New morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular techniques have reinvigorated interest in molluscan diversity and phylogeny in Australia. Research in the last two decades has revealed a large fauna of small gastropods, including over 260 species of Hydrobiidae. Many are confined to small areas, including springs associated with the Great Artesian Basin. New members of other snail families, notably the Viviparidae and Bithyniidae, have been found in northern Australia. River regulation has decreased the range and abundance of once common species, particularly in the Murray-Darling Basin. While only four freshwater mollusc taxa are officially recognized as “endangered,” several others would qualify and many warrant protection. Investigations of systematics, ecology and biology are urgently needed to facilitate conservation of freshwater molluscs in Australia.

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