Mangrove ecosystems of Malaysia are found largely on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, the southern coast of Sarawak and the eastern coast of Sabah. Malaysian mangroves are largely of the river-dominated type built on large deltaic plains, but intergrades of river-dominated and tide-dominated settings, drowned valley settings and carbonate settings are also found. Mangrove resources are exploited by humans for coastal protection, forestry products, fisheries, wildlife, agriculture, aquaculture, settlement, urban and industrial development, and ecotourism. Very often this exploitation is unsustainable, particularly when mangroves are converted for agriculture, aquaculture, urban, and industrial development. The overall loss in mangrove area due to these reasons is about 111,046 hectares or 16 percent, from 1973–2000. In spite of an exemplary management plan implemented for the Matang mangrove forest reserve, mangrove forests in the various states are unequally managed because there are conflicting interests due to management policies that are largely sectoral in nature. While sustainable management policies and guidelines are in place, it is still crucial how the State governments, which have power over land matters, implement Federal policies regarding mangrove conservation.

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