Abstract

This article studies agricultural history from the perspective of masculinity. It aims to show how early twentieth-century Finnish historical studies articulated manly ideals, mainly by looking at "The History of Karelian" Tribe in Finland published in 1915 by Väinö Voionmaa. This well-known book, central to Finnish historiography and important for later studies on rural history, dealt with swidden agriculture in the Finnish interior. The article focuses on the intertwining of societal ideals, landscapes, and masculinity and shows the intersection of nationalist, class-based, and racial conceptions of the peasantry. Through this interpretation stressing manly ideals, Voionmaa ascribed the Finnish swidden society, traditionally regarded as primitive, a more recognized place in the nation’s history.

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Notes

1 Johan Ludvig Runeberg, from Idyll och Epigram [Idylls and Epigrams] (1839)
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2 This paper was presented at the Agricultural History Society conference, Cambridge, Mass., June 2006.
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16 Haiila, Väinö Voionmaa, 124-30
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17 Voionmaa, "The Period of Progress in Finnish Agriculture"
Cederberg, The History of the Finnish Peasant Class and Agriculture, 11
Voionmaa, "Finnish Medieval Studies," 384-85.
18 Voionmaa, "The Period of Progress in Finnish Agriculture," 168
Haiila, Väinö Voionmaa, 127.
Ahtiainen and Tervonen, "Moldable Subjects or Thinking Citizens?"
19 Raumolin, "Väinö Voionmaa"
Voionmaa, "The Period of Progress in Finnish Agriculture," 168
Cederberg, The History of the Finnish Peasant Class and Agriculture, 9-10.
20 Voionmaa, "The Period of Progress in Finnish Agriculture," 168-69
Voionmaa, "History of the Karelian Tribe in Finland—Extracts," 209.
21 Voionmaa, "History of the Karelian Tribe in Finland," 188-90
Voionmaa, "The Period of Progress in Finnish Agriculture," 176
Raumolin, "Väinö Voionmaa," 93.
22 Voionmaa, The History of the Karelian Tribe, 152, 83-84, 283-89
Voionmaa, "History of the Karelian Tribe in Finland—Extracts," 209, 211.
23 Voionmaa, "The Period of Progress in Finnish Agriculture," 167, 179-80
Voionmaa, The History of the Karelian Tribe, 171
Voionmaa, "History of the Karelian Tribe in Finland—Extracts," 209
Cederberg, The History of the Finnish Peasant Class and Agriculture, 15, 210.
24 Cederberg, The History of the Finnish Peasant Class and Agriculture, 9, 470-71
Voionmaa, The History of the Karelian Tribe, 420-22.
25 Raumolin, "Introduction to the Study of Swidden Cultivation," 186
Voionmaa, The History of the Karelian Tribe, 122
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26 Yrjö-Koskinen Y and Väinö Voionmaa, Suomen Historia Kansakouluja Varten [History of Finnish Elementary Schools] (1873; repr., Porvoo: WSOY, 1925), 58
Voionmaa, The History of the Karelian Tribe, 514
Voionmaa, "The Period of Progress in Finnish Agriculture," 169.