,
Marriage Contracts of the Attakapas Post, 1760–1803
(
St. Martinville
:
Attakapas Historical Association
,
1967
),
6
.
13. Several other names appear in the brand books with dates before 1766, but all seem, on the basis of the registrants' biographies and comparison across the three books, to be the result of poor copying or backdating and therefore spurious.
14. Post,
Cajun Sketches
,
38
46
; Jordan,
Frontiers
,
66
,
84
85
,
120
21
,
96
100
,
124
,
156
57
,
178
79
,
184
89
; Brasseaux,
Founding
,
144
,
171
72
.
15. Fred B. Kniffen and Sam B. Hilliard,
Louisiana: Its Land and People
(
Baton Rouge
:
Louisiana State University Press
,
1988
),
51
52
; Diario del viaje de la ciudad a los Attakapas, Opelousas, y Natchitoches (1769–70), fols. 434–42, leg. 2357; Reports of Apr. 21, May 16, May 20, June 30, July 9, 1779 from Bouligny to Gálvez, fols. 134–47v, leg. 2358, PPC.
16. Robin,
Voyages dans l'Intérieur
,
3
:
28
31
.
17. Marriage contract of Apr. 29, 1771 between Fuselier and Soileau, No. 385, Vol. 4 (1784–85), VOA; Marriage of Apr. 30, 1771 between Fuselier and Soileau, pp.
22
23
, Vieux Registre de 1756–94, SMT; Attakapas y Opelousas 1771, fol. 47, leg. 188C; Attakapas y Opelousas de 1777, fol. 260, leg. 2358; Draft letter of Feb. 18, 1770 from O'Reilly to Fuselier, fol. 9–9v, exp. 2, leg. 188A, PPC; Archdiocese of New Orleans,
Archdiocese of New Orleans Sacramental Records
,
19
Vols. (
New Orleans
:
Archdiocese of New Orleans
,
1987–2004
),
2
:
132
;
Diocese of Baton Rouge
,
Diocese of Baton Rouge Catholic Church Records
,
23
Vols. (
Baton Rouge
:
Diocese of Baton Rouge
,
1978–2007
),
3
:
49
,
302
; Glenn R. Conrad, ed.,
A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography
,
2
Vols. (
Lafayette
:
University of Louisiana Press
,
1988
),
1
:
328
29
; Winston DeVille,
Gabriel Fuselier de la Claire: His Death and Succession, 1789–1790
(
Ville Platte, La.
:
Provincial Press
,
2003
).
18. Exhibit A, p.
99
, Pt. 2, Bk. 1, Opelousas Land Claims, SLO; Grant of Mar. 2, 1765 to Masse´ and Dauterive, Louisiana Land Grants 1753–69, TU; Attakapas y Opelousas 1771, fol. 44v, leg. 188C, PPC; Attakapas 1766, fol. 11, leg. 2595; Letter of Apr. 27, 1776 by Unzaga re. the Massé estate, fol. 61, leg. 2547, SGASD; Petition of Jan. 10, 1785 by Francisco Broutin on behalf of Claudio Trenonay, Folder 1785/01/10-002, CR; Baptisms of June 5, 1756 of Massé's slaves, pp. 1–3, Vieux Registre de 1756–94, SMT; Robin,
Voyages dans l'Intérieur
,
3
:
20
21
.
19. Claims of the Dauterive heirs, pp. 95–106, Pt. 2, Bk. 1, Opelousas Land Claims, SLO; Copy of Nov. 30, 1830 of the Mar. 2, 1765 grant to Massé and Dauterive, Kuntz Collection, TU; Marriage of July 2, 1793 between Dauterive and Latille, No. 83, Vieux Registre de 1787–1802, SMT; fols. 67316–17, Folder 36 (1762), Box 4, Chantalou; fol. 99, Bk. 1 (1771), Almonester y Roxas; fols. 150v–52v, 168–69, 169v–70, 222, Bk. 2 (1771), Garic, New Orleans Notarial Archives, New Orleans, La. (hereafter NONA); Proceedings in July–Nov. 1771 by Antonio Barnabé versus Dauterive, Folders 1771/07/06-01 and 1771/ 08/03-01; Inventory of Feb. 6, 1773 of the property of de Vaugine, Folder 1773/02/06-01, CR; Winston DeVille,
Louisiana Troops, 1720–1770
(
Fort Worth
:
American Reference Publishers
,
1965
).
20. Marriage Contract of Jan. 21, 1786 between Grevemberg and Boisdore, No. 75, Vol. 4½ (1786), VOA; Baptism of May 31, 1798 of Grevemberg, No. 57, Libro de Baptismos de Blancos, 1797–1803, SMT; Attakapas y Opelousas 1771, fol. 43v, leg. 188C, PPC; fols. 142v–43v, 161–62, 327, 331, Bk. 2 (1771), Garic, NONA;
Archdiocese of New Orleans
,
Archdiocese of New Orleans Sacramental Records
,
1
:
123
; Documents of Oct. 26– Nov. 5, 1753 re. Noyan family meeting, Folders 1753/10/31-01, 1753/11/05-01; July 5, 1766 sale of Horn Island by Grevemberg to Farmar, Folder 1766/07/05-01, SCR.
21. fol. 95, Bk. 3 (1772), Garic; fols. 216–22v, Bk. 4 (1785), Fernando Rodriguez, NONA; Testimony of Andrew Martin, p. 12, Private Claims in Opelousas District, SLO; Estate sale of May–June 1785 of Ledée's goods, No. 68; Probate inventory of May 2, 1785 of Ledée's property, No. 101, Vol. 4 (1784–85), VOA; Mar. 14, 1786 estate sale of Ledée's land, Documents of the Opelousas Post, 1764–1789, LSA; Attakapas y Opelousas 1771, fols. 42–47, leg. 188C, PPC;
Archdiocese of New Orleans
,
Archdiocese of New Orleans Sacramental Records
,
4
:
188
.
22. Attakapas 1766, fol. 22, leg. 2595, SGASD; Grant of June 13, 1764 to Degoutin, Louisiana Land Grants 1753–69, TU; fols. 334–40, 352v–54, Bk. 3 (1773), Almonester y Roxas; fols. 148v–49v, Bk. 4 (1773), Garic, NONA;
Archdiocese of New Orleans
,
Archdiocese of New Orleans Sacramental Records
,
1
:
81
,
2
:
93
94
.
23. Marriage contract of June 8, 1779 between Bonin and Prevot, No. 104, Vol. 1 (1760–79), VOA; Marriage of Jan. 9, 1779 between Bonin and Prevot, pp. 71–72, Vieux Registre de 1756–94; Burial of Oct. 7, 1800 of Anne Tellier, No. 217, Registre de Enterrements de 1787–1830, SMT; ULL-Brand Book, 339, 146, 135; Attakapas y Opelousas 1771, fols. 43v–44, leg. 188C, PPC;
Diocese of Baton Rouge
,
Diocese of Baton Rouge Catholic Church Records
,
2
:
104
;
Archdiocese of Mobile
,
Sacramental Records of the Roman Catholic Church of the Archdiocese of Mobile, 1704–1739
(
Mobile
:
Archdiocese of Mobile
,
2002
),
169
,
296
; Jacqueline Olivier Vidrine,
Love's Legacy: The Mobile Marriages Recorded in French, Transcribed, with Annotated Abstracts in English, 1724–1786
(
Lafayette
:
University of Louisiana Press
,
1985
),
208
11
; Johnnie Andrews,
Fort Toulouse Colonials: A Compendium of the Colonial Families of Central Alabama, 1717–1823
(
Prichard, Ala.
:
Bienville Historical Society
,
1987
),
3
; DeVille,
Louisiana Troops
, entry for Bonin; Deville,
Colonial Louisiana Marriage Contracts
,
5
:
6
,
39
; Grant of June 1, 1768 to Sorrel by Ulloa, MS 79, Folder 2, HNOC; Robin,
Voyages dans l'Intérieur
,
3
:
22
23
; Gertrude C. Taylor,
“Fortune and Misfortune: The Sorrel Family in Louisiana, 1763–1900,”
Attakapas Gazette
21
(Winter
1986
):
179
91
.
24. Election of May 16, 1770 of an assistant to Bérard, No. 7, Vol. 1 (1760–79), VOA; Claim of Landry of Dec. 29, 1806, pp. 251–52, Vol. 53, Claim Papers SWD, SLO; Attakapas y Opelousas 1771, fol. 44v, leg. 188C, PPC; Robin,
Voyages dans l'Intérieur
,
3
:
22
23
; Deville,
Colonial Louisiana Marriage Contracts
,
5
:
55
; Vidrine,
Love's Legacy
,
319
; Tamara D. McGinnis,
“Last Will and Testament of Jean Berard,”
Attakapas Gazette
23
(Spring
1988
):
81
83
.
25. Gwendolyn Hall,
Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas: Restoring the Links
(
Chapel Hill
:
University of North Carolina Press
,
2005
),
22
54
; David Eltis et al.,
The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: A Database on CD-ROM
(
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
,
1999
).
26. Hall,
Slavery
,
43
44
; Gwendolyn Hall,
Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century
(
Baton Rouge
:
Louisiana State University Press
,
1992
),
9
10
,
34
35
,
40
45
,
60
,
171
75
.
27. Attakapas 1766, fols. 10v–11, 22, leg. 2595, SGASD.
28. Baptisms of Sept. 1, 1765 of Joseph and Marguerite, p. 11, Vieux Registre de 1756– 94; Baptisms of Sept. 1, 1765 of Joseph and Marguerite, p. 2, Slave Register 1765–1818, SMT; fol. 99, Bk. 1 (1771), Almonester y Roxas; fols. 150v–52v, 168–69, 169v–70, 222, Bk. 2 (1771), Garic, NONA.
29. Baptisms on June 2, 1765 of Anne, Pierre, Marianne, and Claudine, p. 1, Slave Register 1765–1818; Baptisms on June 5, 1756 of Therese, Claudine, Marie, Jean, Marguerite, Victoire, Magdaleine, and Françoise; Marriage on June 5, 1756 of Marie and Jean dit Ingui; Baptisms on Feb. 18, 1762 of Claude, Dominique, and Pierre, pp. 1–6, Vieux Registre de 1756–94, SMT.
30. Baptisms on June 2, 1765 of Anne, Pierre, Marianne, and Claudine, p. 1; Baptisms on Apr. 7, 1782 of Rossete and on May 21, 1782 of François Anselme and Charles, p. 5, Slave Register 1765–1818; Baptism on Feb. 18, 1762 of Claude, p. 4; Baptism on June 2, 1765 of Claudine, p. 6; Baptisms on Sept. 1, 1765 of Joseph and Marguerite, p. 11; Baptisms on Jan. 8, 1766 of Louise and Apr. 21, 1771 of Catherine, p. 16; Baptisms on Apr. 21, 1771 of Rose and Jean Baptiste, p. 17; Marriage on Apr. 26, 1771 of Françoise and Guillaume, p. 22; Baptisms on July 13, 1772 of Félicité and Augustin, p. 24; Baptism on May 4, 1773 of Jean Pierre, p. 38; Baptism on Nov. 24, 1776 of François, p. 50; Baptism on Dec. 1, 1776 of Alexandre, p. 51; Baptisms in 1788–90 of Jean Baptiste and Henry, p. 73, Vieux Registre de 1756–94, SMT; Attakapas y Opelousas de 1777, fol. 261, leg. 2358, PPC; Petition of Oct. 1, 1763 by Chantalou, Folder 1763/10/01-02, SCR; Probate inventory of May 2, 1785 and Estate sale of May–June 1785, Nos. 68 and 101, Vol. 4 (1784–85), VOA.
31. Jordan,
Frontiers
,
66
,
84
85
,
120
21
,
188
.
32. Ibid.,
16
,
84
.
33. Hall,
Africans
,
60
,
171
72
; George E. Brooks,
Eurafricans in Western Africa: Commerce, Social Status, Gender, and Religious Observance from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century
(
Athens
:
Ohio University Press
,
2003
),
1
36
; Jordan,
Frontiers
,
55
64
; Judith A. Carney,
Black Rice: The African Origins of Rice Cultivation in the Americas
(
Cambridge
:
Harvard University Press
,
2001
),
46
49
; Mahdi Adamu and A. H. M. Kirk-Greene, ed.,
Pastoralists of the West African Savanna: Selected Studies Presented at the Fifteenth International African Seminar, held at Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria, July 1979
(
Manchester, UK
:
Manchester University Press
,
1986
); Andrew B. Smith,
Pastoralism in Africa: Origins and Development Ecology
(
Athens
:
Ohio University Press
,
1992
).
34. Jordan,
Frontiers
,
310
.
35. Attakapas 1766, fol. 26, leg. 2595, SGASD; Post,
“Domestic Animals and Plants,”
559
63
; Jordan,
Frontiers
,
120
21
.
36. Post,
“Early Cattle on Rancho and Vacherie”
; Usner,
Indians, Settlers
,
176
80
; Page du Pratz,
Histoire de la Louisiane
,
1
:
297
.