This study describes the inshore fishery on the littoral cichlids in Lake Tanganyika, to evaluate the potential impact of fishing gear on the cichlid fishes and their diversity. The fishing activity at the northwestern end of Lake Tanganyika in Uvira was examined from March to July 2010. In total, the catch examined was composed of 3,555 cichlid fish: 47 species and 30 genera identified representing 10 of the 16 tribes of Lake Tanganyika cichlids. Fishermen in Uvira, exploiting littoral cichlids, used three main fishing gears including beach seine, frame gillnet and mosquito net, varying according to the substrates of the littoral habitat at different study sites. They generally captured immature fishes (63%) and small-sized fish due to their small mesh size and unsuitable fishing techniques. The beach seine caught more species on the sandy substrate while the frame gillnets caught more individuals. The cichlid species Aulonocranus dewindti was the most abundant in the catches.

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