The consequences of human impacts on aquatic ecosystem activities have been far reaching. Multiple stresses affect aquatic ecosystems globally. These can adversely affect physical, chemical and ecological water status, causing change in species composition, ecosystem structure and function and biodiversity. These impacts and the capacity for managing them are further compounded by the complex nature of the interactions between stresses. In this article the focus is on the threats posed by non-native invasive species. It considers the nature of this threat and options for management, highlighting examples of invasive freshwater species in the United Kingdom. The relationship between climate change and invasive species impacts is then examined. The article is based on a keynote presentation delivered at the Marine Invasive Species: Management of ballast water and other vectors. Key lessons derived from managing freshwater ecosystems under threat of invasive species are highlighted in terms of their relevance and potential application to other systems such as those in coastal and marine areas.

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