Abstract

We developed an index of biotic integrity (IBI) based on crayfish, fish, and amphibian assemblages to assess vernal ponds and palustrine wetland habitats of less than 5 ha along the southern shore of Lake Michigan. We found that the modified IBI based on three crayfish, twelve fish, and seven amphibian species collected during our surveys provided a more complete assessment than one based on any single taxonomic group. The new scoring criteria included the number of amphibian and fish species, number of benthic species, percent of individuals as pioneer species, percent of individuals as exotic species and percent of individuals with complex reproductive modes for metrics developed for larger palustrine wetlands. Low-end scoring procedures were not required; however, species composition metrics that did not possess the specified attribute received a ‘0’ score rather than a ‘1’. Correlation coefficients suggest that the reference conditions developed during this study of IBI metrics are able to differentiate high-quality biological assemblages from disturbance gradients that lowered biological integrity in small palustrine wetlands and vernal ponds. We found that the distribution of the index scores for Miller Woods was skewed to the low end of biological integrity with increased distance from Lake Michigan and proximity to edges.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

References

Conover, W.J.
1971
.
Practical Nonparametric Statistics
,
New York
:
Wiley
.
Danielson, T.
1998
.
Wetland Biocriteria: Technical Guidance Document
,
Washington, DC
:
US Environmental Protection Agency
.
Davis, W.S. and Simon, T.P., eds.
1995
.
Biological Assessment and Criteria: Tools for Water Resource Planning and Decision Making Lewis
Boca Raton
Gerking, S.D.
1955
.
Key to the fishes of Indiana
.
Investig. Indiana Lakes Streams
,
4
:
49
86
.
Goldstein, R.M. and Simon, T.P.
1999
. “
Towards a united definition guild structure of North American freshwater fishes
”. In
Assessing the Sustainability and Biological Integrity of Water Resources Using Fish Communities
, Edited by: Simon, T.P.
123
159
.
Boca Raton
:
CRC Press
.
In
Hill, A.M. and Lodge, D.M.
1994
.
Diel changes in resource demand: competition and predation in species replacement among crayfishes
.
Ecology
,
75
:
2118
2126
.
Hughes, R.M., Larsen, D.P. and Omernik, J.M.
1981
.
Regional reference sites: a method for assessing stream potentials
.
Environ. Manag.
,
10
:
629
635
.
IDEM (Indiana Department of Environmental Management)
.
1998
.
Indiana Water Quality Report 1998
,
Indianapolis, IN
:
Ind. Dept. Env. Manag.
.
IDEM 34/02/002
IDNR (Indiana Department of Natural Resources)
.
1994
.
Water Resource Availability in the Lake Michigan Region, Indiana
,
94
104
.
Ind. Dept Nat. Res., Div. Water, Water Res. Assess.
.
Jezerinac, R.F., Stocker, G.W. and Tarter, D.C.
1995
.
The crayfishes (Decapoda: Cambaridae) of West Virginia
.
Bull. Ohio Biol. Surv.
,
10
:
193
193
.
Karr, J.R.
1981
.
Assessment of biotic integrity using fish communities
.
Fisheries (Bethesda)
,
6
:
21
27
.
Karr, J.R., Fausch, K.D., Angermeier, P.L., Yant, P.R. and Schlosser, I.J.
1986
.
Assessing biological integrity in running waters: a method and its rationale
.
Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Spec. Publ.
,
5
Larsen, D.P.
1995
. “
The role of ecological sample surveys in the implementation of biocriteria
”. In
Biological Assessment and Criteria: Tools for Water Resource Planning and Decision Making
, Edited by: Davis, W.S. and Simon, T.P.
287
300
.
Boca Raton
:
Lewis
.
In
Lodge, D.M. and Hill, A.M.
1994
.
Factors governing species composition, population size, and productivity of cool-water crayfishes
.
Nord. J. Freshw. Res.
,
69
:
111
136
.
Lodge, D.M., Kratz, T.K. and Capelli, G.M.
1986
.
Long-term dynamics of three crayfish species in Trout Lake
.
Wisconsin. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.
,
43
:
993
998
.
Minton, S.A.
1998
.
The Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana
,
Indianapolis
:
Indiana Academy of Science
.
Moyle, P.B. and Marchetti, M.P.
1999
. “
Applications of indices of biotic integrity to California streams and watersheds
”. In
Assessing the Sustainability and Biological Integrity of Water Resources Using Fish Communities
, Edited by: Simon, T.P.
367
380
.
Boca Raton
:
CRC Press
.
In
Moyle, P.B. and Randall, P.J.
2000
.
Evaluating the biotic integrity of watersheds in the Sierra Nevada
.
California. Conserv. Biol.
,
in press
Overton, W.S., White, D. and Stevens, D.L. Jr.
1991
.
Design Report for EMAP, The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program
,
Washington, DC
:
US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development
.
EPA 600-3-91-053.
Page, L.M.
1985
.
The crayfishes and shrimps (Decapoda) of Illinois
.
Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull.
,
33
:
335
448
.
Rovelstad, S.J.
1995
. “
Structure of interdunal pond communities: laboratory evidence for and indirect mutualism
”. In
PhD dissertation
,
Chicago
:
University of Illinois
.
Sanders, R.E., Miltner, R.J., Yoder, C.O. and Rankin, E.T.
1999
. “
The use of external deformities, erosion, lesions, and tumors (DELT anomalies) in fish assemblages for characterizing aquatic resources: a case study of seven Ohio streams
”. In
Assessing the Sustainability and Biological Integrity of Water Resources Using Fish Communities
, Edited by: Simon, T.P.
225
248
.
Boca Raton
:
CRC Press
.
In
SAS (Statistical Analysis Systems)
.
1985
.
SAS User's Guide: Statistics
,
Cary, NC
:
SAS Institute
.
Version 5 ed
Shelford, V.E.
1911
.
Ecological succession
.
II. Pond fishes. Biol. Bull.
,
21
:
127
151
.
Simon, T.P.
1998
.
Modification of an index of biotic integrity and development of reference condition expectations for dunal, palustrine wetland fish communities along the southern shore of Lake Michigan
.
Aquat. Ecosys. Health Manag.
,
1
:
49
62
.
Simon, T.P., ed.
1999
.
Assessing the Sustainability and Biological Integrity of Water Resources Using Fish Communities
,
Boca Raton
:
CRC Press
.
Simon, T.P.
1999
. “
Assessment of Balon's reproductive guilds with application to midwestern North American freshwater fishes
”. In
Assessing the Sustainability and Biological Integrity of Water Resources Using Fish Communities
, Edited by: Simon, T.P.
97
122
.
Boca Raton
:
CRC Press
.
In
Simon, T.P., Bright, G.R., Rud, J. and Stahl, J.
1989
.
Water quality characterization of the Grand Calumet River basin using the index of biotic integrity
.
Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci.
,
98
:
257
265
.
Simon, T.P. and Lyons, J.
1995
. “
Application of the index of biotic integrity to evaluate water resource integrity in freshwater ecosystems
”. In
Biological Assessment and Criteria: Tools for Water Resource Planning and Decision Making
, Edited by: Davis, W.S. and Simon, T.P.
245
262
.
Boca Raton
:
Lewis
.
In
Simon, T.P. and Stewart, P.M.
1998
.
Application of an index of biotic integrity for dunal, palustrine wetlands: emphasis on assessment of nonpoint source landfill effects on the Grand Calumet Lagoons
.
Aquat. Ecosys. Health Manag.
,
1
:
63
74
.
Smith, P.W.
1979
.
The Fishes of Illinois
,
Champaign, IL
:
University of Illinois Press
.
Whitman, R.L., Peloquin, R.L. and Werth, R.J.
1990
.
The ecology of Miller Woods: Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore
.
Nat. Park Serv., Res. Prog. Rep. 90-01
,
Zar, J.H.
1984
.
Biostatistical Analysis
, 2nd ed.,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
:
Prentice-Hall
.