This study, based on an extraordinary agricultural census carried out in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in 1905, analyzes both the importance and the structure of the fazendas (coffee plantations) in that state and shows that the major coffee producers coexisted with thousands of small- and medium-scale farmers also dedicated to coffee production. This analysis of the agricultural sector also demonstrates the existence of considerable production for the internal market, and, in many cases, on farms also producing coffee. The Mogiana region was the most important agricultural zone in the state, with the Valley of Paraiba having lost its importance by this time. This study also demonstrates the high productivity of the new agricultural zones. The expansion of the railroad system permitted paulista agriculture to spread into new areas and thus maintain its productivity. With virgin land available and statesubsidized European immigration providing labor, it was inevitable that coffee production expanded. This occurred despite the relatively unsophisticated nature of the farming technology employed. Few farmers, even in the most dynamic regions, utilized plows or similar equipment or applied chemical fertilizers.