The US Government concluded Public Law (PL) 480 Title I agreements with Japan in 1955 and 1956. The purpose of this article is to reexamine Japanese market development programs under PL 480. The findings are as follows: (1) Japan was regarded as a potential market for rice and other US commodities as well as wheat; (2) Judging from Japanese and US government documents, USDA officials did not intend to replace Japanese rice with US wheat; (3) Market development plans for US rice had failed due to the damaging effect on diplomatic relations with Southeast Asia and the contradiction with Japan’s food policy. Among the crucial factors that decided the market development program results, this article emphasizes the importance of recipient countries’ policies and multilateral relations.

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