Abstract

This is the story of failure: in this case, an irrigation project that never met its boosters' expectations. Between 1880 and 1930 Wichita Falls entrepreneur Joseph Kemp dreamed of an agrarian Eden on the Texas rolling plains. Kemp promoted reclamation and conservation and envisioned the Big Wichita River Valley as the “Irrigated Valley.” But the process of bringing dams and irrigation ditches to the Big Wichita River ignored knowledge of the river and local environment, which ultimately was key to making these complex systems work. The boosters faced serious ecological limitations and political obstacles in their efforts to conquer water, accomplishing only parts of the grandiose vision. Ultimately, salty waters and poor drainage doomed the project. While the livestock industry survived and the oil business thrived in the subsequent decades, the dream of idyllic irrigated farmsteads slowly disappeared.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

NOTES

1. Registration Sheet of Aaron Dodson; Registration Sheet of Fritz Hendrich, Historical Survey of Wichita Falls, Center for American History, University of Texas–Austin, Austin, Tex. (hereafter CAH); “Reminiscences of Mart Banta”; A. H. Carrigan,
“A Historical Sketch of Wichita Falls,”
Wichita Falls Reminiscences, Wichita Falls Public Library, Wichita Falls, Tex.;
“Visitor Can Remember Viewing Falls on River,”
Wichita (Wichita Falls, Tex.) Daily Times
,
May
4
,
1952
; Harry Parks,
“When Earthen Dam Broke in 1886 to Erase River Falls Recalled by Pioneer Now 74,”
Wichita Daily Times
,
Feb.
27
,
1949
;
“Wichita River Falls Being Rebuilt Here,”
Wichita Falls Times
,
Apr.
22
,
1955
; Jody Cox,
“Where is the Falls in Wichita Falls?”
Wichita Falls Times
,
Dec.
31
,
1978
;
“Place Names in Wichita County,”
Wichita County, Tex. (1), Vertical File, CAH; Jonnie R. Morgan,
The History of Wichita Falls
(
Wichita Falls
:
Nortex Offset Publications
,
1931
),
12
.
2. Buckley B. Paddock, editor of the Fort Worth Democrat and amateur historian, often wrote about northwest Texas and praised Joseph Kemp's development of Wichita Falls. See, for example, Paddock,
A Twentieth Century History and Biographical Record of North and West Texas
,
2
Vols. (
New York
:
Lewis Publishing Company
,
1906
),
2
:
444
; Paddock, ed.,
History of Texas: Fort Worth and the Texas Northwest Edition
,
4
Vols. (
New York
:
Lewis Publishing Company
,
1922
); Patricia Lenora Duncan,
“Enterprise: B. B. Paddock and Fort Worth: A Case Study of Late Nineteenth Century American Boosterism”
(
master's thesis
,
University of Texas–Arlington
,
1982
). Progressive-era northwest Texans often used the term “upbuilding” to describe economic development in the Big Wichita River Valley, see, for example, R. E. Huff, president's toast,
Jan.
11
,
1910
, Wichita Falls Chamber of Commerce Records 1901–1964 (hereafter WFCC), Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Tex. (hereafter SWC). For a traditional interpretation of local history, see, Morgan,
History of Wichita Falls
.
3. Frederick Jackson Turner,
The Frontier in American History
(
New York
:
Henry Holt and Co.
,
1921
),
134
36
; Walter Prescott Webb,
The Great Plains
(
Boston
:
Ginn and Co.
,
1931
),
322
. For regional historians, see, for example, Eugene C. Barker,
The Life of Stephen F. Austin, Founder of Texas: A Chapter in the Westward Movement of the Anglo-American People
(
Nashville
:
Cokesbury Press
,
1925
); Carl N. Tyson,
The Red River in Southwestern History
(
Norman
:
University of Oklahoma Press
,
1981
); Kenneth F. Neighbours,
“The Marcy-Neighbors Exploration of the Headwaters of the Brazos and Wichita Rivers in 1854,”
Panhandle-Plains Historical Review
27
(
1954
):
24
46
.
4. For criticisms of the traditional perspectives, see, for example, Benjamin Kline,
First Along the River: A Brief History of the US Environmental Movement
(
San Francisco
:
Acada Books
,
1997
),
32
35
; Ralph Waldo Emerson,
Nature
(
Boston
:
J. Munroe and Company
,
1836
); Friedrich Engels,
Dialectics of Nature
, ed. and trans. Clemens Dutt (
New York
:
International Publishers
,
1940
). For historians focusing on the Dust Bowl, see, for example, Alan M. Klein,
“Plains Economic Analysis: The Marxist Compliment,”
in
Anthropology on the Great Plains
, ed. W. Raymond Wood and Margot Liberty (
Lincoln
:
University of Nebraska Press
,
1980
),
129
40
; Donald Worster,
Nature's Economy: The Roots of Ecology
(
Garden City, NY
:
Anchor Press/Doubleday
,
1979
); Worster,
Rivers of Empire: Water, Aridity, and the Growth of the American West
(
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1985
). For the new western history, see, for example, William Cronon,
Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West
(
New York
:
W. W. Norton & Co.
,
1991
); Patricia Nelson Limerick,
Something in the Soil: Legacies and Reckonings in the New West
(
New York
:
W. W. Norton & Co.
,
2000
); Marc Reisner,
Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water
(
New York
:
Penguin Books
,
1993
).
5. Worster,
Dust Bowl: The Southern Plains in the 1930s
(
New York
:
Oxford University Press
,
1979
); Worster,
Rivers of Empire
,
22
66
; Geoff Cunfer,
On the Great Plains: Agriculture and Environment
(
College Station
:
Texas A&M University Press
,
2005
),
10
.
6. For environment and water resources in Texas, see, for example, Char Miller, ed.,
Fluid Arguments: Five Centuries of Western Water Conflict
(
Tucson
:
University of Arizona Press
,
2001
); Dan L. Flores,
Caprock Canyonlands: Journeys into the Heart of the Southern Plains
(
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
,
1990
); John Opie,
Ogallala: Water for a Dry Land
(
1993
; repr.,
Lincoln
:
University of Nebraska Press
,
2000
). For histories of water resources in the American West, see, for example, Donald J. Pisani,
Water and American Government: The Reclamation Bureau, National Water Policy, and the West, 1902–1935
(
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
,
2002
); Stephen Bogener,
Ditches Across the Desert: Irrigation in the Lower Pecos Valley
(
Lubbock
:
Texas Tech University Press
,
2003
); James Sherow,
Watering the Valley: Development along the High Plains Arkansas River, 1870–1950
(
Lawrence
:
University Press of Kansas
,
1990
). For histories of local environmental knowledge, see, for example, James Murton,
“Creating Order: The Liberals, the Landowners, and the Draining of Sumas Lake, British Columbia,”
Environmental History
13
(
Jan.
2008
):
95
; James C. Scott,
Seeing Like A State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed
(
New Haven
:
Yale University Press
,
1998
),
2
7
,
201
,
221
,
304
306
.
7. Registration Sheet of A. E. Gwinn; Registration Sheet of Noland Howard, for Golden Jubilee, Wichita Falls, Tex., Sept. 26, 27, and 28, 1932, Historical Survey of Wichita Falls, CAH; Mary Basham Loggie,
“Joseph Sterling Bridwell”
(
master's thesis
,
Midwestern State University
,
1967
),
28
.
8. Meeting Minutes, Aug. 27, 1918, WFCC, SWC.
9. Randolph B. Marcy,
Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana in the Year 1852
(
Washington, DC
:
A. O. P. Nicholson, Public Printer
,
1854
),
6
.
10. Allen G. Winslow and L. R. Kister,
Saline-Water Resources of Texas
,
Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper No. 1,365
(
Washington, DC
:
GPO
,
1956
),
1
,
18
19
; J. O. Joerns,
Investigations of Sources of Natural Pollution, Wichita River Basin Above Lake Kemp, Texas, 1951–1957
(
Austin
:
Surface Water Branch
,
1961
); Gene R. Wilde and Bailey Gaines,
“Identification of Refugia Habitat, Faunal Survey of Collection Areas, and Monitoring of Riparian and Stream Habitat and Biotic Communities in the Wichita River Basin, Texas,”
Oct.
26
,
2006
, unprocessed doc., SWC; Jack T. Hughes,
Archeological Reconnaissance in the Wichita River Drainage of North-Central Texas
(
Canyon
:
Killgore Research Center, West Texas State University
,
1972
),
2
34
; Leo D. Lewis and Walter Woelber Dalquest,
A Fisheries Survey of the Big Wichita River System and Its Impoundments
(
Austin
:
Texas Game and Fish Commission
,
1957
);
Texas A&M University System
,
Agricultural Resources Related to Water Development in Texas
(
1965
; repr.,
College Station
:
Texas A&M University, Water Resources Institute
,
1968
); Morris E. Bloodworth,
Some Principles and Practices in the Irrigation of Texas Soils
(
College Station
:
Texas Agricultural Experiment Station
,
1959
),
27
; Local Climatological Data with Comparative Data, Wichita Falls, Tex., 1963, Weather Bureau, US Department of Commerce, Tex. Vertical File, CAH.
11. George W. Bomar,
Texas Weather
(
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
,
1990
),
222
; Local Climatological Data; Bloodworth,
Some Principles and Practices
,
6
; Texas Technological College, Abstracts of Publications on West Texas Water Resources, 1967, West Texas Water Institute, No. 7, Box 505, Water Inc., SWC; R. J. Hildreth and Gerald W. Thomas,
Farming and Ranching Risk as Influenced by Rainfall: 1. High and Rolling Plains of Texas
(
College Station
:
Texas Agricultural Experiment Station
,
1956
),
1
39
; Charles J. Bicak,
“The Rigors of Existence on the Great Plains: The Role of Water,”
in
Water on the Great Plains: Issues and Policies
, ed. Peter J. Longo and David W. Yoskowitz (
Lubbock
:
Texas Tech University Press
,
2002
),
3
15
; Stanley Baldys et al.,
Effects of Low-Flow Diversions from the South Wichita River on Downstream Salinity of the South Wichita River, Lake Kemp, and the Wichita River, North Texas, October 1982–September 1992
(
Austin
:
US Geological Survey
,
1996
),
1
32
; Jack Keller et al.,
Report on the Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Operation Area VIII Red River Chloride Control Project: Red River Chloride Control Project Report
(
Washington, DC
:
GPO
,
1988
),
35
.
12.
“J. A. Kemp Is Dead: Southwest Loses One of Foremost Business and Public Figures,”
Wichita Falls (Tex.) Record News
,
Nov.
17
,
1930
,
1
;
“Irrigation Meeting Called for Oct. 3–4,”
Dallas Morning News
,
Sept.
22
,
1924
, Part 1, 4;
“Prominent Financier and Texas Railroad Builder Passes Away,”
Dallas Morning News
,
Nov.
17
,
1930
,
1
;
Better City
,
1
:
6
,
June
1
,
1920
, WFCC, SWC; Paddock,
History of Texas
,
3
:
8
11
; Worth Robert Miller,
“Building a Progressive Coalition in Texas: The Populist-Reform Democrat Rapprochement, 1900–1907,”
Journal of Southern History
102
(
May
1986
):
164
; Alwyn Barr,
Reconstruction to Reform: Texas Politics, 1876–1906
(
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
,
1971
),
125
; Minutes, June 15, 1909, Reel 1, 1901–1918, WFCC, SWC; Larry D. Hill,
“Texas Progressivism: A Search for Definition,”
in
Texas Through Time: Evolving Interpretations
, ed. Walter L. Buenger and Robert A. Calvert (
College Station
:
Texas A&M University Press
,
1991
),
246
.
13.
“Death Calls J. A. Kemp, Wichita Falls,”
Dallas Morning News
,
Nov.
17
,
1930
, Sec. 1, 1; “Joseph Alexander Kemp,” Vertical File; Registration Sheet of Mrs. Mary McKissack, Historical Survey of Wichita Falls, CAH; Memoirs of Mrs. J. A. Kemp in
“Diamond Jubilee 1882–1957: Early History Wichita County and North Texas,”
Wichita County, Historical Series
(
Feb.
1957
), Recorded by Edith Slaten, Jan. 10, 1957, Moffet Library, Midwestern State University, Wichita Falls, Tex.; “Conservation of Water Urged at Association Meeting in Fort Worth: J. A. Kemp Named As New President,”
Dallas Morning News
,
Oct.
4
,
1924
, Part 1, 1, 2; J. W. Williams,
“A Statistical Study of the Drought of 1886,”
West Texas Historical Association
,
Yearbook
21
(
1945
);
Texas State Historical Association
,
“Droughts,”
Handbook of Texas Online
, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/DD/ybd1.html (accessed Apr. 8, 2011).
14.
“Subject of Irrigation,”
Dallas Morning News
,
Feb.
27
,
1897
,
7
;
“Conservation of Water Urged.”
15. Margaret Lee Morgan,
“The History and Economic Aspect of the Wichita Valley Irrigation Project”
(
master's thesis
,
Southern Methodist University
,
1939
),
123
24
; Condor Petroleum Company Folder, Henry Sayles Jr. Papers, Manuscript Collection, SWC; “Joseph Alexander Kemp”; Registration Sheet of George Fleming; Registration Sheet of Alex Albright, Historical Survey of Wichita Falls, CAH;
“Subject of Irrigation”
;
“Wichita Falls Irrigation Project,”
Wichita Daily Times
,
Apr.
24
,
1924
,
1
.
16. Morgan,
“History and Economic Aspect,”
124
;
Texas State Historical Association
,
“Constitution of 1876,”
Handbook of Texas Online
, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/CC/mhc7.html (accessed Apr. 8, 2011); John Opie,
“John Wesley Powell Was Right: Resizing the Ogallala High Plains,”
Fluid Arguments
,
223
47
.
17. Llerena Friend,
“Frank Kell Collection,”
“Frank Kell,”
Vertical File, CAH; Llerena Friend,
“The Frank Kell Collection,”
Library Chronicle of the University of Texas
7
(Fall
1961
):
3
7
;
“Subject of Irrigation”
; File C-L Sayles Family Sayles, Ethyl–Sales M. E., Box 2, Henry Sayles Jr. Papers, Manuscript Collection, SWC.
18. Local historian Morgan, in
History of Wichita Falls
, claimed that Kemp “was unable to convince them [Texas voters] of its soundness at that time … Texas voters did not understand the proposed amendment sufficiently to put it over. Hence its defeat” (
71
72
). She argued,
“Texans had not given enough thought nor had they had enough experience to understand the value of irrigation”
(
211
). According to Margaret Lee Morgan, in “History and Economic Aspect,” Kemp and West Texas boosters blamed East Texas, which “didn't need it and was usually determined to oppose any Constitutional Amendment that affected bond issues” (
124
27
). The Dallas Morning News in “Conservation of Water Urged,” reported on Kemp's work with the legislature that a “struggle drew out and was discouraging. The people when it was put to a vote would not support it.”
19.
“Conservation of Water Urged”
;
Texas State Historical Association
,
“Holliday Creek,”
Handbook of Texas Online
, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/HH/rbh92.html (accessed Apr. 8, 2011); T. U. Taylor,
Irrigation Systems of Texas
(
Washington, DC
:
GPO
,
1902
); Morgan,
History of Wichita Falls
,
72
.
20. Taylor,
Irrigation Systems
,
79
; Meeting Minutes,
Mar.
4
,
Oct.
28
,
1913
, WFCC, SWC; US Corps Of Engineers,
Flood Plain Information: Holliday and McGrath Creeks, Wichita Falls, Texas
(
Tulsa
:
Corps of Engineers
,
1976
);
“Big Profit in Irrigation,”
Dallas Morning News
,
Nov.
5
,
1900
,
1
; File C-L Sayles Family Sayles, Ethyl–Sales M. E., Box 2, Henry Sayles Jr. Papers, Manuscript Collection, SWC; Jimmy E. Banks for the Iowa Park Centennial published by the
Iowa Park Leader
,
Oct.
1988
, Personal Papers of Jimmy E. Banks, copy in author's possession.
21.
“Farming by Irrigation,”
Dallas Morning News
,
Sept.
23
,
1903
,
7
;
“Joseph Alexander Kemp.”
22. Morgan,
“History and Economic Aspect,”
126
.
23. Board of Director's Meeting Minutes, Mar. 18, 1918, WFCC, SWC.
24. Kemp, Scurry, and Vernon Sullivan lobbied on behalf of Wichita Falls and Pecos, Texas.
“Texans Urge Passage of Irrigation Bond Measure,”
Dallas Morning News
,
Mar.
23
,
1918
;
“Pecos Valley Farmers Ask Aid in Building Dam,”
Dallas Morning News
,
Feb.
27
,
1918
,
11
; Board of Director's Meeting Minutes,
Sept.
3
,
1918
, WFCC, SWC; Dick Smith,
“Water Improvement Districts,”
Texas State Historical Association
,
Handbook of Texas Online
, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/mww02 (accessed Aug. 26, 2011).
25. Morgan,
“History and Economic Aspect,”
129
;
“Joseph Alexander Kemp”
; Director's Meeting,
July
24
,
1920
, Book 1,
1919
1922
, Wichita County Water Improvement District (hereafter WCWID) #1; Meeting Minutes, July 8, 1919, WFCC, SWC;
“Wichita Irrigation Project, Seventh in Size in the United States,”
Community Builder
1
:
7
Mar.
1923
,
WFCC
,
SWC
.
26. Meeting Minutes,
Dec.
16
,
1919
;
“Wichita Falls: Where Today's Dream is Tomorrow's Achievement,”
Oct.
1919
,
WFCC
,
SWC
.
27. Swing musicians such as Harry James toured through Texas, stopping off to perform at the Lake Wichita pavilion. Lana Thomas,
“Lake Wichita: Early Resort,”
Irrigation Highland Subsection, Irrigation District Section, Scrapbook, Wichita County Archives, Wichita Falls, Tex.;
“To Play for Lake Wichita Dance,”
Wichita Daily Times
,
Sept.
29
,
1946
;
“Death Calls J. A. Kemp”
;
“Joseph Alexander Kemp.”
28. Morgan,
“History and Economic Aspect,”
130
35
;
“Wichita Irrigation Project, Seventh in Size in the United States.”
29. Director's Meeting, July 24, 1920, Book 1, 1919–1922, WCWID #1, SWC; Banks for the Iowa Park Centennial; Ralph Harvey,
“Irrigation District History,”
Wichita County Water District Number One Subsection, Irrigation District Section, Book 19, Wichita County Archives, Wichita Falls, Tex.;
“Joseph Alexander Kemp”; “Irrigation System Was Voted in 1921,”
Wichita Falls Times
,
May
12
,
1957
.
30. Agricultural Editor V. H. Scoeffelmayer of the
Dallas Morning News
wrote many pro-irrigation pieces for Kemp. The first directors were President J. A. Kemp, Vice President T. B. Noble, Treasurer N. H. Martin, and members G. C. Wood and J. S. Bridwell. V. H. Scoeffelmayer,
“Dream of J. A. Kemp, Banker, Realized Through Issue of Bonds Totaling $4,500,000,”
Dallas Morning News
,
Aug.
2
,
1925
, Sec. 6, 1; Banks for the Iowa Park Centennial. In 1923 the rate was one dollar per one hundred dollars of taxable value; in 1928 seventy cents; in 1931 eighty cents; and in 1939 eighty cents. Meeting Minutes, Book 1, 1919–1922,
WCWID
#1,
SWC
.
31.
“Wichita Falls to Have New Resort,”
Dallas Morning News
,
Apr.
19
,
1922
, Sec. 2, 9; Scoeffelmayer,
“Dream of J. A. Kemp”
; Cleo LaFoy Dowell and Seth Darnaby Breeding,
Dams and Reservoirs in Texas Historical and Descriptive Information, December 31, 1966
(
Austin
:
Texas Water Development Board
,
1967
); Meeting Minutes; Director's Meeting, May 3, 1923, Book 2, 1923–1925; Meeting Minutes; Director's Meeting, Nov. 16, 1921; Director's Meeting, Nov. 5, 1921, Book 1, 1919–1922, WCWID #1, SWC; Banks for the Iowa Park Centennial. Irrigation water from the Big Wichita River was released from Diversion in 1925. By 1925 there were 19,825 acres irrigated and in 1931, 30,195 acres were under irrigation. The maximum rate charged for irrigation water from 1925 to 1934 was $3.50 an acrefoot. An acre-foot equals one acre of flat land with water covering it one foot deep. The rate dropped in 1934 (at the depth of the Great Depression) to $1.75 an acre-foot. “Irrigation System of Valley Opened,” Dallas Morning News, May 25, 1924, Sec. 1, 8; “Irrigation System Was Voted in 1921”; Harvey,
“Irrigation District History”
;
Community Builder
,
2
:
5
,
Feb.
1924
;
Community Builder
,
2
:
10
,
Sept.
1924
,
WFCC
,
SWC
.
32.
“Irrigationist Meet in Austin,”
Dallas Morning News
,
Jan.
18
,
1921
,
1
;
“Irrigation Meeting Called for Oct. 3–4,”
Dallas Morning News
,
Sept.
22
,
1924
, Sec. 1, 4. The association invited businessmen, promoters, and bureaucrats to their meetings and argued for cooperation from citizens. It urged members to convince civic leaders of the benefits of reclamation and conservation for development of the state. In 1925 Texas “Irrigationists” reelected Kemp president of the Texas Conservation Association. Members praised Kemp for “conquering” the semi-arid environment but Kemp declared his greatest obstacle to be “legislative” rather than natural.
33.
“Conservation Group Again Names Kemp,”
Dallas Morning News
,
Sept.
27
,
1925
, Sec. 1, 1;
“J. A. Kemp Speaks to Brownwood Rotarians,”
Dallas Morning News
,
Apr.
18
,
1926
, Sec. 1, 11;
“Conservation of Water Urged.”
34. The second district encompassed 76,784 acres for possible irrigation and organized on “an assessment of benefit basis of taxation,” meaning owners of all lands within the district paid the same rate per acre per year, the only distinction in rates being whether land was irrigable or non-irrigable. From 1925 to 1932 the rate per acre on irrigable lands was three dollars and fifty cents and on non-irrigable lands, seventy cents per acre; 1932–1934: two dollars on irrigable and three cents on non-irrigable; 1935–1936: seventy-five cents on irrigable; 1937–1938: two dollars on irrigable. Morgan,
“History and Economic Aspect,”
142
50
;
“Irrigation System Was Voted in 1921”
; Harvey,
“Irrigation District History”
; Banks for the Iowa Park Centennial; Records, 1898–1983, WCWID #2, SWC; Minutes of Board of Equalization, Sept. 16, 1927, Book 1, 1919–1922, WCWID #1, SWC;
Community Builder
,
2
:
2
,
Oct.
1923
,
WFCC
,
SWC
.
35. Community Builder, 1:5, Jan. 1923; Meeting Minutes, Jan. 5, 1927; Oct. 8, 1924; Apr. 7, 1925; Dec. 29, 1927; Dec. 10, 1926; July 7, 1927, WFCC; Minute Book No. 3, Dec. 27, 1926, WCWID #1, SWC.
36. Community Builder, 2:10, Sept. 1924; Meeting Minutes, July 1, 1926, WFCC, SWC.
37. Meeting Minutes, Dec. 8, 1929; July 21, 1931; Sept. 15, 1931; Jan. 16, 1933, WFCC, SWC; “Joseph Alexander Kemp.”
38. Baldys et al.,
Effects of Low-Flow Diversions
,
1
32
; Morgan,
“History and Economic Aspect,”
63
,
70
;
US Army Corps of Engineers
,
Wichita River Basin Reevaluation: Red River Chloride Control Project
(
Tulsa
:
Corps of Engineers, Tulsa District
,
2002
); Winslow and Kister,
Saline-Water Resources of Texas
,
1
; Hughes, Archeological Reconnaissance; Subchapter F: Drinking Water Standards Governing Drinking Water Quality and Reporting Requirements for Public Water Systems, Chapter 290 Public Drinking Water, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality; Water Analysis, Lake Kemp, Lake Diversion, and Bradford Canal, Wichita County Water Improvement District No. 2, City of Wichita Falls, 2002, in author's possession.
39.
“The Value of Irrigation,”
Dallas Morning News
,
Mar.
29
,
1897
,
3
.
40. Morgan,
“History and Economic Aspect,”
159
69
.
41. John Gould,
“Furthermore and However,”
Wichita Falls Daily Times
,
Nov.
12
,
1951
.
42. Morgan,
“History and Economic Aspect,”
171
; Meeting Minutes,
June
18
,
1926
;
Feb.
5
,
1924
;
Apr.
3
,
1923
, WFCC, SWC; “Irrigation System of Valley Opened”; “Joseph Alexander Kemp”; V. H. Scoeffelmayer,
“Texans Will Study Farms In California,”
Dallas Morning News
,
July
17
,
1927
, Sec. 1, 1.
43. Donald Worster,
“Watershed Democracy: Recovering the Lost Vision of John Wesley Powell,”
in
Water: Histories, Cultures, Ecologies
, ed. Marnie Leybourne and Andrea Gaynor (
Crawley
:
University of Western Australia Press
,
2006
),
7
10
; John Wesley Powell,
Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the United States, With a More Detailed Account of the Lands of Utah
(
1879
; repr.,
Cambridge
:
Harvard University Press
,
1962
).