Capture fisheries and aquaculture have remained important sources of food, nutrition, income and livelihoods to millions globally, with annual per capita consumption of fish in developing countries having increased from 5.2 kg in 1961 to 18.8 kg in 2013. On the contrary, low income food-deficit countries annual fish per capita consumption rose from 3.5 to 7.6 kg against 26.8 kg among industrialized countries. Increased demand for animal protein and declining capture fisheries has seen aquaculture grow rapidly than any other food production sector over the past three decades. Rapid global aquaculture growth is directly related to levels of technological advancement, adoption and adaption prompting aquaculture transition from semi-intensive to intensive and super intensive production systems among developing and developed countries. In light of the aquatic environment economic potential, cage culture in Lake Victoria is fast gaining prominence in aquaculture production contribution. This began with trials by Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute and Uganda’s National Fisheries Resource Research Institute and later by private investors at Dunga and Obenge beaches of Kenya, Source of the Nile in Uganda and Bulamba Beach Management Units in Bunda District of Tanzania. However, only Kenya has so far documented cage culture development recording 3,696 cages across the five riparian counties with an estimated production capacity of 3,180 MT valued at Kshs 955.4 Million (9.6 million USD), created over 500 jobs directly and indirectly created income opportunities for over 4,000 people. The sub-sector’s value chain, its supportive value chains and associated enterprises are rapidly expanding thus creating jobs, enhancing incomes and ensuring food security in rural and urban areas. As cage culture commercialization takes root, there is urgent need to address issues such as introduction of alien species, diseases, marine parks and maximum carrying capacity among other aspects. This will require trans-boundary policy to ensure sustainable utilization of the lake as a common resource.